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Sven Haller, Meike W Vernooij, Joost P A Kuijer, Elna-Marie Larsson, Hans Rolf Jäger, Frederik Barkhof
Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), also referred to as microhemorrhages, appear on magnetic resonance (MR) images as hypointense foci notably at T2*-weighted or susceptibility-weighted (SW) imaging. CMBs are detected with increasing frequency because of the more widespread use of high magnetic field strength and of newer dedicated MR imaging techniques such as three-dimensional gradient-echo T2*-weighted and SW imaging. The imaging appearance of CMBs is mainly because of changes in local magnetic susceptibility and reflects the pathologic iron accumulation, most often in perivascular macrophages, because of vasculopathy...
April 2018: Radiology
Caixia Hou, Tapan Biswas, Oleg Tsodikov
Bacterial primase DnaG is an essential nucleic acid polymerase that generates primers for replication of chromosomal DNA. The mechanism of DnaG remains unclear, due to the paucity of structural information on DnaG in complexes with other replisome components. Here we report the first crystal structures of noncovalent DnaG-DNA complexes, obtained with the RNA polymerase domain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DnaG and various DNA ligands. One structure, obtained with ds DNA, reveals interactions with DnaG as it slides on ds DNA and suggests how DnaG binds template for primer synthesis...
March 20, 2018: Biochemistry
Patryk Zradziński
PURPOSE: In this work, the inter-person variability of hazards caused by a low frequency magnetic field exposure (of various polarisation and homogeneity near to the magneto therapy applicator) to users of BAHA hearing implants were investigated with respect to various head structures. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The effects of exposure were evaluated by numerical simulations of the electric field (Ein ) induced in head phantoms (regular or with implant model). Phantoms mimic head dimensions and thicknesses of layers of skin, fat, skull bones and brain...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Catarina Lopes Dias, Andreea Ioana Sburlea, Gernot R Müller-Putz
The detection of error-related potentials (ErrPs) in tasks with discrete feedback is well established in the brain-computer interface (BCI) field. However, the decoding of ErrPs in tasks with continuous feedback is still in its early stages. OBJECTIVE: We developed a task in which subjects have continuous control of a cursor's position by means of a joystick. The cursor's position was shown to the participants in two different modalities of continuous feedback: normal and jittered. The jittered feedback was created to mimic the instability that could exist if participants controlled the trajectory directly with brain signals...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Pilar Carranza-Rosales, Nancy Elena Guzmán-Delgado, Irma Edith Carranza-Torres, Ezequiel Viveros-Valdez, Javier Morán-Martínez
Breast cancer is the most common cancer type diagnosed in women, it represents a critical public health problem worldwide, with 1,671,149 estimated new cases and nearly 571,000 related deaths. Research on breast cancer has mainly been conducted using two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures and animal models. The usefulness of these models is reflected in the vast knowledge accumulated over the past decades. However, considering that animal models are three-dimensional (3D) in nature, the validity of the studies using 2D cell cultures has recently been questioned...
March 20, 2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Karen Rosendahl, Ingvild Sævold Bruserud, Ninnie Oehme, Pétur Benedikt Júlíusson, Laura Tanturri de Horatio, Lil-Sofie Ording Müller, Silvia Magni-Manzoni
Objective: To report novel ultrasound (US) references for the healthy paediatric wrist. Methods: Healthy children and adolescents had an US examination including Doppler, of the right wrist, using a mid-sagittal image through the radiocarpal (RC)/midcarpal (MC) joints. These features were noted: appearances and depth of the recess, with an additional measurement in the flexed position and number of Doppler signals within the recess in close proximity to the joint...
2018: RMD Open
Qi-Bing Wu, Xin Sheng, Ning Zhang, Ming-Wei Yang, Fan Wang
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is among the main tumor-related causes of death worldwide. The fact that the majority of the patients develop resistance to chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is a major obstacle for the treatment of CRC. In order to develop more effective treatment strategies, it is crucial to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the development of resistance to CRT. Several studies have recently indicated the regulatory effects of microRNAs (miRNAs) in response to antitumor agents. For example, miR-34a attenuates the chemoresistance of colon cancer to 5-FU by inhibiting E2F3 and SIRT1...
April 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Jun Liu, Lei Huang, Pengxiao Su, Tao Song, Wentao Zhang, Jinzhu Fan, Yang Liu
A number of studies have attempted to elucidate the association between mircoRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) and cancer-associated processes. The aim of the present study was to determine how miR-499a-5p intervenes in human osteosarcoma cell proliferation and differentiation. The cancerous tissues and adjacent non-cancerous tissues of 62 patients with osteosarcoma (OS) were collected. miRNA microarray analysis revealed that 29 miRNAs were upregulated while 26 were downregulated, among which miR-499a-5p expression was the most decreased...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Peijie Chen, Jing Quan, Lu Jin, Canbin Lin, Weijie Xu, Jinling Xu, Xin Guan, Zebo Chen, Liangchao Ni, Shangqi Yang, Yun Chen, Yongqing Lai
MiR-216a-5p has been acknowledged as an oncogene and is known to be involved in the progression and metastasis of numerous cancer subtypes. However, the potential role of miR-216a-5p in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) remains to be elucidated. In the present study, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect the expression levels of miR-216a-5p in RCC tissues. Cell counting kit-8, MTT, wound scratch, Transwell and flow cytometric assays were performed to establish the biological functions of miR-216a-5p in RCC...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Yizhou Li, Roberto De Luca, Samuele Cazzamalli, Francesca Pretto, Davor Bajic, Jörg Scheuermann, Dario Neri
In nature, specific antibodies can be generated as a result of an adaptive selection and expansion of lymphocytes with suitable protein binding properties. We attempted to mimic antibody-antigen recognition by displaying multiple chemical diversity elements on a defined macrocyclic scaffold. Encoding of the displayed combinations was achieved using distinctive DNA tags, resulting in a library size of 35,393,112. Specific binders could be isolated against a variety of proteins, including carbonic anhydrase IX, horseradish peroxidase, tankyrase 1, human serum albumin, alpha-1 acid glycoprotein, calmodulin, prostate-specific antigen and tumour necrosis factor...
March 19, 2018: Nature Chemistry
J Montag, B Petersen, A K Flögel, E Becker, A Lucas-Hahn, G J Cost, C Mühlfeld, T Kraft, H Niemann, B Brenner
Familial Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common inherited cardiac disease. About 30% of the patients are heterozygous for mutations in the MYH7 gene encoding the ß-myosin heavy chain (MyHC). Hallmarks of HCM are cardiomyocyte disarray and hypertrophy of the left ventricle, the symptoms range from slight arrhythmias to sudden cardiac death or heart failure. To gain insight into the underlying mechanisms of the diseases' etiology we aimed to generate genome edited pigs with an HCM-mutation. We used TALEN-mediated genome editing and successfully introduced the HCM-point mutation R723G into the MYH7 gene of porcine fibroblasts and subsequently cloned pigs that were heterozygous for the HCM-mutation R723G...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Wei-Dong Lü, Rui-Fang Sun, Ye-Rong Hu, Jan-Rong Lu, Lu Gu, Zhi-Gang Liu, Guang-Yan Lei, Zhun Qiang, Lin Cai
Acellular tumor extracellular matrices (ECMs) have limitations when employed as three-dimensional scaffolds for tumor engineering. In this work, methylene blue-mediated photooxidation was used to crosslink acellular tumor ECMs. Photooxidative crosslinking greatly increased the stiffness of acellular tumor ECM scaffolds but barely altered the Amide III band of the secondary structure of polypeptides and proteins. MCF-7, HepG2 and A549 cells cultured on photooxidatively crosslinked acellular tumor ECM scaffolds exhibited greater cell number per scaffold, more IL-8 and VEGF secretion, and increase migration and invasion abilities than cells cultured on uncrosslinked acellular tumor ECM scaffolds...
March 16, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Gernot Hochleitner, Fei Chen, Carina Blum, Paul D Dalton, Brian Amsden, Jürgen Groll
Ligaments and tendons are comprised of aligned, crimped collagen fibrils that provide tissue-specific mechanical properties with non-linear extension behaviour, exhibiting low stress at initial strain (toe region behaviour). To approximate this behaviour, we report fibrous scaffolds with sinusoidal patterns by melt electrowriting (MEW) below the critical translation speed (CTS) by exploitation of the natural flow behaviour of the polymer melt. More specifically, we synthesised photopolymerizable poly(L-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone-co-acryloyl carbonate) (p(LLA-co-ε-CL-co-AC)) and poly(ε-caprolactone-co-acryloyl carbonate) (p(ε-CL-co-AC)) by ring-opening polymerization (ROP)...
March 16, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Bing Li, Jie Zhao, Jian-Xiong Ma, Guo-Min Li, Yang Zhang, Guo-Sheng Xing, Jun Liu, Xin-Long Ma
Disuse osteoporosis (DOP) is a common complication of the lack of mechanical loading. The precise mechanism underlying DOP remains unknown, although epigenetic modifications may be a major cause. Recently, cumulative research has revealed that DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) proteins can catalyze the conversion of cytosine to 5-methylcytosine (5mC), altering the epigenetic state of DNA. Here, we report that DNMT1 expression and lncRNA-H19 methylation are upregulated in the femoral tissues of DOP rats, accompanied with inhibited Erk signaling pathway...
March 16, 2018: Bone
Yue Lu, Xiang-Sheng Zhang, Zi-Huan Zhang, Xiao-Ming Zhou, Yong-Yue Gao, Guang-Jie Liu, Han Wang, Ling-Yun Wu, Wei Li, Chun-Hua Hang
BACKGROUND: Peroxiredoxin (Prx) protein family have been reported as important damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) in ischemic stroke. Since peroxiredoxin 2 (Prx2) is the third most abundant protein in erythrocytes and the second most protein in the cerebrospinal fluid in traumatic brain injury and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients, we assessed the role of extracellular Prx2 in the context of SAH. METHODS: We introduced a co-culture system of primary neurons and microglia...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Ting-Ying Lee, Chia-Wen Wang, Teng-Wei Chen, De-Chuan Chan, Guo-Shiou Liao, Hsiu-Lung Fan
BACKGROUND: Gallbladder cancer is unusually seen but can result in highly mortality rate. It makes challenge to diagnose for clinicians due to present asymptomatic or non-specific clinical presentation including abdominal pain, anorexia. It usually also accompanies with cholelithiasis (incidence is 1-2%) and incidentally detected by radiologic examination such as ultrasound, computed tomography or intra-operative intervention accidentally. Gallbladder cancer results in highly fatal malignancy because it is difficult to early detect...
March 20, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Marta Baxarias, Alejandra Álvarez-Fernández, Pamela Martínez-Orellana, Sara Montserrat-Sangrà, Laura Ordeix, Alicia Rojas, Yaarit Nachum-Biala, Gad Baneth, Laia Solano-Gallego
BACKGROUND: The severity of canine leishmaniosis (CanL) due to Leishmania infantum might be affected by other vector-borne organisms that mimic its clinical signs and clinicopathological abnormalities. The aim of this study was to determine co-infections with other vector-borne pathogens based on serological and molecular techniques in dogs with clinical leishmaniosis living in Spain and to associate them with clinical signs and clinicopathological abnormalities as well as disease severity...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
P Scott Pine, Steven P Lund, Sanford A Stass, Debra Kukuruga, Feng Jiang, Lynn Sorbara, Sudhir Srivastava, Marc Salit
BACKGROUND: We demonstrate the feasibility of creating a pair of reference samples to be used as surrogates for clinical samples measured in either a research or clinical laboratory setting. The reference sample paradigm presented and evaluated here is designed to assess the capability of a measurement process to detect true differences between two biological samples. Cell-based reference samples can be created with a biomarker signature pattern designed in silico. Clinical laboratories working in regulated applications are required to participate in proficiency testing programs; research laboratories doing discovery typically do not...
March 20, 2018: BMC Biotechnology
Martin Davi, Markus Mann, Zili Ma, Felix Schrader, Andreas Drichel, Serhiy Budnyk, Anna Rokicinska, Piotr Kustrowski, Richard Dronskowski, Adam Slabon
CuWO4 is a photoanode candidate in neutral pH, and manganese-based oxygen evolution reaction electrocatalysts are of high interest due to their low price and low toxicity. Considering the unexplored chemistry of transition-metal carbodiimides/cyanamides for the PEC water oxidation, we investigated MnNCN as an electrocatalyst for CuWO4 under AM 1.5G illumination in potassium phosphate electrolyte (pH 7). Surface functionalization of CuWO4 photoanodes with MnNCN increased the photocurrent from 22 to 30 μA cm-2 at 1...
March 19, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Mahesh Shanmugam, Surabhi Ruia, Rajesh Ramanjulu, Divyansh Mishra
Scleral cyst is an unusual, rare clinical condition. Most of the cases reported have described the cyst to occur at the limbus, with or without involvement of the cornea. Posterior scleral cysts have seldom been reported in literature. This case report describes a postequatorial scleral cyst that may mimic a choroidal melanoma. Certain clinical features and swept-source optical coherence tomography are useful for elucidating the location of intraocular lesions anatomically, as well as distinguishing their structural characteristics...
March 1, 2018: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
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