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Beta Glucans

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194062/performance-of-galactomannan-antigen-beta-d-glucan-and-aspergillus-lateral-flow-device-for-the-diagnosis-of-invasive-aspergillosis
#1
Gökhan Metan, Muzaffer Keklik, Gökçen Dinç, Çiğdem Pala, Afra Yıldırım, Berkay Saraymen, Mustafa Yavuz Köker, Leylagül Kaynar, Bülent Eser, Mustafa Çetin
Aspergillus lateral-flow device (LFD) was recently introduced as a practical tool for the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA). We investigated the performance of Aspergillus-LFD as a point-of-care test for the diagnosis of IA. Serum samples were collected twice weekly from patients who received intensive chemotherapy for acute leukemia, or recepients of allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Aspergillus galactomannan (GM) antigen, 1,3-beta-d-glucan and Aspergillus-LFD tests were carried out according to manufacturers' recommendations...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Hematology & Blood Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182518/clinical-evaluation-of-a-bioactive-beta-glucan-gel-in-the-treatment-of-hard-to-heal-wounds
#2
B King, S Barrett, K F Cutting
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this evaluation is to assess the effects of a wound healing gel in a wounds of different aetiologies. METHOD: Data was recorded on the wound surface area, tissue type, and patient level of wound pain at baseline (0) and at weeks 1, 2, 3, 4, and 8. RESULTS: Of the total 39 patients enrolled in the study, 26 patients who complied with the protocol criteria completed the minimum four-week study period. During the 12-week evaluation period, seven of the 26 wounds fully healed and an additional eight wounds showed a reduction in size of more than 50 %...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107445/beta-glucans-supplementation-associates-with-reduction-in-p-cresyl-sulfate-levels-and-improved-endothelial-vascular-reactivity-in-healthy-individuals
#3
Carmela Cosola, Maria De Angelis, Maria Teresa Rocchetti, Eustacchio Montemurno, Valentina Maranzano, Giuseppe Dalfino, Carlo Manno, Annapaola Zito, Michele Gesualdo, Marco Matteo Ciccone, Marco Gobbetti, Loreto Gesualdo
BACKGROUND: Oat and barley beta-glucans are prebiotic fibers known for their cholesterol-lowering activity, but their action on the human gut microbiota metabolism is still under research. Although the induction of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) following their ingestion has previously been reported, no study has investigated their effects on proteolytic uremic toxins p-cresyl sulfate (pCS) and indoxyl sulfate (IS) levels, while others have failed to demonstrate an effect on the endothelial function measured through flow-mediated dilation (FMD)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999319/exercise-and-beta-glucan-consumption-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-improve-the-metabolic-profile-and-reduce-the-atherogenic-index-in-type-2-diabetic-rats-hfd-stz
#4
Eric Francelino Andrade, Andressa Ribeiro Veiga Lima, Ingrid Edwiges Nunes, Débora Ribeiro Orlando, Paula Novato Gondim, Márcio Gilberto Zangeronimo, Fernando Henrique Ferrari Alves, Luciano José Pereira
Physical activity and the ingestion of dietary fiber are non-drug alternatives commonly used as adjuvants to glycemic control in diabetic individuals. Among these fibers, we can highlight beta-glucans. However, few studies have compared isolated and synergic effects of physical exercise and beta-glucan ingestion, especially in type 2 diabetic rats. Therefore, we evaluated the effects beta-glucan (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) consumption, associated or not to exercise, on metabolic parameters of diabetic Wistar rats...
December 17, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27972313/cost-effectiveness-of-active-surveillance-of-beta-d-glucan-in-intensive-care-units-in-hong-kong
#5
Y Pang, M Ip, J You
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951636/adjuvant-activity-enhanced-by-cross-linked-cpg-oligonucleotides-in-%C3%AE-glucan-nanogel-and-its-antitumor-effect
#6
Noriko Miyamoto, Shinichi Mochizuki, Shota Fujii, Kenta Yoshida, Kazuo Sakurai
Cancer vaccine has the ability to directly eradicate tumor cells by creating and activating cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). To achieve efficient CTL activity and to induce Th1 responses, it is essential to administer an appropriate adjuvant as well as an antigen. CpG-ODN is known as a ligand of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) and strongly induces Th1 responses. In our previous study, we developed a CpG-ODN delivery system by use of the formation of complexes between ODN and a β-glucan SPG, denoted as CpG/SPG, and demonstrated that CpG/SPG induces high Th1 responses...
January 13, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928649/the-diagnostic-value-of-1%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-3-beta-d-glucans-and-galactomannan-assays-in-children-suffering-from-bacteremia-in-pediatric-intensive-care-unit
#7
Fang Zheng, Yelian Gu, Hui Zha, Jun Deng, Zhiquan Zhang
The value of (1 → 3)-beta-D-glucans (BG) and galactomannan (GM) assays on diagnostic invasive fungal infections (IFIs) has been observed in adult ICU and in children with hematological malignancies. Only scant data evaluated non-hematological in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Here, we retrospectively analyzed the role of bacterial infection to the reactivity of BG and GM assays in PICU. The results showed that the overall prevalence of bacteremia was 13.8% (65/470). The most common underlying disease was pneumonia (81...
December 7, 2016: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912745/ganoderma-lucidum-beta-1-3-1-6-glucan-as-an-immunomodulator-in-inflammation-induced-by-a-high-cholesterol-diet
#8
Yu-Sheng Wu, Shu-Ying Ho, Fan-Hua Nan, Shiu-Nan Chen
BACKGROUND: Binding of beta 1,3/1,6 glucan of Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) with the receptor results in a series of signal transfers (signalling cascades), which activates the transcription factors for regulating inflammation. Excess cholesterol intake leads to an increase in the distance between fat cells and capillaries, which may cause hypoxia in the fat tissue of obese mice. This hypoxia induces the death of fat cells, resulting in the inflammation of adipose tissue or an increase in the inflammatory gene expression associated with obesity...
December 3, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837506/serological-approaches
#9
Barbora Weinbergerova, Iva Kocmanova, Zdenek Racil, Jiri Mayer
The diagnosis of invasive fungal diseases (IFD) based on clinical, radiological, and conventional microbiological findings is not reliable and is often delayed. Non-culture-based methods with higher sensitivity and specificity may reduce diagnostic time and result in decreased IFD morbidity and mortality. These methods are now increasingly used to manage patients at risk of IFD. Among available biomarkers, fungal antigens have been investigated as an aid to early diagnosis and are predominantly used as screening tests to prompt antifungal treatment mainly in patients with hematological malignancies...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814595/particulate-beta-glucan-induces-early-and-late-phagosomal-maturation-in-murine-macrophages
#10
Nida Fatima, Tarun Upadhyay, Deepak Sharma, Rolee Sharma
Beta-glucans are carbohydrates (glucose polymers) found in the cell walls of fungi, yeast, algae, lichens, and plants such as oats and barley. Beta-glucans bind to glucan receptor on phagocytic cells and modify these cells to become "immunologically active" by generating a variety of innate immune responses. Particulate beta-glucan has been specifically shown to engage dectin-1 receptor, which leads to the recruitment and activation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase-2 (NOX-2) and release of antimicrobial reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769933/the-impact-of-germination-time-on-the-some-selected-parameters-through-malting-process
#11
Vahid Farzaneh, Alireza Ghodsvali, Hamid Bakhshabadi, Zahra Zare, Isabel S Carvalho
In the present study, the impacts of germination time on the enzymes activity attributed in malting and some polysaccharides contents of the malt prepared from the Joseph barley variety have been screened using a completely random design with three levels of germination time(3, 5 and 7days). The archived outcomes revealed that the highest quantity of starch has been observed in the malt resulted from 3days germination, and an enhancement in the germination period from 3 to 7days decreased the quantity of available starch...
January 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756305/bcsz-inhibits-biofilm-phenotypes-and-promotes-virulence-by-blocking-cellulose-production-in-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium
#12
Irfan Ahmad, Syed Fazle Rouf, Lei Sun, Annika Cimdins, Sulman Shafeeq, Soazig Le Guyon, Marco Schottkowski, Mikael Rhen, Ute Römling
BACKGROUND: Cellulose, a 1,4 beta-glucan polysaccharide, is produced by a variety of organisms including bacteria. Although the production of cellulose has a high biological, ecological and economical impact, regulatory mechanisms of cellulose biosynthesis are mostly unknown. Family eight cellulases are regularly associated with cellulose biosynthesis operons in bacteria; however, their function is poorly characterized. In this study, we analysed the role of the cellulase BcsZ encoded by the bcsABZC cellulose biosynthesis operon of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S...
October 19, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754403/label-free-differential-proteomics-and-quantification-of-exoenzymes-from-isolates-of-the-entomopathogenic-fungus-beauveria-bassiana
#13
Giuseppe Dionisio, Per Kryger, Tove Steenberg
Beauveria bassiana is an entomopathogenic fungus that grows both in vivo and in vitro. In vivo it can colonize live insect hosts, and tissue digestion occurs by secreted hydrolytic exoenzymes. It can also colonize dead insect tissue provided this is free from competing microorganisms. Depending on whether the host is alive or dead the expression (quality/quantity) of the exoenzymes may vary. We have grown several isolates of B. bassiana in shaking flasks for 120 h at 25 °C in order to evaluate the maximal exoenzyme production using two diet regimes...
October 14, 2016: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749909/a-new-membrane-protein-sbg1-links-the-contractile-ring-apparatus-and-septum-synthesis-machinery-in-fission-yeast
#14
Kriti Sethi, Saravanan Palani, Juan C G Cortés, Mamiko Sato, Mayalagu Sevugan, Mariona Ramos, Shruthi Vijaykumar, Masako Osumi, Naweed I Naqvi, Juan Carlos Ribas, Mohan Balasubramanian
Cytokinesis in many organisms requires a plasma membrane anchored actomyosin ring, whose contraction facilitates cell division. In yeast and fungi, actomyosin ring constriction is also coordinated with division septum assembly. How the actomyosin ring interacts with the plasma membrane and the plasma membrane-localized septum synthesizing machinery remains poorly understood. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, an attractive model organism to study cytokinesis, the β-1,3-glucan synthase Cps1p / Bgs1p, an integral membrane protein, localizes to the plasma membrane overlying the actomyosin ring and is required for primary septum synthesis...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686799/potential-clinical-and-economic-outcomes-of-active-beta-d-glucan-surveillance-with-preemptive-therapy-for-invasive-candidiasis-at-intensive-care-units-a-decision-model-analysis
#15
Y-K Pang, M Ip, J H S You
Early initiation of antifungal treatment for invasive candidiasis is associated with change in mortality. Beta-D-glucan (BDG) is a fungal cell wall component and a serum diagnostic biomarker of fungal infection. Clinical findings suggested an association between reduced invasive candidiasis incidence in intensive care units (ICUs) and BDG-guided preemptive antifungal therapy. We evaluated the potential cost-effectiveness of active BDG surveillance with preemptive antifungal therapy in patients admitted to adult ICUs from the perspective of Hong Kong healthcare providers...
January 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677198/effects-of-beta-glucan-on-protection-of-young-and-aged-rats-from-renal-ischemia-and-reperfusion-injury
#16
M Esrefoglu, O E Tok, M S Aydin, M Iraz, O F Ozer, S Selek, M Iraz
BACKGROUND: Ischemia-reperfusion injury is one of the leading causes of acute renal failure which is a common clinical event leading to development of chronic kidney disease and a high mortality; especially in elderly people. β-glucans are glucose polymer groups with free-radical scavenger, macrophage activator, and immune defense inducer functions. We designed this study to determine the possible protective effects of β-glucan against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury comparatively in young and aged rats...
2016: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642288/isolation-and-characterization-of-scglud2-a-new-sugarcane-beta-1-3-glucanase-d-family-gene-induced-by-sporisorium-scitamineum-aba-h2o2-nacl-and-cdcl2-stresses
#17
Yachun Su, Zhuqing Wang, Feng Liu, Zhu Li, Qiong Peng, Jinlong Guo, Liping Xu, Youxiong Que
Beta-1,3-glucanases (EC 3.2.1.39), commonly known as pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins, play an important role not only in plant defense against fungal pathogens but also in plant physiological and developmental processes. However, only a limited number of sugarcane beta-1,3-glucanase genes have been isolated. In the present study, we identified and characterized a new beta-1,3-glucanase gene ScGluD2 (GenBank Acc No. KF664181) from sugarcane. An X8 domain was present at the C terminal region of ScGluD2, suggesting beta-1,3-glucan-binding function...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621314/a-novel-carbohydrate-binding-module-from-sugar-cane-soil-metagenome-featuring-unique-structural-and-carbohydrate-affinity-properties
#18
Bruna Medeia Campos, Marcelo Vizona Liberato, Thabata Maria Alvarez, Letícia Maria Zanphorlin, Gabriela Cristina Ematsu, Hernane Barud, Igor Polikarpov, Roberto Ruller, Harry J Gilbert, Ana Carolina de Mattos Zeri, Fabio Marcio Squina
Carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) are appended to glycoside hydrolases and can contribute to the degradation of complex recalcitrant substrates such as the plant cell wall. For application in bioethanol production, novel enzymes with high catalytic activity against recalcitrant lignocellulosic material are being explored and developed. In this work, we report the functional and structural study of CBM_E1, which was discovered through a metagenomics approach and is the founding member of a novel CBM family, CBM81...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27608317/-invasive-fungal-infections-in-children-similarities-and-differences-with-adults
#19
REVIEW
J T Ramos, L Francisco, Z Daoud
Invasive fungal infections (IFI) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised adults and children. The purpose of this review was to update the epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic options in children, and to compare them with the adult population. Although there are important differences, the epidemiology, clinical features and risk factors for IFI have many similarities. Patient at risk include neutropenic hematology children, in whom Candida spp. y Aspergillus spp. predominate; primary immunodeficiencies, particularly chronic granulomatous disease with high susceptibility for Aspergillus spp...
September 2016: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604040/development-of-downstream-processing-to-minimize-beta-glucan-impurities-in-gmp-manufactured-therapeutic-antibodies
#20
Kim Vigor, John Emerson, Robert Scott, Julia Cheek, Claire Barton, Heather J Bax, Debra H Josephs, Sophia N Karagiannis, James F Spicer, Heike Lentfer
The presence of impurities or contaminants in biological products such as monoclonal antibodies (mAb) could affect efficacy or cause adverse reactions in patients. ICH guidelines (Q6A and Q6B) are in place to regulate the level of impurities within clinical drug products. An impurity less often reported and, therefore, lacking regulatory guideline is beta-glucan. Beta-glucans are polysaccharides of d-glucose monomers linked by (1-3) beta-glycosidic bonds, and are produced by prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, including plants...
November 2016: Biotechnology Progress
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