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natural history of hepatitis b

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772771/a-novel-hepadnavirus-identified-in-an-immunocompromised-domestic-cat-in-australia
#1
Mahdis Aghazadeh, Mang Shi, Vanessa R Barrs, Alicia J McLuckie, Scott A Lindsay, Barbara Jameson, Bronte Hampson, Edward C Holmes, Julia A Beatty
High-throughput transcriptome sequencing allows for the unbiased detection of viruses in host tissues. The application of this technique to immunosuppressed animals facilitates the detection of viruses that might otherwise be excluded or contained in immunocompetent individuals. To identify potential viral pathogens infecting domestic cats we performed high-throughput transcriptome sequencing of tissues from cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). A novel member of the Hepadnaviridae , tentatively named domestic cat hepadnavirus, was discovered in a lymphoma sample and its complete 3187 bp genome characterized...
May 17, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753085/effects-of-virologic-response-to-treatment-on-short-and-long-term-outcomes-of-patients-with-chronic-hbv-infection-and-decompensated-cirrhosis
#2
Jeong Won Jang, Jong Young Choi, Young Seok Kim, Jeong-Ju Yoo, Hyun Young Woo, Sung Kyu Choi, Chung Hwan Jun, Chang Hyeong Lee, Joo Hyun Sohn, Won Young Tak, Yu Rim Lee, Kwang-Hyub Han
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Little is known about the effects of antiviral therapy on short- and long-term survival of patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related decompensated cirrhosis. We aimed to determine whether a maintained virologic response (MVR, defined as persistent undetectable HBV DNA during therapy) associates with short-term (6-month) and long-term (6-120 months) survival of patients with decompensated cirrhosis. METHODS: We performed a 10-year observation analysis using data from the Epidemiology and Natural History of Liver Cirrhosis study of patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis in Korea...
May 9, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743797/natural-history-of-cirrhosis-of-liver-after-first-decompensation-a-prospective-study-in-india
#3
Apurva S Shah, Deepak N Amarapurkar
Background and aims: As liver cirrhosis is a dynamic condition, it is possible to improve survival in decompensated cirrhosis. Hence, we planned a prospective study to determine the natural history of cirrhosis after first decompensation. Methods: We enrolled all patients of liver cirrhosis who presented with first episode of decompensation defined by the presence of ascites, either overt or detected by Ultrasonography (UD), Gastroesophageal Variceal Bleeding (GEVB), and Hepatic Encephalopathy (HE)...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737218/the-current-situation-and-challenges-of-screening-for-and-treating-hepatitis-b-in-sub-saharan-africa
#4
Charles Béguelin, Fatou Fall, Moussa Seydi, Gilles Wandeler
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the most important cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Although the tools to curb the epidemic are known, only a minority of HBV-infected persons are currently diagnosed and treated. Areas covered: We discuss HBV epidemiological trends in SSA, describe important determinants of its natural history, and summarize current knowledge on the continuum of HBV care. Using the results of a systematic review of the literature, we describe the proportion of patients with liver fibrosis at presentation for care...
May 8, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675604/long-term-natural-history-of-liver-disease-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-an-analysis-using-the-markov-chain-model
#5
Toshifumi Tada, Takashi Kumada, Hidenori Toyoda, Masayuki Ohisa, Tomoyuki Akita, Junko Tanaka
BACKGROUND: The relationship between the hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion and the long-term natural history of liver disease has not been sufficiently investigated. METHODS: A total of 408 [4352 person-year (PY) units] patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) without antiviral therapy were enrolled. The study patients were divided into three groups, as follows: Group A (2666 PY units), seroconverted of HBeAg at age < 40; Group B (413 PY units), seroconverted of HBeAg at age ≥ 40; Group C (1273 PY units), persistently HBeAg positive...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668627/estimating-the-impact-of-test-and-treat-strategies-on-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-china-by-using-an-age-structured-mathematical-model
#6
Jian Zu, Miaolei Li, Guihua Zhuang, Peifeng Liang, Fuqiang Cui, Fuzhen Wang, Hui Zheng, Xiaofeng Liang
The potential impact of increasing test-and-treat coverage on hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains unclear in China. The objective of this study was to develop a dynamic compartmental model at a population level to estimate the long-term effect of this strategy.Based on the natural history of HBV infection and 3 serosurvey data of hepatitis B in China, we proposed an age- and time-dependent discrete model to predict the number of new HBV infection, the number of chronic HBV infection, and the number of HBV-related deaths for the time from 2018 to 2050 under 5 different test-and-treat coverage and compared them with current intervention policy...
April 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648506/systemic-equid-alphaherpesvirus-9-in-a-grant-s-zebra
#7
Robert B Moeller, Beate Crossley, Arlena Pipkin, Yanqiu Li, Udeni B R Balasuriya
A 2-y-old female Grant's zebra ( Equus quagga [ burchellii] boehmi) was presented with a clinical history of depression, anorexia, and weakness of 1-wk duration. Postmortem examination identified ulcers on the tongue and palate; a large abscess adjacent to the larynx; left lung consolidation; mild swelling, darkening, and congestion of the liver with accentuation of the lobular pattern; and edema and congestion of the distal small and large intestines. Histologic examination identified necrotizing bronchopneumonia, necrotizing hepatitis, nephritis, and enterocolitis...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624802/serum-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-correlates-with-fibrosis-and-necroinflammation-a-multicentre-perspective-in-china
#8
Zhang Peng, Du Hong-Bo, Tong Guang-Dong, Li Xiao-Ke, Sun Xue-Hua, Chi Xiao-Ling, Xing Yu-Feng, Zhou Zhen-Hua, Li Qin, Chen Bin, Wang Hui, Wang Li, Jin Hua, Mao De-Wen, Wang Xian-Bo, Wu Qi-Kai, Li Fen-Ping, Hu Xiao-Yu, Lu Bing-Jiu, Yang Zhi-Yun, Zhang Ming-Xiang, Shi Wei-Bing, He Qing, Li Yong, Jiang Kai-Ping, Xue Jing-Dong, Li Xiao-Dong, Jiang Jun-Min, Lu Wei, Tian Guang-Jun, Hu Zhen-Bin, Guo Jian-Chun, Li Cheng-Zhong, Deng Xin, Luo Xin-la, Li Feng-Yi, Zhang Xin-Wei, Zheng Ying-Jun, Zhao Gang, Wang Li-Chun, Wu Jian-Hua, Guo Hui, Mi Yu-Qiang, Gong Zuo-Jiong, Wang Cheng-Bao, Jiang Feng, Guo Peng, Yang Xian-Zhao, Shi Wei-Qun, Yang Hong-Zhi, Zhou Yong, Sun Ning-Ning, Jiao Yun-Tao, Gao Yue-Qiu, Zhou Da-Qiao, Ye Yong-An
The kinetics of serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) during the natural history of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has been studied, but the factors affecting them remain unclear. AIMS: We aimed to investigate the factors affecting HBsAg titers, using data from multi-center, large-sized clinical trials in China. The baseline data of 1,795 patients in three multi-center trials were studied, and the patients were classified into three groups: hepatitis B early antigen (HBeAg)-positive chronic HBV infection (n=588), HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B (n=596), and HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B (n=611)...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607054/non-alcoholic-steatofibrosis-nasf-can-independently-predict-mortality-in-patients-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld
#9
Pegah Golabi, Maria Stepanova, Huong T Pham, Rebecca Cable, Nila Rafiq, Haley Bush, Trevor Gogoll, Zobair M Younossi
Background: Hepatic fibrosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) independently predicts mortality. Given liver biopsy's invasive nature, non-invasive method to assess hepatic steatosis and fibrosis provides NAFLD risk stratification algorithm in clinical practice. NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS) is simple and non-invasive predictive model recommended by American Association for the Study of Liver Disease (AASLD) Guideline to identify patients with NAFLD with fibrosis risk...
2018: BMJ Open Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600202/late-and-vague-presentation-of-septic-arthritis-of-hip-in-a-ivdrug-abuser
#10
Anantha Krishnan Raghupathi, Avinash Joshi
Introduction: Septic arthritis of the hip is a rare entity in acute presentation of hip pain in adults. Even though hip is the second most commonly affected joint, adult patients with septic arthritis not related to a surgical procedure represent <0.00001% of total acute admissions. Case Report: We present a 32-year-old female intravenous drug abuser, positive for Hepatitis B and C who had started to inject her femoral veins 2 years ago. She presented with a 10 weeks history of radiating pain in the leg which was full, constant and diffuse in nature with hip stiffness...
November 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551710/quantification-of-hbv-core-antibodies-may-help-predict-hbv-reactivation-in-patients-with-lymphoma-and-resolved-hbv-infection
#11
Hung-Chih Yang, Hsiao-Hui Tsou, Sung-Nan Pei, Cheng-Shyong Chang, Jia-Hong Chen, Ming Yao, Shyh-Jer Lin, Johnson Lin, Quan Yuan, Ningshao Xia, Tsang-Wu Liu, Pei-Jer Chen, Ann-Lii Cheng, Chiun Hsu
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Absence or low anti-HBV surface antibody (anti-HBs) is associated with an increased risk of HBV reactivation in patients with lymphoma and resolved HBV infection receiving rituximab-containing chemotherapy. Quantification of anti-HBV core antibody (anti-HBc) is a new marker associated with the natural history and treatment response of chronic HBV infection. This study investigated whether baseline anti-HBc and anti-HBs levels may better predict HBV reactivation...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500037/hepatitis-b-virus
#12
Chiaho Shih, Ching-Chun Yang, Gansukh Choijilsuren, Chih-Hsu Chang, An-Ting Liou
This infographic about hepatitis B virus explores its replication cycle, natural history of infection and pathogenesis, and how this can be controlled and treated. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a common worldwide blood-borne pathogen. Chronic hepatitis B can progress to an inactive carrier state, and then, in some patients, give rise to cirrhosis and cancer of the liver, leading to death. An HBV surface-antigen vaccine is effective, but treatments are currently not curative. HBV replicates via reverse transcription...
April 2018: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478258/treatment-of-hepatitis-c-virus-leads-to-economic-gains-related-to-reduction-in-cases-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-and-decompensated-cirrhosis-in-japan
#13
Z M Younossi, A Tanaka, Y Eguchi, L Henry, R Beckerman, M Mizokami
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a serious complication of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Sustained virologic response (SVR) for HCV is associated with a reduction in cirrhosis, HCC and mortality and their associated costs. Japanese HCV patients are older with higher prevalence of HCC. Here we used a decision-analytic Markov model to estimate the economic benefit of HCV cure by reducing HCC and DCC burden in Japan. A cohort of 10 000 HCV genotype 1b (GT1b) Japanese patients was modelled with a hybrid decision tree and Markov state-transition model capturing natural history of HCV over a lifetime horizon...
February 25, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462566/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-gastric-bypass-surgery-regulate-serum-and-hepatic-levels-of-pyruvate-kinase-isoenzyme-m2
#14
Luca Meoli, Nitin K Gupta, Nima Saeidi, Courtney Panciotti, Sudha B Biddinger, Kathleen E Corey, Nicholas Stylopoulos
Treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) focuses on the underlying metabolic syndrome, and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) remains one of the most effective options. In rodents and human patients, RYGB induces an increase in the gene and protein expression levels of the M2 isoenzyme of Pyruvate Kinase (PKM2) in the jejunum. Since PKM2 can be secreted in the circulation, our hypothesis was that the circulating levels of PKM2 increase after RYGB. Our data, however, revealed an unexpected finding and a potential new role of PKM2 for the natural history of metabolic syndrome and NAFLD...
February 20, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425306/interferon-treatment-duration-in-patients-with-chronic-delta-hepatitis-and-its-effect-on-the-natural-course-of-the-disease
#15
Cihan Yurdaydin, Onur Keskin, Çagdas Kalkan, Fatih Karakaya, Aysun Çaliskan, Gökhan Kabaçam, F Oguz Önder, Senem Karatayli, Ersin Karatayli, Xheni Deda, Hakan Bozkaya, A Mithat Bozdayi, Ramazan Idilman
Background: Interferon is the only treatment option in chronic delta hepatitis (CDH). A CDH database (333 patients, 161 with interferon treatment history) was analyzed for effects of treatment duration on virologic response and clinical outcomes. Methods: Ninety-nine CDH patients who received at least 6 months of interferon were selected. Maintained virologic response (MVR) was defined as hepatitis D virus RNA negative for 2 years after treatment discontinuation...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353469/management-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients-in-immunetolerant-phase-what-latest-guidelines-recommend
#16
Grace Lai-Hung Wong
The natural history of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is complex and may run through different immune phases that may overlap. In particulars, the immune-tolerant phase is the most interesting and not as well understood as we thought. The concept of true immune tolerance have been under challenged from immunology points of view. The major international guidelines have not yet reached a consensus on the definition of the immune-tolerant phase. While positive hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), high serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA and normal serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels are the three key features of this phase, some guidelines also put age into consideration...
January 22, 2018: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334786/acute-on-chronic-liver-failure-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-an-update
#17
Rui-Hong Zhao, Yu Shi, Hong Zhao, Wei Wu, Ji-Fang Sheng
Acute-on-chronic liver failure is a common pattern of end-stage liver disease in clinical practice and occurs frequently in patients with chronic hepatitis B or HBV-related cirrhosis. New progress in recent years leads to a better understanding of this disease. Areas covered: This review updates the current comprehensive knowledge about HBV-ACLF from epidemiological studies, experimental studies, and clinical studies and provide new insights into the definition, diagnostic criteria, epidemiology, nature history, pathogenesis, treatment and prognostication of HBV-ACLF...
April 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300924/differentially-expressed-intrahepatic-genes-contribute-to-control-of-hepatitis-b-virus-replication-in-the-inactive-carrier-phase
#18
Hongyan Liu, Fahong Li, Xiaoyong Zhang, Jie Yu, Jinyu Wang, Jia Jia, Xueping Yu, Zhongliang Shen, Zhenghong Yuan, Xiaonan Zhang, Zhanqing Zhang, Xinxin Zhang, Lungen Lu, Hai Li, Mengji Lu, Jiming Zhang
Background: The natural history of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection was divided into 4 phases. Patients in the inactive carrier (IC) status and immune tolerant (IT) phase had normal alanine aminotransferase levels but huge different viral loads. The mechanism underlying low viral replication status in IC phase is unknown. Methods: We determined the intrahepatic transcriptomes of 83 chronic hepatitis B patients by microarray analysis of liver biopsies, and screened the effect of differentially regulated genes on HBV replication using specific small interfering RNAs in vitro...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216251/molecular-characterization-of-hepatitis-b-virus-in-bangladesh-reveals-a-highly-recombinant-population
#19
Saif Ullah Munshi, Thanh Thi Thanh Tran, Truc Nhu Thanh Vo, Shahina Tabassum, Nahida Sultana, Trang Hoa Nguyen, Munira Jahan, Chau Ngoc Le, Stephen Baker, Motiur Rahman
The natural history and treatment outcome of hepatitis B viruses (HBV) infection is largely dependent on genotype, subgenotype, and the presence or absence of virulence associated mutations. We have studied the prevalence of genotype and subgenotype as well as virulence and drug resistance associated mutations and prevalence of recombinant among HBV from Bangladesh. A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted among treatment naïve chronic HBV patients attending at Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh for HBV viral load assessment between June and August 2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209112/epidemiology-and-natural-history-of-wilson-s-disease-in-the-chinese-a-territory-based-study-in-hong-kong-between-2000-and-2016
#20
Ka-Shing Cheung, Wai-Kay Seto, James Fung, Lung-Yi Mak, Ching-Lung Lai, Man-Fung Yuen
AIM: To investigate the epidemiology and natural history of Wilson's disease in the Chinese. METHODS: Data were retrieved via electronic search of hospital medical registry of the Hong Kong Hospital Authority, which covers all the public healthcare services. We identified cases of Wilson's disease between 2000 and 2016 by the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 code. We analyzed the incidence rate, prevalence and adverse outcomes of Wilson's disease...
November 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
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