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Gastrin AND Glp-1

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982341/gastrin-a-potential-predictor-of-response-to-incretin-therapy-in-diabetes-type-2-patients
#1
Ines Bilic-Curcic, Maja Cigrovski Berkovic
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Personalized management of diabetes has become an imperative since majority of monotherapy fails within 3 years of its use. Identifying responders from non-responders for a certain type of therapy would reduce a period of unsuccessful treatment and minimize health care costs. Incretin therapies, mainly glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA) are relatively new glucose-lowering agents which increase insulin and lower glucagon response as well as slow down glucose absorption by acting on gastric emptying...
October 3, 2017: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928089/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-studies-supporting-the-therapeutic-potential-of-zp3022-in-diabetes
#2
Jolanta Skarbaliene, Kristoffer T Rigbolt, Keld Fosgerau, Nils Billestrup
GLP-1-gastrin dual agonist ZP3022 has been shown to increase β-cell mass with a concomitant improvement of glycemic control in diabetic mice and rats. Here we tested the in-vitro effects of ZP3022 on β-cell proliferation, islet apoptosis and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in rat islets of Langerhans. Moreover, gene expression profiling in whole pancreas from Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats was performed to characterize genes differently regulated by short-term treatment with ZP3022. Treatments with exendin-4, gastrin-17 alone or in combination were included in the studies...
November 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727063/effect-of-dietary-fiber-and-diet-particle-size-on-nutrient-digestibility-and-gastrointestinal-secretory-function-in-growing-pigs
#3
M Saqui-Salces, Z Luo, P E Urriola, B J Kerr, G C Shurson
Reduction of diet particle size (PS) increases feed efficiency due to an increase in the apparent total tract (ATTD) of GE. However, other effects of PS on the gut secretory function are not known. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to measure the effect of diet composition (DC) and PS on nutrient digestibility, gastrointestinal hormones, total bile acids (TBA), total cholesterol and glucose concentrations in plasma of finishing pigs ( = 8/diet). Pigs were fed finely (374 ± 29 µm) or coarsely (631 ± 35 µm) ground corn-soybean meal (CSB), CSB + 35% corn dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS), and CSB with 21% soybean hulls (SBH) diets for 49 d...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347132/radiolabeled-peptides-current-and-new-perspectives
#4
REVIEW
Marta Opalinska, Alicja Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Anna Sowa-Staszczak
Radiolabeled peptides have been the subject of research for over 20 years and during that time possibility/variety of peptide receptor imaging and later targeted radiotherapy increased significantly. The targeted receptors belong to the large family of G-protein-coupled receptors or tyrosine kinases receptors partially connected with them. They both regulate large signaling networks, control multiple cell functions and are implicated in many diseases including cancers. The essential feature of peptides used in nuclear medicine involves their ability to binding with high affinity and specify to their receptors overexpressed on tumor cells...
June 2017: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295000/current-status-of-radiopharmaceuticals-for-the-theranostics-of-neuroendocrine-neoplasms
#5
REVIEW
Melpomeni Fani, Petra Kolenc Peitl, Irina Velikyan
Nuclear medicine plays a pivotal role in the management of patients affected by neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs). Radiolabeled somatostatin receptor analogs are by far the most advanced radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and therapy (radiotheranostics) of NENs. Their clinical success emerged receptor-targeted radiolabeled peptides as an important class of radiopharmaceuticals and it paved the way for the investigation of other radioligand-receptor systems. Besides the somatostatin receptors (sstr), other receptors have also been linked to NENs and quite a number of potential radiolabeled peptides have been derived from them...
March 15, 2017: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106207/natural-sweetener-agave-inhibits-gastric-emptying-in-rats-by-a-cholecystokinin-2-and-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-dependent-mechanism
#6
E Bihter Gürler, Dilek Özbeyli, Hülya Buzcu, Sezin Bayraktar, İrem Carus, Beyza Dağ, Yasemin Geriş, Seda Jeral, Berrak Ç Yeğen
Low-calorie sweeteners are considered to be beneficial in calorie control, but the impact of these sweeteners on gastric emptying is not well described. The purpose of this study was to compare the gastric emptying rate of agave nectar with those of glucose and fructose, and to evaluate the interaction of cholecystokinin (CCK)-1, CCK-2 and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptors in agave-induced alterations in gastric emptying. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fitted with gastric cannulas. Following the recovery, the gastric emptying rates of glucose, fructose and agave at 12...
February 22, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892685/gut-a-key-player-in-the-pathogenesis-of-type-2-diabetes
#7
Giovanna Muscogiuri, Giancarlo Balercia, Luigi Barrea, Angelo Cignarelli, Francesco Giorgino, Jens J Holst, Daniela Laudisio, Francesco Orio, Giacomo Tirabassi, Annamaria Colao
The gut regulates glucose and energy homeostasis; thus, the presence of ingested nutrients into the gut activates sensing mechanisms that affect both glucose homeostasis and regulate food intake. Increasing evidence suggest that gut may also play a key role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes which may be related to both the intestinal microbiological profile and patterns of gut hormones secretion. Intestinal microbiota includes trillions of microorganisms but its composition and function may be adversely affected in type 2 diabetes...
November 28, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808040/endobarrier-gastrointestinal-liner-delineation-of-underlying-mechanisms-and-clinical-effects
#8
REVIEW
Ulrich Rohde
Bariatric surgery (e.g. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB)) has proven the most effective way of achieving sustainable weight losses and remission of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Studies indicate that the effectiveness of RYGB is mediated by an altered gastrointestinal tract anatomy, which in particular favours release of the gut incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). The EndoBarrier gastrointestinal liner or duodenal-jejunal bypass sleeve (DJBS) is an endoscopic deployable minimally invasive and fully reversible technique designed to mimic the bypass component of the RYGB...
November 2016: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696668/the-impact-of-endobarrier-gastrointestinal-liner-in-obese-patients-with-normal-glucose-tolerance-and-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#9
Ulrich Rohde, Cecilie A Federspiel, Peter Vilmann, Ebbe Langholz, Steffen U Friis, Martin Krakauer, Jens F Rehfeld, Jens J Holst, Tina Vilsbøll, Filip K Knop
AIMS: The duodenal-jejunal bypass sleeve ((DJBS) or EndoBarrier Gastrointestinal Liner) induces weight loss in obese subjects and may improve glucose homeostasis in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). To explore the underlying mechanisms, we evaluated postprandial physiology including glucose metabolism, gut hormone secretion, gallbladder emptying, appetite and food intake in patients undergoing DJBS treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 10 normal glucose-tolerant (NGT) obese subjects and 9 age-, body weight- and body mass index-matched metformin-treated T2D patients underwent a liquid mixed meal test and a subsequent ad libitum meal test before implantation with DJBS and 1 week (1w) and 26 weeks (26w) after implantation...
February 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27576578/vagal-blocking-for-obesity-control-a-possible-mechanism-of-action
#10
Helene Johannessen, David Revesz, Yosuke Kodama, Nikki Cassie, Karolina P Skibicka, Perry Barrett, Suzanne Dickson, Jens Holst, Jens Rehfeld, Geoffrey van der Plasse, Roger Adan, Bård Kulseng, Elinor Ben-Menachem, Chun-Mei Zhao, Duan Chen
BACKGROUND: Recently, the US FDA has approved "vagal blocking therapy or vBLoc® therapy" as a new treatment for obesity. The aim of the present study was to study the mechanism-of-action of "VBLOC" in rat models. METHODS: Rats were implanted with VBLOC, an intra-abdominal electrical device with leads placed around gastric vagal trunks through an abdominal incision and controlled by wireless device. Body weight, food intake, hunger/satiety, and metabolic parameters were monitored by a comprehensive laboratory animal monitoring system...
January 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27003305/cholecystokinin-induced-gallbladder-emptying-and-metformin-elicit-additive-glucagon-like-peptide-1-responses
#11
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Ulrich Rohde, David Peick Sonne, Mikkel Christensen, Morten Hansen, Andreas Brønden, Signe Toräng, Jens Frederik Rehfeld, Jens Juul Holst, Tina Vilsbøll, Filip Krag Knop
CONTEXT: Bile acids have been suggested to mediate glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion. Metformin, too, has been shown to increase GLP-1 levels. The effect of gallbladder emptying, metformin, or a combination has, however, never been studied. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that cholecystokinin (CCK)-8-induced gallbladder emptying stimulates human GLP-1 secretion and that metformin would potentiate this effect. DESIGN: A double-blinded, randomized study...
May 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26888164/effect-of-chenodeoxycholic-acid-and-the-bile-acid-sequestrant-colesevelam-on-glucagon-like-peptide-1-secretion
#12
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
M Hansen, M J Scheltema, D P Sonne, J S Hansen, M Sperling, J F Rehfeld, J J Holst, T Vilsbøll, F K Knop
AIM: To evaluate the effects of the primary human bile acid, chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), and the bile acid sequestrant (BAS) colesevelam, instilled into the stomach, on plasma levels of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, cholecystokinin and gastrin, as well as on gastric emptying, gallbladder volume, appetite and food intake. METHODS: On four separate days, nine patients with type 2 diabetes, and 10 matched healthy control subjects received bolus instillations of (i) CDCA, (ii) colesevelam, (iii) CDCA + colesevelam or (iv) placebo...
June 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26803512/the-chemical-coding-of-5-hydroxytryptamine-containing-enteroendocrine-cells-in-the-mouse-gastrointestinal-tract
#13
Yohan Reynaud, Josiane Fakhry, Linda Fothergill, Brid Callaghan, Mitchell Ringuet, Billie Hunne, David M Bravo, John B Furness
The majority of 5-HT (serotonin) in the body is contained in enteroendocrine cells of the gastrointestinal mucosa. From the time of their discovery over 80 years ago, the 5-HT-containing cells have been regarded as a class of cell that is distinct from enteroendocrine cells that contain peptide hormones. However, recent studies have cast doubt on the concept of there being distinct classes of enteroendocrine cells, each containing a single hormone or occasionally more than one hormone. Instead, data are rapidly accumulating that there are complex patterns of colocalisation of hormones that identify multiple subclasses of enteroendocrine cells...
June 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26613757/gastrin-secretion-after-bariatric-surgery-response-to-a-protein-rich-mixed-meal-following-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-and-sleeve-gastrectomy-a-pilot-study-in-normoglycemic-women
#14
Eivind Grong, Hallvard Græslie, Bjørn Munkvold, Ingerid Brænne Arbo, Bård Erik Kulseng, Helge L Waldum, Ronald Mårvik
BACKGROUND: Recent investigations have linked elevated gastrin levels to the improvement of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) are effective treatments for T2DM, but it is not known if this is related to postoperative alterations of gastrin secretion. METHODS: Twenty women previously operated with RYGB or SG and 13 female controls were enrolled and evaluated for body mass index, lipids, C-peptide, HbA1c, and anti-H...
July 2016: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26344355/the-effect-of-bariatric-surgery-on-gastrointestinal-and-pancreatic-peptide-hormones
#15
REVIEW
Claire L Meek, Hannah B Lewis, Frank Reimann, Fiona M Gribble, Adrian J Park
Bariatric surgery for obesity has proved to be an extremely effective method of promoting long-term weight reduction with additional beneficial metabolic effects, such as improved glucose tolerance and remission of type 2 diabetes. A range of bariatric procedures are in common use, including gastric banding, sleeve gastrectomy and the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Although the mechanisms underlying the efficacy of bariatric surgery are unclear, gastrointestinal and pancreatic peptides are thought to play an important role...
March 2016: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26185331/the-gastrin-releasing-peptide-analog-bombesin-preserves-exocrine-and-endocrine-pancreas-morphology-and-function-during-parenteral-nutrition
#16
Joseph F Pierre, Joshua C Neuman, Allison L Brill, Harpreet K Brar, Mary F Thompson, Mark T Cadena, Kelsey M Connors, Rebecca A Busch, Aaron F Heneghan, Candace M Cham, Elaina K Jones, Carly R Kibbe, Dawn B Davis, Guy E Groblewski, Kenneth A Kudsk, Michelle E Kimple
Stimulation of digestive organs by enteric peptides is lost during total parental nutrition (PN). Here we examine the role of the enteric peptide bombesin (BBS) in stimulation of the exocrine and endocrine pancreas during PN. BBS protects against exocrine pancreas atrophy and dysfunction caused by PN. BBS also augments circulating insulin levels, suggesting an endocrine pancreas phenotype. While no significant changes in gross endocrine pancreas morphology were observed, pancreatic islets isolated from BBS-treated PN mice showed a significantly enhanced insulin secretion response to the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonist exendin-4, correlating with enhanced GLP-1 receptor expression...
September 15, 2015: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26181106/transcriptional-and-functional-characterization-of-the-g-protein-coupled-receptor-repertoire-of-gastric-somatostatin-cells
#17
Kristoffer L Egerod, Maja S Engelstoft, Mari L Lund, Kaare V Grunddal, Mirabella Zhao, Dominique Barir-Jensen, Eva B Nygaard, Natalia Petersen, Jens J Holst, Thue W Schwartz
In the stomach, somatostatin (SST) acts as a general paracrine negative regulator of exocrine secretion of gastric acid and pepsinogen and endocrine secretion of gastrin, ghrelin, and histamine. Using reporter mice expressing red fluorescent protein (RFP) under control of the SST promotor, we have characterized the G protein-coupled receptors expressed in gastric Sst-RFP-positive cells and probed their effects on SST secretion in primary cell cultures. Surprisingly, besides SST, amylin and PYY were also highly enriched in the SST cells...
November 2015: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26151373/elucidating-the-roles-of-gut-neuropeptides-on-channel-catfish-feed-intake-glycemia-and-hypothalamic-npy-and-pomc-expression
#18
Julie C Schroeter, Carlin M Fenn, Brian C Small
Both intrinsic and extrinsic factors modulate food intake and glycemia in vertebrates, in part through interactions with hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons. The objective of this project was to elucidate the effects of ghrelin (GHRL), gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide (GLP), pancreatic polypeptide (PP), and peptide YY (PYY) on appetite, glycemia, and hypothalamic expression of NPY and POMC in channel catfish. Catfish were injected intraperitoneally with a single peptide at concentrations of either 0 (control), 50, 100, or 200 ng/g body weight (BW), respectively...
October 2015: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26065537/sleeve-gastrectomy-but-not-duodenojejunostomy-preserves-total-beta-cell-mass-in-goto-kakizaki-rats-evaluated-by-three-dimensional-optical-projection-tomography
#19
Eivind Grong, Bård Kulseng, Ingerid Brænne Arbo, Christoffer Nord, Maria Eriksson, Ulf Ahlgren, Ronald Mårvik
BACKGROUND: In type 2 diabetes mellitus, there is a progressive loss of beta-cell mass. Bariatric surgery has in recent investigations showed promising results in terms of diabetes remission, but little is established regarding the effect of surgery on the survival or regeneration of pancreatic beta-cells. In this study, we aim to explore how bariatric surgery with its subsequent hormonal alterations affects the islets of Langerhans. METHODS: Twenty-four Goto-Kakizaki rats were operated with duodenojejunostomy (DJ), sleeve gastrectomy (SG) or sham operation...
February 2016: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25994073/incretin-based-therapies-where-will-we-be-50-years-from-now
#20
Juris J Meier, Michael A Nauck
The development of incretin-based therapies (glucagon-like peptide 1 [GLP-1] receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 [DPP-4] inhibitors) has changed the landscape of type 2 diabetes management over the past decade. Current developments include longer-acting GLP-1 receptor agonists, fixed-ratio combinations of GLP-1 analogues and basal insulin, as well as implantable osmotic minipumps for long-term delivery of GLP-1 receptor agonists. In longer terms, oral or inhaled GLP-1 analogues may become a reality...
August 2015: Diabetologia
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