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Samuel D Clark, Rachel Mikofsky, Jacqueline Lawson, David Sulzer
Multiphoton microscopy has been widely adapted for imaging neurons in vivo. Repeated imaging requires implantation of a cranial window or repeated thinning of the skull. Cranial window surgery is typically performed with a high speed rotary drill, and many investigators find it challenging to prevent the drill from damaging the delicate dura and blood vessels. Extensive training and practice is required to remove the bone without damage to underlying tissue and thus cranial window surgery can be difficult, time consuming, and produce tissue damage...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Takuma Iguchi, Noriyo Niino, Satoshi Tamai, Ken Sakurai, Kazuhiko Mori
RT-qPCR is one of the most common methods to assess individual target miRNAs. MiRNAs levels are generally measured relative to a reference sample. This approach is appropriate for examining physiological changes in target gene expression levels. However, absolute quantification using better statistical analysis is preferable for a comprehensive assessment of gene expression levels. Absolute quantification is still not in common use. This report describes a protocol for measuring the absolute levels of plasma miRNA, using RT-qPCR with or without pre-amplification...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Patrick J Atkinson, Yaodong Dong, Shuping Gu, Wenwen Liu, Elvis Huarcaya Najarro, Tomokatsu Udagawa, Alan G Cheng
During development, Sox2 is indispensable for cell division and differentiation, yet its roles in regenerating tissues are less clear. Here, we used combinations of transgenic mouse models to reveal that Sox2 haploinsufficiency (Sox2haplo) increases rather than impairs cochlear regeneration in vivo. Sox2haplo cochleae had delayed terminal mitosis and ectopic sensory cells, yet normal auditory function. Sox2haplo amplified and expanded domains of damage-induced Atoh1+ transitional cell formation in neonatal cochlea...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Mireille Laforge, Ricardo Silvestre, Vasco Rodrigues, Julie Garibal, Laure Campillo-Gimenez, Shahul Mouhamad, Valérie Monceaux, Marie-Christine Cumont, Henintsoa Rabezanahary, Alain Pruvost, Anabela Cordeiro-da-Silva, Bruno Hurtrel, Guido Silvestri, Anna Senik, Jérôme Estaquier
Apoptosis has been proposed as a key mechanism responsible for CD4+ T cell depletion and immune dysfunction during HIV infection. We demonstrated that Q-VD-OPH, a caspase inhibitor, inhibits spontaneous and activation-induced death of T cells from SIV-infected rhesus macaques (RMs). When administered during the acute phase of infection, Q-VD-OPH was associated with (a) reduced levels of T cell death, (b) preservation of CD4+/CD8+ T cell ratio in lymphoid organs and in the gut, (c) maintenance of memory CD4+ T cells, and (d) increased specific CD4+ T cell response associated with the expression of cytotoxic molecules...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Igor Gayduchenko, Georgy Fedorov, Maxim Moskotin, Denis Yagodkin, Sergey Seliverstov, Gregory N Gol'tsman, Alexander Kuntsevich, Maxim Rybin, Elena D Obraztsova, Vladimir Leiman, Michael S Shur, Taiichi Otsuji, Victor Ryzhii
We report on the sub-THz (129 - 450 GHz) photoresponse of devices based on single layer graphene and graphene nanoribbons with asymmetric source and drain (vanadium and gold) contacts. Vanadium forms a barrier at the graphene interface while gold forms an Ohmic contact. We find that at low temperatures (77K) the detector responsivity rises with the increasing frequency of the incident sub-THz radiation. We interpret this result as a manifestation of a plasmonic effect in the devices with the relatively long plasmonic wavelengths...
March 19, 2018: Nanotechnology
Nahide Ekici Günay, Sabahattin Muhtaroğlu, Abdulkadir Bedirli
BACKGROUND: Free radical damage is known to occur during liver regeneration. The Ginkgo biloba extract EGb761 has antioxidant properties due to its ability to scavenge free radicals. FK506 has been widely used as an immunosuppressant that stimulates hepatocyte proliferation following partial hepatectomy. AIMS: To explore whether EGb761 enhances liver regeneration after hepatectomy in rats, we investigated the effects of EGb761 alone and in combination with FK506 on the liver regenerative process...
March 15, 2018: Balkan Medical Journal
Céline Vernet, Claire Philippat, Antonia M Calafat, Xiaoyun Ye, Sarah Lyon-Caen, Valérie Siroux, Enrique F Schisterman, Rémy Slama
BACKGROUND: Toxicology studies have shown adverse effects of developmental exposure to industrial phenols. Evaluation in humans is challenged by potentially marked within-subject variability of phenol biomarkers in pregnant women, which is poorly characterized. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to characterize within-day, between-day, and between-week variability of phenol urinary biomarker concentrations during pregnancy. METHODS: In eight French pregnant women, we collected all urine voids over a 1-wk period (average, 60 samples per week per woman) at three occasions (15±2, 24±2, and 32±1 gestational weeks) in 2012-2013...
March 16, 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
Amir Abukaresh, Rami Al-Abadlah, Bettina Böttcher, Khamis El-Essi
BACKGROUND: In the 2014 Palestinian annual health report, cerebrovascular accident was ranked as the third leading cause of death in the occupied Palestinian territory. Cerebrovascular accident is also one the most common causes of disability worldwide. Good management decreases mortality and morbidity. The aim of this study was to assess the current management of patients with ischaemic stroke at the Al-Shifa Hospital and to compare this with international guidelines. METHODS: For this clinical audit, we used simple random sampling to select files of patients admitted with the diagnosis of ischaemic stroke to the Al-Shifa Hospital...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Mohammad Abu-Zaineh, Maame Esi Woode, Rita Giacaman
BACKGROUND: Interest in the Senian capability framework as an alternative approach to wellbeing measurement has increased in recent decades. The aim of this study was to look at the extent to which an individual's capability to achieve wellbeing in one dimension is associated with his or her attempt to achieve wellbeing in another dimension in a fragile setting affected by conflict. METHODS: Capability is defined as the ability to achieve health, knowledge, and wealth and is measured as latent variables using a structural equation model...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Yousef Jaradat, Morten Birkeland Nielsen, Petter Kristensen, Rita Bast-Pettersen
BACKGROUND: Shift work is associated with sleep disturbances, mental health problems, and job dissatisfaction. Disparities between male and female nurses in the effect of shift work on mental distress and job satisfaction have been scarcely studied. We aimed to examine differences between female and male nurses in the associations between shift work and job satisfaction and mental health. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, male and female nurses were recruited to rate their job satisfaction on the Generic Job Satisfaction Scale and to complete the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30)...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Shahenaz Najjar, Nashat Nafouri, Kris Vanhaecht, Martin Euwema
BACKGROUND: Patient safety is the central component of health-care quality. There is a lack of patient safety data in the occupied Palestinian territory. The aim of this study was to assess patient safety and explore relationships between patient safety culture and the prevalence of adverse events at the department level. METHODS: Between May 25, 2009, and June 1, 2010, the Arabic validated Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture was used to measure the norms and perceptions of health professionals regarding safety...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Elham Kateeb, Elizabeth Momany
BACKGROUND: Beliefs about oral health during pregnancy demographic factors, such as level of education and socioeconomic status, are associated with an increased risk of oral diseases during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to assess the oral health status of pregnant women and the relation to the women's oral health knowledge, beliefs, behaviour, and access to dental care. METHODS: For this cross-sectional study, pregnant women visiting pre-natal care clinics at the Palestinian Ministry of Health centres in the Jerusalem governorate were invited to complete a structured interview with questions about beliefs about oral health care and their oral hygiene practices...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Koren Hanson, Kevin P Haggerty, Charles B Fleming, Martie L Skinner, Mary Casey-Goldstein, W Alex Mason, Ronald W Thompson, Cleve Redmond
OBJECTIVE: As legalization of nonmedical retail marijuana increases, states are implementing public health campaigns designed to prevent increases in youth marijuana use. This study investigated which types of marijuana-related messages were rated most highly by parents and their teens and whether these preferences differed by age and marijuana use. METHOD: Nine marijuana-focused messages were developed as potential radio, newspaper, or television announcements...
March 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Sarah C M Roberts, Diana Greene Foster, Heather Gould, M Antonia Biggs
OBJECTIVE: Research on effects of pregnancy termination on women's alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) use suffers from methodological and conceptual problems. Improving on prior methodologies, this study examines changes in ATOD use over 5 years among women seeking terminations. METHOD: Data are from the Turnaway Study, a longitudinal study of 956 women seeking terminations at 30 U.S. facilities. Participants presented just below a facility's gestational limit and received terminations (Near-Limits) or just beyond the limit and were denied terminations (Turnaways)...
March 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Emily T Noyes, Jacob A Levine, Robert C Schlauch, Cory A Crane, Gerard J Connors, Stephen A Maisto, Ronda L Dearing
OBJECTIVE: With the growing recognition that, for some, significant changes in drinking occur before the first treatment session (i.e., pretreatment change), researchers have called for the careful assessment of when change occurs and its potential impact on mechanism of behavior change (MOBC) research. Using a commonly hypothesized MOBC variable, alcohol abstinence self-efficacy, the primary aim of this study was to examine the effect of pretreatment change on the study of MOBCs. METHOD: Sixty-three individuals diagnosed with alcohol dependence were recruited to participate in a 12-week cognitive-behavioral treatment...
March 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Jon M Houck, Jennifer K Manuel, Theresa B Moyers
OBJECTIVE: There is evidence of a causal chain in motivational interviewing (MI) involving counselor MI-consistent skills, client change language, and outcomes. MI was a key component of the combined behavioral intervention in the Combined Pharmacotherapies and Behavioral Interventions for Alcohol Dependence (COMBINE) Study. Participants in COMBINE were treatment-seeking and medication-seeking, and were required to maintain a period of abstinence before enrollment. Counselors were closely monitored and were temporarily removed from the study for remediation and supervision if their performance fell below threshold...
March 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Sandra N Bulens, Sarah H Yi, Maroya S Walters, Jesse T Jacob, Chris Bower, Jessica Reno, Lucy Wilson, Elisabeth Vaeth, Wendy Bamberg, Sarah J Janelle, Ruth Lynfield, Paula Snippes Vagnone, Kristin Shaw, Marion Kainer, Daniel Muleta, Jacqueline Mounsey, Ghinwa Dumyati, Cathleen Concannon, Zintars Beldavs, P Maureen Cassidy, Erin C Phipps, Nicole Kenslow, Emily B Hancock, Alexander J Kallen
In healthcare settings, Acinetobacter spp. bacteria commonly demonstrate antimicrobial resistance, making them a major treatment challenge. Nearly half of Acinetobacter organisms from clinical cultures in the United States are nonsusceptible to carbapenem antimicrobial drugs. During 2012-2015, we conducted laboratory- and population-based surveillance in selected metropolitan areas in Colorado, Georgia, Maryland, Minnesota, New Mexico, New York, Oregon, and Tennessee to determine the incidence of carbapenem-nonsusceptible A...
April 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Jenny Olofsson, Mojgan Padyab, Gunnar Malmberg
BACKGROUND: Previous research suggests that the social network may play very different roles in relation to health in countries with differing welfare regimes. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to assess the interplay between social network, socioeconomic position, and self-rated health (SRH) in European countries. METHODS: The study used cross-sectional data on individuals aged 50+ from the fourth wave of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) and includes data from 16 countries...
2018: Global Health Action
Tambri Housen, Annick Lenglet, Cono Ariti, Shabnum Ara, Showkat Shah, Maqbool Dar, Arshad Hussain, Altaf Paul, Zahoor Wagay, Kerri Viney, Simon Janes, Giovanni Pintaldi
The present study aimed to culturally adapt, translate, and validate the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25) and the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire-Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Checklist (HTQ-16) prior to use in a cross-sectional mental health population survey in the Kashmir Valley. Cultural adaptation and translation of the HSCL-25 and the HTQ-16 employed multiple forms of transcultural validity check. The HSCL-25 and HTQ-16 were compared against a "gold standard" structured psychiatric interview, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI)...
January 1, 2018: Transcultural Psychiatry
Carlo Alberto Scirè, Cristina Rossi, Leonardo Punzi, Augusto Genderini, Claudio Borghi, Walter Grassi
Despite being regarded as an easily-treatable disease, gout diagnosis and management can be challenging. We discuss here current issues in gout management and propose some potential solutions. Gout diagnosis should be reached as early as possible and often requires specific tests, such as synovial fluid analysis or imaging techniques that are not available in most centers, leaving health care professionals to rely only on clinical presentations and their experience. In addition, gout management requires the evaluation of multiple aspects, such as monitoring of serum uric acid (sUA) level (which should be reduced to <6 mg/dL) to ensure adherence and efficacy of treatment, evaluation of patient's risk profile and comorbidities, and continuous assessments to manage clinical manifestations...
March 19, 2018: Current Medical Research and Opinion
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