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Beta Glucans

Alireza Ghodsvali, Vahid Farzaneh, Hamid Bakhshabadi, Zahra Zare, Isabel S Carvalho
In the present study, the impacts of germination time on the enzymes activity attributed in malting and some polysaccharides contents of the malt prepared from the Joseph barley variety have been screened using a completely random design with three levels of germination time(3, 5 and 7 days). The archived outcomes revealed that the highest quantity of starch has been observed in the malt resulted from 3days germination, and an enhancement in the germination period from 3 to 7days decreased the quantity of available starch...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Irfan Ahmad, Syed Fazle Rouf, Lei Sun, Annika Cimdins, Sulman Shafeeq, Soazig Le Guyon, Marco Schottkowski, Mikael Rhen, Ute Römling
BACKGROUND: Cellulose, a 1,4 beta-glucan polysaccharide, is produced by a variety of organisms including bacteria. Although the production of cellulose has a high biological, ecological and economical impact, regulatory mechanisms of cellulose biosynthesis are mostly unknown. Family eight cellulases are regularly associated with cellulose biosynthesis operons in bacteria; however, their function is poorly characterized. In this study, we analysed the role of the cellulase BcsZ encoded by the bcsABZC cellulose biosynthesis operon of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S...
October 19, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
Giuseppe Dionisio, Per Kryger, Tove Steenberg
Beauveria bassiana is an entomopathogenic fungus that grows both in vivo and in vitro. In vivo it can colonize live insect hosts, and tissue digestion occurs by secreted hydrolytic exoenzymes. It can also colonize dead insect tissue provided this is free from competing microorganisms. Depending on whether the host is alive or dead the expression (quality/quantity) of the exoenzymes may vary. We have grown several isolates of B. bassiana in shaking flasks for 120 h at 25 °C in order to evaluate the maximal exoenzyme production using two diet regimes...
October 14, 2016: Insects
Kriti Sethi, Saravanan Palani, Juan C G Cortés, Mamiko Sato, Mayalagu Sevugan, Mariona Ramos, Shruthi Vijaykumar, Masako Osumi, Naweed I Naqvi, Juan Carlos Ribas, Mohan Balasubramanian
Cytokinesis in many organisms requires a plasma membrane anchored actomyosin ring, whose contraction facilitates cell division. In yeast and fungi, actomyosin ring constriction is also coordinated with division septum assembly. How the actomyosin ring interacts with the plasma membrane and the plasma membrane-localized septum synthesizing machinery remains poorly understood. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, an attractive model organism to study cytokinesis, the β-1,3-glucan synthase Cps1p / Bgs1p, an integral membrane protein, localizes to the plasma membrane overlying the actomyosin ring and is required for primary septum synthesis...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
Y-K Pang, M Ip, J H S You
Early initiation of antifungal treatment for invasive candidiasis is associated with change in mortality. Beta-D-glucan (BDG) is a fungal cell wall component and a serum diagnostic biomarker of fungal infection. Clinical findings suggested an association between reduced invasive candidiasis incidence in intensive care units (ICUs) and BDG-guided preemptive antifungal therapy. We evaluated the potential cost-effectiveness of active BDG surveillance with preemptive antifungal therapy in patients admitted to adult ICUs from the perspective of Hong Kong healthcare providers...
September 29, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
M Esrefoglu, O E Tok, M S Aydin, M Iraz, O F Ozer, S Selek, M Iraz
BACKGROUND: Ischemia-reperfusion injury is one of the leading causes of acute renal failure which is a common clinical event leading to development of chronic kidney disease and a high mortality; especially in elderly people. β-glucans are glucose polymer groups with free-radical scavenger, macrophage activator, and immune defense inducer functions. We designed this study to determine the possible protective effects of β-glucan against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury comparatively in young and aged rats...
2016: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
Yachun Su, Zhuqing Wang, Feng Liu, Zhu Li, Qiong Peng, Jinlong Guo, Liping Xu, Youxiong Que
Beta-1,3-glucanases (EC, commonly known as pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins, play an important role not only in plant defense against fungal pathogens but also in plant physiological and developmental processes. However, only a limited number of sugarcane beta-1,3-glucanase genes have been isolated. In the present study, we identified and characterized a new beta-1,3-glucanase gene ScGluD2 (GenBank Acc No. KF664181) from sugarcane. An X8 domain was present at the C terminal region of ScGluD2, suggesting beta-1,3-glucan-binding function...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Bruna Medeia Campos, Marcelo Vizona Liberato, Thabata Maria Alvarez, Leticia Maria Zanphorlin, Gabriela Cristina Ematsu, Hernane Barud, Igor Polikarpov, Roberto Ruller, Harry J Gilbert, Ana Carolina de Mattos Zeri, Fabio Marcio Squina
Carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) are appended to glycoside hydrolases and can contribute to the degradation of complex recalcitrant substrates such as the plant cell wall. For application in bioethanol production, novel enzymes with high catalytic activity against recalcitrant lignocellulosic material are being explored and developed. In this work, we report the functional and structural study of CBM_E1, discovered through a metagenomics approach, which is the founding member of a novel CBM family, CBMxx...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
J T Ramos, L Francisco, Z Daoud
Invasive fungal infections (IFI) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised adults and children. The purpose of this review was to update the epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic options in children, and to compare them with the adult population. Although there are important differences, the epidemiology, clinical features and risk factors for IFI have many similarities. Patient at risk include neutropenic hematology children, in whom Candida spp. y Aspergillus spp. predominate; primary immunodeficiencies, particularly chronic granulomatous disease with high susceptibility for Aspergillus spp...
September 2016: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
Kim Vigor, John Emerson, Robert Scott, Julia Cheek, Claire Barton, Heather J Bax, Debra H Josephs, Sophia N Karagiannis, James F Spicer, Heike Lentfer
The presence of impurities or contaminants in biological products such as monoclonal antibodies (mAb) could affect efficacy or cause adverse reactions in patients. ICH guidelines (Q6A and Q6B) are in place to regulate the level of impurities within clinical drug products. An impurity less often reported and, therefore, lacking regulatory guideline is beta-glucan. Beta-glucans are polysaccharides of d-glucose monomers linked by (1-3) beta-glycosidic bonds, and are produced by prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, including plants...
September 7, 2016: Biotechnology Progress
Miriam Sari, Alexander Prange, Jan I Lelley, Reinhard Hambitzer
Mushrooms have unique sensory properties and nutritional values as well as health benefits due to their bioactive compounds, especially beta-glucans. Well-known edible and medicinal mushroom species as well as uncommon or unknown species representing interesting sources of bioactive beta-glucans have been widely studied. Commercially cultivated and wild growing mushrooms were analysed for their beta-glucan contents. Enzymatic determinations of all glucans, alpha-glucans and beta-glucans in 39 mushrooms species were performed, leading to very remarkable results...
February 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Mark K Farrugia, Evan P Fogha, Abdul R Miah, Joel Yednock, H Carl Palmer, John Guilfoose
A 44-year-old female presented with a 3-month history of headache, dizziness, nausea, and vomiting. Her past medical history was significant for long-standing intravenous drug abuse. Shortly after admission, the patient became hypertensive and febrile, with fever as high as 38.8°C. The lumbar puncture profile supported an infectious process; however multiple cultures of blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) did not initially show growth of organisms. Finally after 9 days of incubation, a CSF culture showed evidence of a few colonies of Candida albicans...
August 30, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Thomas Lehrnbecher, Paula D Robinson, Brian T Fisher, Elio Castagnola, Andreas H Groll, William J Steinbach, Theoklis E Zaoutis, Zelalem F Negeri, Joseph Beyene, Bob Phillips, Lillian Sung
We systematically reviewed and analyzed the available data for galactomannan (GM), β-D-glucan (BG), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays to detect invasive fungal disease (IFD) in patients with pediatric cancer or undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation when used as screening tools during immunosuppression or as diagnostic tests in patients presenting with symptoms such as fever during neutropenia (FN). Of 1532 studies screened, 25 studies reported on GM (n = 19), BG (n = 3), and PCR (n = 11)...
August 27, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Mathew Paul Stephany, Stella Chung, Marc Zachary Handler, Nancy Stefanie Handler, Glenn A Handler, Robert A Schwartz
Shiitake mushroom dermatitis is a cutaneous reaction caused by the consumption of raw or undercooked shiitake mushrooms. Symptoms include linear erythematous eruptions with papules, papulovesicles or plaques, and severe pruritus. It is likely caused by lentinan, a heat-inactivated beta-glucan polysaccharide. Cases were initially reported in Japan but have now been documented in other Asian countries, North America, South America, and Europe, as this mushroom is now cultivated and consumed worldwide. Shiitake mushroom dermatitis may result from mushroom ingestion or from handling, which can result in an allergic contact dermatitis...
October 2016: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
Anna Goncerzewicz, Anna Misiewicz, Lubomiła Owczarek, Urszula Jasińska, Sylwia Skąpska
The number of people who cannot consume dairy products due to intolerance or allergies to food components is increasing. Consumers are increasingly searching for alternative, nondairy beverages which have an advantageous effect on the body and which stimulate gut microflora. Previous studies have shown that Streptococcus thermophilus TKM3 KKP 2030p can be an efficient starter culture for the fermentation of plant material and can also ensure an acceptable sensory profile and a high number of lactic acid bacteria during 4 week cold storage...
December 2016: Current Microbiology
Yu-Sheng Wu, Shu-Yu Liau, Cheng-Ting Huang, Fan-Hua Nan
This study mainly evaluated the effects of orally administered beta 1,3/1,6-glucan and vitamin C on the nonspecific immune responses of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). In this study, we found that the white shrimp oral administration with 1 g/kg of beta 1,3/1,6-glucan effectively enhanced O2(-) production and phenoloxidase and superoxide dismutase activity. Shrimp were oral administration with 0.2 g/kg of vitamin C presented beneficial nonspecific immune responses and enzyme activity and also observed in the beta 1,3/1,6-glucan treatment groups...
October 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
David A Stevens, Yonglong Zhang, Malcolm A Finkelman, Pappagianis Demosthenes, Karl V Clemons, Martinez Marife
Diagnosing coccidioidal meningitis (CM) can be problematic owing to infrequency and/or delay of positivity of CSF culture or CSF antibody, particularly if primary coccidioidal infection is unrecognized. We tested 37 CSF specimens, 26 from confirmed CM and 11 from patients with suspected microbial meningitis without fungal diagnosis, for (1, 3)-beta glucan (BG). CM CSF specimens BG ranged from 18-3300 pg/ml, controls <3.9-103. Diagnostic performance was determined using 31 pg/ml cutoff (bottom of serum range per directions for commercial kit, though further serial dilutions of the standard indicated linearity to 3...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Gülçin Bölük, Esra Kazak, Fahir Özkalemkaş, Beyza Ener, Halis Akalin, Harun Ağca, Yıldız Okuturlar, Kürşad Keskin, Başak Burgazlioğlu, Rıdvan Ali
BACKGROUND/AIM: Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a fatal infection that is difficult to diagnose in immunocompromised patients. In this study, Aspergillus-specific DNA was searched using real-time PCR (RT-PCR) in serum samples. Galactomannan (GM) and/or beta-D-glucan (BDG) tests were previously performed on these samples for 70 neutropenic patients with hematological malignancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The patients were categorized according to the criteria of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG)...
2016: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
Claire Barton, Kim Vigor, Robert Scott, Paul Jones, Heike Lentfer, Heather J Bax, Debra H Josephs, Sophia N Karagiannis, James F Spicer
Beta-glucans are large polysaccharides produced by a range of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. They have potential immunostimulatory properties and have been used with therapeutic intent as anti-microbial and anti-tumour agents. A range of other potentially beneficial effects have been described, and oral forms of beta-glucans are widely available over-the-counter and online. Parenteral formulations are popular in parts of Asia and are the subject of ongoing trials, worldwide. Beta-glucans are also potential contaminants of pharmaceutical products, and high levels have been described in some blood products...
July 29, 2016: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
Danna Liang, Minyang Chen, Xiaohua Qi, Qiang Xu, Fucai Zhou, Xuehao Chen
Cucumber, a very important vegetable crop worldwide, is easily damaged by pests. Aphid is one of the most serious cucumber pests and frequently cause severe damage to commercially produced crops. Understanding the genetic mechanisms underlying pest resistance is important for aphid-resistant cucumber varieties breeding. In this study, two parental cucumber lines, JY30 (aphid susceptible) and EP6392 (aphid resistant), and pools of resistant and susceptible (n = 50 each) plants from 1000 F2 individuals derived from crossing JY30 with EP6392, were used to detect genomic regions associated with aphid resistance in cucumbers...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
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