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Gastrin AND Glp-1

Ulrich Rohde, Cecilie A Federspiel, Peter Vilmann, Ebbe Langholz, Steffen U Friis, Martin Krakauer, Jens F Rehfeld, Jens J Holst, Tina Vilsbøll, Filip K Knop
AIMS: The duodenal-jejunal bypass sleeve ((DJBS) or EndoBarrier Gastrointestinal Liner) induces weight loss in obese subjects and may improve glucose homeostasis in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). To explore the underlying mechanisms, we evaluated postprandial physiology including glucose metabolism, gut hormone secretion, gallbladder emptying, appetite and food intake in patients undergoing DJBS treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten normal glucose tolerant (NGT) obese subjects and nine age, body weight and body mass index-matched metformin-treated T2D patients underwent a liquid mixed meal test and a subsequent ad libitum meal test before implantation with DJBS and one (1w) and 26 weeks (26w) after implantation...
October 3, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Helene Johannessen, David Revesz, Yosuke Kodama, Nikki Cassie, Karolina Skibicka, Perry Barrett, Suzanne Dickson, Jens Holst, Jens Rehfeld, Geoffrey van der Plasse, Roger Adan, Bård Kulseng, Elinor Ben-Menachem, Chun-Mei Zhao, Duan Chen
BACKGROUND: Recently, the US FDA has approved "vagal blocking therapy or vBLoc® therapy" as a new treatment for obesity. The aim of the present study was to study the mechanism-of-action of "VBLOC" in rat models. METHODS: Rats were implanted with VBLOC, an intra-abdominal electrical device with leads placed around gastric vagal trunks through an abdominal incision and controlled by wireless device. Body weight, food intake, hunger/satiety, and metabolic parameters were monitored by a comprehensive laboratory animal monitoring system...
August 30, 2016: Obesity Surgery
Ulrich Rohde, David Peick Sonne, Mikkel Christensen, Morten Hansen, Andreas Brønden, Signe Toräng, Jens Frederik Rehfeld, Jens Juul Holst, Tina Vilsbøll, Filip Krag Knop
CONTEXT: Bile acids have been suggested to mediate glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion. Metformin, too, has been shown to increase GLP-1 levels. The effect of gallbladder emptying, metformin, or a combination has, however, never been studied. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that cholecystokinin (CCK)-8-induced gallbladder emptying stimulates human GLP-1 secretion and that metformin would potentiate this effect. DESIGN: A double-blinded, randomized study...
May 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
M Hansen, M J Scheltema, D P Sonne, J S Hansen, M Sperling, J F Rehfeld, J J Holst, T Vilsbøll, F K Knop
AIM: To evaluate the effects of the primary human bile acid, chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), and the bile acid sequestrant (BAS) colesevelam, instilled into the stomach, on plasma levels of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, cholecystokinin and gastrin, as well as on gastric emptying, gallbladder volume, appetite and food intake. METHODS: On four separate days, nine patients with type 2 diabetes, and 10 matched healthy control subjects received bolus instillations of (i) CDCA, (ii) colesevelam, (iii) CDCA + colesevelam or (iv) placebo...
June 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Yohan Reynaud, Josiane Fakhry, Linda Fothergill, Brid Callaghan, Mitchell Ringuet, Billie Hunne, David M Bravo, John B Furness
The majority of 5-HT (serotonin) in the body is contained in enteroendocrine cells of the gastrointestinal mucosa. From the time of their discovery over 80 years ago, the 5-HT-containing cells have been regarded as a class of cell that is distinct from enteroendocrine cells that contain peptide hormones. However, recent studies have cast doubt on the concept of there being distinct classes of enteroendocrine cells, each containing a single hormone or occasionally more than one hormone. Instead, data are rapidly accumulating that there are complex patterns of colocalisation of hormones that identify multiple subclasses of enteroendocrine cells...
June 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
Eivind Grong, Hallvard Græslie, Bjørn Munkvold, Ingerid Brænne Arbo, Bård Erik Kulseng, Helge L Waldum, Ronald Mårvik
BACKGROUND: Recent investigations have linked elevated gastrin levels to the improvement of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) are effective treatments for T2DM, but it is not known if this is related to postoperative alterations of gastrin secretion. METHODS: Twenty women previously operated with RYGB or SG and 13 female controls were enrolled and evaluated for body mass index, lipids, C-peptide, HbA1c, and anti-H...
July 2016: Obesity Surgery
Claire L Meek, Hannah B Lewis, Frank Reimann, Fiona M Gribble, Adrian J Park
Bariatric surgery for obesity has proved to be an extremely effective method of promoting long-term weight reduction with additional beneficial metabolic effects, such as improved glucose tolerance and remission of type 2 diabetes. A range of bariatric procedures are in common use, including gastric banding, sleeve gastrectomy and the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Although the mechanisms underlying the efficacy of bariatric surgery are unclear, gastrointestinal and pancreatic peptides are thought to play an important role...
March 2016: Peptides
Joseph F Pierre, Joshua C Neuman, Allison L Brill, Harpreet K Brar, Mary F Thompson, Mark T Cadena, Kelsey M Connors, Rebecca A Busch, Aaron F Heneghan, Candace M Cham, Elaina K Jones, Carly R Kibbe, Dawn B Davis, Guy E Groblewski, Kenneth A Kudsk, Michelle E Kimple
Stimulation of digestive organs by enteric peptides is lost during total parental nutrition (PN). Here we examine the role of the enteric peptide bombesin (BBS) in stimulation of the exocrine and endocrine pancreas during PN. BBS protects against exocrine pancreas atrophy and dysfunction caused by PN. BBS also augments circulating insulin levels, suggesting an endocrine pancreas phenotype. While no significant changes in gross endocrine pancreas morphology were observed, pancreatic islets isolated from BBS-treated PN mice showed a significantly enhanced insulin secretion response to the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonist exendin-4, correlating with enhanced GLP-1 receptor expression...
September 15, 2015: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Kristoffer L Egerod, Maja S Engelstoft, Mari L Lund, Kaare V Grunddal, Mirabella Zhao, Dominique Barir-Jensen, Eva B Nygaard, Natalia Petersen, Jens J Holst, Thue W Schwartz
In the stomach, somatostatin (SST) acts as a general paracrine negative regulator of exocrine secretion of gastric acid and pepsinogen and endocrine secretion of gastrin, ghrelin, and histamine. Using reporter mice expressing red fluorescent protein (RFP) under control of the SST promotor, we have characterized the G protein-coupled receptors expressed in gastric Sst-RFP-positive cells and probed their effects on SST secretion in primary cell cultures. Surprisingly, besides SST, amylin and PYY were also highly enriched in the SST cells...
November 2015: Endocrinology
Julie C Schroeter, Carlin M Fenn, Brian C Small
Both intrinsic and extrinsic factors modulate food intake and glycemia in vertebrates, in part through interactions with hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons. The objective of this project was to elucidate the effects of ghrelin (GHRL), gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide (GLP), pancreatic polypeptide (PP), and peptide YY (PYY) on appetite, glycemia, and hypothalamic expression of NPY and POMC in channel catfish. Catfish were injected intraperitoneally with a single peptide at concentrations of either 0 (control), 50, 100, or 200 ng/g body weight (BW), respectively...
October 2015: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Eivind Grong, Bård Kulseng, Ingerid Brænne Arbo, Christoffer Nord, Maria Eriksson, Ulf Ahlgren, Ronald Mårvik
BACKGROUND: In type 2 diabetes mellitus, there is a progressive loss of beta-cell mass. Bariatric surgery has in recent investigations showed promising results in terms of diabetes remission, but little is established regarding the effect of surgery on the survival or regeneration of pancreatic beta-cells. In this study, we aim to explore how bariatric surgery with its subsequent hormonal alterations affects the islets of Langerhans. METHODS: Twenty-four Goto-Kakizaki rats were operated with duodenojejunostomy (DJ), sleeve gastrectomy (SG) or sham operation...
February 2016: Surgical Endoscopy
Juris J Meier, Michael A Nauck
The development of incretin-based therapies (glucagon-like peptide 1 [GLP-1] receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 [DPP-4] inhibitors) has changed the landscape of type 2 diabetes management over the past decade. Current developments include longer-acting GLP-1 receptor agonists, fixed-ratio combinations of GLP-1 analogues and basal insulin, as well as implantable osmotic minipumps for long-term delivery of GLP-1 receptor agonists. In longer terms, oral or inhaled GLP-1 analogues may become a reality...
August 2015: Diabetologia
Jolanta Skarbaliene, Thomas Secher, Jacob Jelsing, Ansarullah, Trine S R Neerup, Nils Billestrup, Keld Fosgerau
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Combination treatment with exendin-4 and gastrin has proven beneficial in treatment of diabetes and preservation of beta cell mass in diabetic mice. Here, we examined the chronic effects of a GLP-1-gastrin dual agonist ZP3022 on glycemic control and beta cell dysfunction in overtly diabetic Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats. METHODS: ZDF rats aged 11 weeks were dosed s.c., b.i.d. for 8 weeks with vehicle, ZP3022, liraglutide, exendin-4, or gastrin-17 with or without exendin-4...
July 2015: Peptides
Ilaria Barchetta, Chiara Guglielmi, Laura Bertoccini, Damiano Calella, Silvia Manfrini, Chiara Secchi, Paolo Pozzilli, Maria Gisella Cavallo
AIMS: Experimental data demonstrated that gastrin has incretin-like stimulating actions on β-cells, resulting in a promotion of glucose-induced insulin secretion. As proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) consistently increase plasma gastrin levels, a possible effect of this treatment on glucose-insulin homeostasis may be hypothesized. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of chronic PPIs treatment on glycemic control in patients affected by type 2 diabetes. METHODS: This is an observational, retrospective study...
October 2015: Acta Diabetologica
Yang Cao, Xun Cao, Xiao-Min Liu
Gastrin is a gastrointestinal hormone secreted by G cells. Hypergastrinemia can improve blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels. These positive effects are primarily due to the trophic effects of gastrin on β-cells. In recent years, many receptors that regulate secretion of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) have been identified in enteroendocrine L cell lines. This led us to hypothesize that, in addition to the trophic effects of gastrin on β-cells, L cells also express cholecystokinin2-receptor (CCK2R), which may regulate GLP-1 secretion and have synergistic effects on glucose homeostasis...
March 2015: Acta Histochemica
Natalie A Terry, Erik R Walp, Randall A Lee, Klaus H Kaestner, Catherine Lee May
Enteroendocrine cells secrete over a dozen different hormones responsible for coordinating digestion, absorption, metabolism, and gut motility. Loss of enteroendocrine cells is a known cause of severe congenital diarrhea. Furthermore, enteroendocrine cells regulate glucose metabolism, with the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) playing critical roles in stimulating insulin release by pancreatic β-cells. Islet1 (Isl1) is a LIM-homeodomain transcription factor expressed specifically in an array of intestinal endocrine cells, including incretin-expressing cells...
November 15, 2014: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Louise S Dalbøge, Dorthe L C Almholt, Trine S R Neerup, Niels Vrang, Jacob Jelsing, Keld Fosgerau
Antidiabetic treatments aiming to preserve or even to increase β-cell mass are currently gaining increased interest. Here we investigated the effect of chronic treatment with the novel glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-gastrin dual agonist ZP3022 (HGEGTFTSDLSKQMEEEAVRLFIEWLKN-8Ado-8Ado-YGWLDF-NH2) on glycemic control, β-cell mass and proliferation, and islet number. Male db/db mice were treated with ZP3022, liraglutide, or vehicle for 2, 4, or 8 weeks, with terminal assessment of hemoglobin A1c, basal blood glucose, and plasma insulin concentrations...
August 2014: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Ian Lp Beales
The role of the peptide hormone gastrin in stimulating gastric acid secretion is well established. Mature amidated gastrin is processed from larger peptide precursor forms. Increasingly these processing intermediates, such as glycine-extended gastrin (G-Gly) and progastrin, have been shown to have biological activities of their own, often separate and complementary to gastrin. Although G-Gly is synthesized and secreted by gastric antral G-cells, the physiological functions of this putative mediator are unclear...
2013: F1000Research
Ian Lp Beales
The role of the peptide hormone gastrin in stimulating gastric acid secretion is well established. Mature amidated gastrin is processed from larger peptide precursor forms. Increasingly these processing intermediates, such as glycine-extended gastrin (G-Gly) and progastrin, have been shown to have biological activities of their own, often separate and complementary to gastrin. Although G-Gly is synthesized and secreted by gastric antral G-cells, the physiological functions of this putative mediator are unclear...
2013: F1000Research
C Dong, Z Liu, F Wang
A series of radiolabeled peptides have been designed and optimized for tumor-targeted peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). Pre-clinical and clinical applications of PRRT have shown promising results on tumor response, overall survival, and quality of life in patients with several kinds of tumors. (90)Y-DOTA-TOC and (177)Lu-DOTA-TATE are two of the most common radiopharmaceuticals with symptomatic improvements and complete clinical data. In addition to somatostatin analogs, radiolabeled peptides have been developed to target the relative receptors overexpressed in the tumors, such as integrin αvβ3, gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR), melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1-R), cholecystokinin (CCK) receptor, and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R)...
2014: Current Medicinal Chemistry
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