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Edward H Reynolds
The word hysteria originated in the Corpus Hippocraticum (c420 BCE) as a natural explanation for a variety of diseases in women linked in the Greco-Roman mind to an animate or inanimate womb, but which in the last five centuries has evolved to describe an elusive disorder of brain ± mind in men and women, currently referred to by neurologists as "functional neurological disorder". The Babylonians, Assyrians and Egyptians had no knowledge of brain or psychological function. Babylonian and Assyrian descriptions of disease and behaviour include only rare examples suggestive of modern hysteria...
February 17, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Olivier Walusinski
Victor Burq (1822-1884) is closely associated with a therapy named "burquism" by Jean-Martin Charcot, which was used in treating hysteria, especially hysteric anesthesia and paralysis, by applying metals, mainly copper, to affected zones. In 1876, Charcot, Luys, and Dumontpallier, commissioned by the Société de Biologie, issued 2 opinions validating the results obtained by Burq during the 25 years he dedicated to his research. From that point forward, the careers of these 3 famous physicians were lastingly reoriented toward the practice of hypnosis...
March 7, 2018: European Neurology
Richard P Kluft
Modern psychoanalysis begins with Sigmund Freud's study of hypnosis and the treatment of the grand hysterics of the fin de siècle. In the process of developing his own paradigm, Freud came to reject the use of hypnosis and turned his attention away from the severe hysterias. These decisions began what has become, notwithstanding noteworthy exceptions, over a century of estrangement and disengagement between the fields of hypnosis and psychoanalysis. The current communication reviews the 75 archived Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing resources from Freud's scientific work and correspondence in which reference is made to hypnosis...
April 2018: American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis
Ad Sandy Macleod
Case reports of the abrupt recovery of hysterical disorders during World War I (1914-18), though undoubtedly subject to publication bias, raise both aetiological and treatment issues regarding pseudo-neurological conversion symptoms. Published clinical anecdotes report circumstantial, psychotherapeutic, hypnotic, persuasive (and coercive) methods seemingly inducing recovery, and also responses to fright and alterations of consciousness. The ethics of modern medical practice would not allow many of these techniques, which were reported to be effective, even in the chronic cases...
February 1, 2018: History of Psychiatry
Sandra Faragó-Magrini, Cristina Aubá, Cristina Camargo, Carmen Laspra, Bernardo Hontanilla
BACKGROUND: Breast reconstruction after mastectomy is a part of breast cancer treatment. There is a lack of data regarding the impact of reconstruction over psychological traits and quality of life. The aim of this study is to evaluate personality changes in patients who underwent reconstructive surgery. METHODS: Thirty-seven women underwent breast reconstruction. These women took the Crown-Crisp Experiential Index before and after the different procedures. The questionnaire analyzes: (a) the satisfaction level with personal relationships before and after surgery, and the level of satisfaction with surgical results and (b) personality index...
February 22, 2018: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
Malin Appelquist, Louise Brådvik, Marie Åsberg
Mental illness in a hospital in a medium-sized town in Sweden was studied. Consecutive case records from 1896 to 1905, and also from 2011, were selected. In the historical sample, neurasthenia was the most common diagnosis, followed by affective disorders and alcohol abuse. ICD-10 diagnoses corresponded well with the historical diagnoses. Melancholia resembled modern criteria for depression. Mania, insania simplex and paranoia indicated more severe illness. Abuse was more common among men and hysteria among women...
February 1, 2018: History of Psychiatry
Laurent Tatu
The English electrophysiologist Edgar Adrian (1889-1977) was the recipient of the Nobel Prize for physiology in 1932 for his research on the functions of neurons. During World War I, at Queen Square in London, he devised an intensive electrotherapeutic treatment for shell-shocked soldiers. The procedure, developed with Lewis Yealland (1884-1954), was similar to "torpillage," the faradic psychotherapy used in France. Adrian and Yealland considered that the pain accompanying the use of faradic current was necessary for both therapeutic and disciplinary reasons, especially because of the suspicion of malingering...
February 8, 2018: European Neurology
Heasim Sul
This article demonstrates the medicinal usage of ginseng in the West from 1660 to 1914. Asian[Korea] ginseng was first introduced into England in the early 17th century, and North American ginseng was found in the early 18th century. Starting from the late 17th century doctors prescribed ginseng to cure many different kinds of ailments and disease such as: fatigue general lethargy, fever, torpidity, trembling in the joints, nervous disorder, laughing and crying hysteria, scurvy, spermatic vessel infection, jaundice, leprosy, dry gripes and constipation, strangury, yellow fever, dysentery, infertility and addictions of alcohol, opium and tobacco, etc...
December 2017: Ŭi Sahak
John A O'Neil
Hypnosis predates psychoanalysis, when autohypnotic pathologies were identified through the lens of hypnosis, and labeled "hypnoid hysteria" in the language of the day. The broad spectrum of disorders then subsumed under that term is still reflected in ICD-10's subset, "F44-Dissociative (Conversion) Disorders." Freud initially embraced both hypnoid hysteria and hypnosis, but came to abandon hypnosis and, by extension, hypnoid hysteria as well. Since that fateful decision, which I term herein Freud's "Inaugural Category Mistake," references to both hypnosis and hypnoid pathology largely vanished from the psychoanalytic mainstream, thereby neglecting conditions afflicting a significant portion of the mentally ill, and needlessly restricting the therapeutic repertoire of psychoanalysis...
January 2018: American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis
Toshio Fukutake
Apart from the term 'involuntary movements', the term 'movement disorders' encompasses not only classical hyperkinesias but also hypokinesias including catalepsy or apraxia. It enables us to understand abnormal movements by their phenomena instead of by their localization. To advance the grasping of movement disorders, we discuss the clinical and pathophysiological features of abnormal movements in catatonia/catalepsy, anti-NMDAR encephalitis, paroxysmal dyskinesias, stiff person/leg syndrome, corticobasal degeneration/syndrome, and hysteria...
December 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
Rafael Dias de Castro
The research note presents the initial reception of psychoanalytic theory by psychiatric physicians in Rio de Janeiro in the first decades of the twentieth century before it became an institutionalized scientific tool. To understand the specificities of its reception, it examines, from the standpoint of the circulation of scientific knowledge and the process of adaptation to the local context, how the perceptions of psychiatrists regarding psychoanalytic theory were embedded in the then prevailing scientific theories and assumptions, initially in the dabates on the hysteria and nervousness categories...
November 2017: História, Ciências, Saúde—Manguinhos
Douglas J Lanska
In the late 19th century, jumping (French Canadians in Maine, USA), miryachit (Siberia), and latah (Southeast Asia) were among a group of similar disorders described around the world, each of which manifests as an exaggerated startle response with additional late-response features that were felt by some to overlap with hysteria or tics. The later features following the exaggerated startle reaction variably include mimesis (e.g., echopraxia, echolalia) and automatic obedience. These reaction patterns tended to persist indefinitely in affected individuals...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
Sebastian Dieguez
Ganser's syndrome is a rare and controversial condition, whose main and most striking feature is the production of approximate answers (or near misses) to very simple questions. For instance, asked how many legs a horse has, Ganser patients will reply "5", and answers to plain arithmetic questions will likewise be wrong, but only slightly off the mark (e.g., 2 + 2 = 3). This symptom was originally described by Sigbert Ganser in 1897 in prisoners on remand and labeled Vorbeigehen ("to pass by"), although the term Vorbeireden ("to talk beside the point") is also frequently used...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
Olivier Walusinski
Jean-Martin Charcot's reputation remains that of a physician who took little interest in treatments for the neurological diseases he did much to identify. After reviewing the limited number of medicinal remedies of slight effectiveness at Charcot's disposal, we analyze in this review the numerous therapeutic tests that he conducted: vibratory medicine for Parkinson's disease, treatment of tabes by suspension technique, metallotherapy and moral -treatment for hysteria. Understanding that he fully and completely adhered to the far-reaching heredity-based theories of his day makes it possible to perceive his natural and fundamental pessimism...
October 26, 2017: European Neurology
Angelica Staniloiu, Hans J Markowitsch, Andreas Kordon
Autobiographical amnesia is found in patients with focal or diffuse brain damage ("organic amnesia"), but also without overt brain damage (at least when measured with conventional brain imaging methods). This last condition is usually named dissociative amnesia at present, and was originally described as hysteria. Classically and traditionally, dissociative amnesia is seen as a disorder that causes retrograde amnesia in the autobiographical domain in the aftermath of incidents of major psychological stress or trauma...
October 16, 2017: Neuropsychologia
Kelly Digby Peebles
This essay examines a challenge to common literary representations of female mental illness in the Early Modern period-the hysterical woman-in a collection of French short stories contemporary to Vesalius's De Fabrica: Jeanne Flore's Tales and Trials of Love (1542). Jeanne Flore's tales depict several mentally disturbed female protagonists, young women prone to paroxysms of madness and self-mutilation. This study maintains that while Tales and Trials of Love superficially participates in the literary tradition that grew out of those accepted social and medical beliefs, it also questions the long-accepted paradigm of female hysteria and points to a shift in the socio-medical climate...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Medical Humanities
Natalie L Dinsdale, Bernard J Crespi
Hippocrates attributed women's high emotionality - hysteria - to a 'wandering womb'. Although hysteria diagnoses were abandoned along with the notion that displaced wombs cause emotional disturbance, recent research suggests that elevated levels of oxytocin occur in both bipolar disorder and endometriosis, a gynecological condition involving migration of endometrial tissue beyond the uterus. We propose and evaluate the hypothesis that elevated oxytocinergic system activity jointly contributes to bipolar disorder and endometriosis...
November 2017: Hormones and Behavior
Kamal Solati, Ali Hasanpour-Dehkordi
INTRODUCTION: Substance Use Disorders (SUDs) represents a serious problem in Iranian community that may lead to psychological disorders in families. AIM: This study was conducted to investigate the association of SUDs with family members' psychological disorders. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample size of the study consisted of 724 people referred to a counseling and psychology clinic in Shahrekord, southwest Iran. For data gathering, random method was adopted...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Philippe Charlier, Jean-Michel Claverie, Philippe Sansonetti, Yves Coppens, Anaïs Augias, Sophie Jacqueline, Fanny Rengot, Saudamini Deo
BACKGROUND: Work on human remains and old biological samples is a potential source of contamination by conventional or atypical infectious agents. Similarly, current and future environmental changes are a source of resurgence of ancient epidemic diseases. To what extent are anthropologists sorcerer apprentices (especially those working on ancient samples, i.e. paleo-anthropologists)? Are ancient skeletons, palaeosols and museum objects with a biological component at risk for current populations? Unless there are unfounded fears and undue risk… What can be learned from the recent scientific literature and the common sense of the researchers? METHODS: We have attempted to compile data from the literature and from our personal experience in the fields of anthropology, clinical medicine and epidemiology, in order to grasp the reality of the risk to the human population...
June 20, 2017: European Journal of Internal Medicine
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