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Song Chen, Qiongmei Yang, Jingru Liu, Huifang Huang, Mingxia Shi, Xiaoming Feng
Alveolar macrophages (AMs) are pivotal for maintaining the lung homeostasis, but how the development and function of AMs regulated remains largely unknown. In the present study, we demonstrated that the number of AMs was controlled by the Tsc1 protein. Cd11c-specific deletion of Tsc1 caused inefficient transition from pre-AMs to AMs in lung, which led to a great reduction of AM population. Ablation of Tsc1 downregulated the expression of surface marker CD64 and SiglecF on AMs. We further showed that conditional knockout of Tsc1 led to enhanced proliferation and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and phagocytosis in AMs...
March 6, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Barbara Ogórek, Hilaire C Lam, Damir Khabibullin, Heng-Jia Liu, Julie Nijmeh, Robinson Triboulet, David J Kwiatkowski, Richard I Gregory, Elizabeth P Henske
Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disease caused by germline inactivating mutations of TSC1 or TSC2. In TSC-associated tumors of the brain, heart, skin, kidney, and lung, inactivation of both alleles of TSC1 or TSC2 leads to hyperactivation of the mTORC1 pathway. The TSC/mTORC1 pathway is a key regulator of cellular processes related to growth, proliferation and autophagy. We and others have previously found that mTORC1 regulates microRNA biogenesis, but the mechanisms are not fully understood...
March 2, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Fan Yang, Song Xu, Renwang Liu, Tao Shi, Xiongfei Li, Xuebing Li, Gang Chen, Hongyu Liu, Qinghua Zhou, Jun Chen
Introduction: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common Mendelian multi-system disorder that is characterized by café-au-lait spots (CLS), axillary freckling, optic glioma and plexiform neurofibroma. Various mutations of the NF1 gene are widely accepted to be the main cause of this disease, while whether there are still certain other modifier genes that could influence the phenotypes of NF1 is our concern. Patients and Methods: One proband and his father are involved, who are characterized by plexiform neurofibroma and cutaneous neurofibroma, respectively...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Huajie Li, Yi Ren, Keshi Mao, Fei Hua, Yilin Yang, Ning Wei, Chunxian Yue, Dawen Li, Hao Zhang
Diabetes and obesity are commonly associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Accumulating evidence show that insulin signaling defects are protentional upstream driver of AD. However, the mechanism by which diabetes and insulin signaling defects contribute to AD remains unknown. Here we show that Fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO) is involved the insulin defects-associated AD. Defective insulin signaling in diabetes and obesity in human and mice activated Fto in the brain tissues. Lentivirus-mediated knockdown of Fto reduced the phosphorylation of Tau protein whereas overexpression of FTO promoted the level of phosphorylated Tau in neurons...
March 1, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Anna Papadopoulou, Argyrios Dinopoulos, George Koutsodontis, Roser Pons, Pelagia Vorgia, Vasiliki Koute, Athanassios Vratimos, Dimitrios Zafeiriou
Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) is a rare neurocutaneous syndrome inherited by an autosomal dominant manner. The disorder is commonly manifested by the presence of multiple benign tumors located in numerous tissues, including the brain, heart, skin and kidneys. Seizures, autism, developmental and behavioral delay, as well as non-neurological phenotypic findings, are suggestive of TSC. The identification of one pathogenic mutation in either the TSC1 or TSC2 genes is considered to be an independent diagnostic criterion...
February 9, 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Soner Celik, Ferda Topal Celikkan, Sinan Ozkavukcu, Alp Can, Ciler Celik-Ozenci
PURPOSE: Even with 86 live births reported globally so far, the mechanism of primordial follicle loss following autotransplantation of the frozen-thawed ovarian tissue needs further evaluation. Pten, Tsc1, p27, and Amh are the inhibitor proteins that play crucial roles in suppressing the transition from the primordial follicle to primary state, maintaining the primordial follicle reserve. In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether the expression patterns of these proteins change and it may be related to the global primordial follicle loss after autotransplantation of the frozen-thawed ovarian tissue...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
Keit Men Wong, Bogdan Beirowski
During nerve development, Schwann cells (SCs) build multilayered myelin sheaths around axons to accelerate nerve conduction. The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) downstream of PI3K/AKT signaling lately emerged as a central anabolic regulator of myelination. Using mutant mice with sustained mTORC1 hyperactivity in developing SCs we recently uncovered that mTORC1 impedes developmental myelination by promoting proliferation of immature SCs while antagonizing SC differentiation. In contrast, mTORC1 stimulates myelin production, rather than SC proliferation, in already differentiated SCs...
2018: Communicative & Integrative Biology
Zhe Qu, Santosh R D'Mello
A defining feature of neurodegenerative diseases is the abnormal and excessive loss of neurons. One molecule that is particularly important in promoting neuronal death in a variety of cell culture and in vivo models of neurodegeneration is histone deacetylase-3 (HDAC3), a member of the histone deacetylase family of proteins. As a step towards understanding how HDAC3 promotes neuronal death, we conducted a proteomic screen aimed at identifying proteins that were regulated by HDAC3. HDAC3 was overexpressed in cultured rat cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) and protein lysates were analyzed by mass spectrometry...
January 1, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Qiang Niu, Wei Zhao, Jin Wang, Chunming Li, Tao Yan, Wei Lv, Guojing Wang, Weihong Duan, Tao Zhang, Kunnan Wang, Dinghua Zhou
Chemotherapy is the best choice for the vast majority of hepatocellular carcinoma patients at late stage, but few effective chemotherapy drugs are available in clinic. Licochalcone A (LicA) is a new chemotherapy drug inducing apoptosis as Bcl-2 inhibitor, but few studies report on LicA‑induced autophagy. This study investigated the phenomenon and mechanisms of LicA-induced autophagy looking for a targeted combination drug. Human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HCCs) were treated with LicA, to detect markers of autophagy and to investigate the mechanisms...
February 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Ebony M Flowers, Jessica Sudderth, Lauren Zacharias, Glenda Mernaugh, Roy Zent, Ralph J DeBerardinis, Thomas J Carroll
Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a common genetic disorder characterized by the growth of fluid-filled cysts in the kidneys. Several studies reported that the serine-threonine kinase Lkb1 is dysregulated in PKD. Here we show that genetic ablation of Lkb1 in the embryonic ureteric bud has no effects on tubule formation, maintenance, or growth. However, co-ablation of Lkb1 and Tsc1, an mTOR repressor, results in an early developing, aggressive form of PKD. We find that both loss of Lkb1 and loss of Pkd1 render cells dependent on glutamine for growth...
February 26, 2018: Nature Communications
Daphne M Hasbani, Peter B Crino
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal-dominant or sporadic multisystem disorder that results from mutations in either TSC1 or TSC2. The primary organs affected include the brain, skin, lung, kidney, and heart, all with variable frequency, penetrance, and severity. There are over 2000 known allelic variants for TSC, including nonsense and misssense mutation, and all pathogenic mutations are inactivating, leading to loss-of-function effects on the encoded proteins, TSC1 and TSC2. These proteins form a complex to constitutively inhibit the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling cascade, and as a consequence, mTOR signaling is constitutively active within all TSC-associated lesions...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Valentina Citi, Marzia Del Re, Alma Martelli, Vincenzo Calderone, Maria Cristina Breschi, Romano Danesi
BACKGROUND: Everolimus is the hydroxyethyl derivative of sirolimus and a strong inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). This drug has immunosuppressive and anticancer activities and the present in vitro study was aimed at identifying the cellular and molecular profiles of breast cancer cells predictive of sensitivity to everolimus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MCF-7, T-47D, ZR-75-1, CAMA-1, HCC-1500 and MCF-10A cells were used and viability was assessed using WST-1 dye...
February 23, 2018: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
Evgeny N Suspitsin, Grigoriy A Yanus, Marina Yu Dorofeeva, Tatiana A Ledashcheva, Nataliya V Nikitina, Galina V Buyanova, Elena V Saifullina, Anna P Sokolenko, Evgeny N Imyanitov
Tuberous sclerosis (TS) is a rare autosomal-dominant genetic disease. TS is manifested by the development of multiple hamartomas, which affect brain, kidneys, retina, skin and other organs. This study aimed to reveal specific features of molecular epidemiology of TS in Russia. Blood DNA samples from 61 patients with definite (n = 53) or probable (n = 8) clinical diagnosis of TS were tested for mutations in TSC1 and TSC2 genes using Sanger sequencing and MLPA analysis. Five TSC1/2 mutation-negative patients were further analyzed by exome sequencing...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Human Genetics
Elizabeth M Matthew, Zhaohai Yang, Suraj Peri, Mark Andrake, Roland Dunbrack, Eric Ross, Wafik S El-Deiry
Plk2 is a target of p53. Our previous studies demonstrated that with wild-type p53, Plk2 impacts mTOR signaling in the same manner as TSC1, and Plk2-deficient tumors grew larger than control. Other investigators have demonstrated that Plk2 phosphorylates mutant p53 in a positive feedback loop. We investigated Plk2's tumor suppressor functions in relationship to mTOR signaling. Archival specimens from 12 colorectal adenocarcinomas were stained for markers including Plk2, phosphorylated mTOR (serine 2448) and ribosomal S6 (Serine 235/236)...
February 12, 2018: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
Angela Peron, Aglaia Vignoli, Francesca La Briola, Emanuela Morenghi, Lucia Tansini, Rosa Maria Alfano, Gaetano Bulfamante, Silvia Terraneo, Filippo Ghelma, Giuseppe Banderali, David H Viskochil, John C Carey, Maria Paola Canevini
Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) is a multisystemic condition caused by mutations in TSC1 or TSC2, but a pathogenic variant is not identified in up to 10% of the patients. The aim of this study was to delineate the phenotype of pediatric and adult patients with a definite clinical diagnosis of TSC and no mutation identified in TSC1 or TSC2. We collected molecular and clinical data of 240 patients with TSC, assessing over 50 variables. We compared the phenotype of the homogeneous group of individuals with No Mutation Identified (NMI) with that of TSC patients with a TSC1 and TSC2 pathogenic variant...
February 9, 2018: European Journal of Medical Genetics
Yuchun Pan, Weiqing Wu, Caiqun Luo, Jiansheng Xie, Zhiyong Xu, Qian Geng, Ying Hao
OBJECTIVE To provide prenatal diagnosis for families affected with tuberous sclerosis complex and explore the correlation between phenotype and genotype. METHODS For probands from 10 families, all exons and splicing regions of the TSC1 and TSC2 genes were analyzed with high throughput DNA sequencing. Suspected mutations were verified by Sanger sequencing. RESULTS All probands were found to have mutations, which included 1 case with TSC1 mutation and 9 cases with TSC2 mutations (missense mutations in 6, nonsense mutations in 2, and frameshifting mutation in 1 case)...
February 10, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Yixue Yichuanxue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics
Gang Liu, Feng-Li Chen, Feng Ji, Hao-Dong Fei, Yue Xie, Shou-Guo Wang
Activation of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) could protect human osteoblasts from dexamethasone. Tuberous sclerosis complex 1 (TSC1) is mTORC1 upstream inhibitory protein. We demonstrate here that microRNA-19a ("miR-19a", -3p) targets the 3' untranslated regions of TSC1 mRNA. Expression of miR-19a downregulated TSC1 in OB-6 osteoblastic cells and primary human osteoblasts. miR-19a activated mTORC1 and protected human osteoblasts from dexamethasone. mTORC1 inhibition, by RAD001 or Raptor shRNA, almost completely abolished miR-19a-induced osteoblast cytoprotection against dexamethasone...
January 5, 2018: Oncotarget
Da-Peng Chen, Ye-Ping Ma, Li Zhuo, Zheng Zhang, Gu-Ming Zou, Yue Yang, Hong-Mei Gao, Wen-Ge Li
1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3(1,25(OH)2 D3) is a secosteroid with antiproliferative property. It also plays a pivotal renoprotective role in diabetic nephropathy. We investigated whether 1,25(OH)2D3 could inhibit the proliferation of rat mesangial cells exposed to high glucose via the DNA-damage-inducible transcript 4/mammalian target of rapamycin(DDIT4/mTOR) pathway. The cell proliferation rate and cell cycle duration were measured using cell counting kit-8 assay and flow cytometry. Protein expression was assayed by Western blot...
January 2, 2018: Oncotarget
Thomas Rosengren, Lasse Jonsgaard Larsen, Lotte Bang Pedersen, Søren Tvorup Christensen, Lisbeth Birk Møller
Primary cilia are sensory organelles that coordinate multiple cellular signaling pathways, including Hedgehog (HH), Wingless/Int (WNT) and Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) signaling. Similarly, primary cilia have been implicated in regulation of mTOR signaling, in which Tuberous Sclerosis Complex proteins 1 and 2 (TSC1/2) negatively regulate protein synthesis by inactivating the mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) at energy limiting states. Here we report that TSC1 and TSC2 regulate Smoothened (SMO)-dependent HH signaling in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs)...
February 2, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Paola Zordan, Manuela Cominelli, Federica Cascino, Elisa Tratta, Pietro L Poliani, Rossella Galli
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a dominantly inherited disease, caused by hyperactivation of the mTORC1 pathway and characterized by the development of hamartomas and benign tumors, also in the brain. Among the neurological manifestations associated with TSC, the tumor progression of static subependymal nodules (SENs) into subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGAs) is one of the major causes of morbidity and shortened life expectancy. To date, mouse modeling has failed in reproducing these two lesions...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
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