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natural history of hepatitis b

Hung-Chih Yang, Hsiao-Hui Tsou, Sung-Nan Pei, Cheng-Shyong Chang, Jia-Hong Chen, Ming Yao, Shyh-Jer Lin, Johnson Lin, Quan Yuan, Ningshao Xia, Tsang-Wu Liu, Pei-Jer Chen, Ann-Lii Cheng, Chiun Hsu
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Absence or low anti-hepatitis B (HBV) surface antibody (anti-HBs) is associated with increased risk of HBV reactivation in lymphoma patients with resolved HBV infection receiving rituximab-containing chemotherapy. Quantification of anti-HBV core antibody (anti-HBc) is a new marker associated with the natural history and treatment response of chronic HBV infection. This study investigated whether baseline anti-HBc and anti-HBs levels may better predict HBV reactivation...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
Chiaho Shih, Ching-Chun Yang, Gansukh Choijilsuren, Chih-Hsu Chang, An-Ting Liou
This infographic about hepatitis B virus explores its replication cycle, natural history of infection and pathogenesis, and how this can be controlled and treated. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a common worldwide blood-borne pathogen. Chronic hepatitis B can progress to an inactive carrier state, and then, in some patients, give rise to cirrhosis and cancer of the liver, leading to death. An HBV surface-antigen vaccine is effective, but treatments are currently not curative. HBV replicates via reverse transcription...
February 27, 2018: Trends in Microbiology
Zobair M Younossi, Atsushi Tanaka, Yuichiro Eguchi, Linda Henry, Rachel Beckerman, Masashi Mizokami
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a serious complication of hepatitis B and (HBV) C virus (HCV) infection. Sustained virologic response (SVR) for HCV is associated with a reduction in cirrhosis, HCC and mortality and their associated costs. Japanese HCV patients are older with higher prevalence of HCC. Here we used a decision analytic Markov model to estimate the economic benefit of HCV cure by reducing HCC and DCC in Japan. A cohort of 10,000 HCV genotype 1b (GT1b) Japanese patients was modeled with a hybrid decision tree and Markov state-transition model capturing natural history of HCV over a lifetime horizon...
February 25, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Luca Meoli, Nitin K Gupta, Nima Saeidi, Courtney Panciotti, Sudha B Biddinger, Kathleen E Corey, Nicholas Stylopoulos
Treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) focuses on the underlying metabolic syndrome, and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) remains one of the most effective options. In rodents and human patients, RYGB induces an increase in the gene and protein expression levels of the M2 isoenzyme of Pyruvate Kinase (PKM2) in the jejunum. Since PKM2 can be secreted in the circulation, our hypothesis was that the circulating levels of PKM2 increase after RYGB. Our data, however, revealed an unexpected finding and a potential new role of PKM2 for the natural history of metabolic syndrome and NAFLD...
February 20, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Cihan Yurdaydin, Onur Keskin, Çagdas Kalkan, Fatih Karakaya, Aysun Çaliskan, Gökhan Kabaçam, F Oguz Önder, Senem Karatayli, Ersin Karatayli, Xheni Deda, Hakan Bozkaya, A Mithat Bozdayi, Ramazan Idilman
Background: Interferon is the only treatment option in chronic delta hepatitis (CDH). A CDH database (333 patients, 161 with interferon treatment history) was analyzed for effects of treatment duration on virologic response and clinical outcomes. Methods: Ninety-nine CDH patients who received at least 6 months of interferon were selected. Maintained virologic response (MVR) was defined as hepatitis D virus RNA negative for 2 years after treatment discontinuation...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Grace Lai-Hung Wong
The natural history of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is complex and may run through different immune phases that may overlap. In particulars, the immune-tolerant phase is the most interesting and not as well understood as we thought. The concept of true immune tolerance have been under challenged from immunology points of view. The major international guidelines have not yet reached a consensus on the definition of the immune-tolerant phase. While positive hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), high serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA and normal serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels are the three key features of this phase, some guidelines also put age into consideration...
January 22, 2018: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
Rui-Hong Zhao, Yu Shi, Hong Zhao, Wei Wu, Ji-Fang Sheng
Acute-on-chronic liver failure is a common pattern of end-stage liver disease in clinical practice and occurs frequently in patients with chronic hepatitis B or HBV-related cirrhosis. New progress in recent years leads to a better understanding of this disease. Areas covered: This review updates the current comprehensive knowledge about HBV-ACLF from epidemiological studies, experimental studies, and clinical studies and provide new insights into the definition, diagnostic criteria, epidemiology, nature history, pathogenesis, treatment and prognostication of HBV-ACLF...
January 16, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Hongyan Liu, Fahong Li, Xiaoyong Zhang, Jie Yu, Jinyu Wang, Jia Jia, Xueping Yu, Zhongliang Shen, Zhenghong Yuan, Xiaonan Zhang, Zhanqing Zhang, Xinxin Zhang, Lungen Lu, Hai Li, Mengji Lu, Jiming Zhang
Background: The natural history of chronic HBV infection was divided into four phases. Patients in the inactive carrier status (IC) and immune tolerant (IT) phase had normal ALT levels but huge different viral loads. The mechanism underlying low viral replication status in IC phase is unknown. Methods: We determined the intrahepatic transcriptomes of 83 chronic hepatitis B patients by microarray analysis of liver biopsies, and screened the effect of differentially regulated genes on HBV replication using specific siRNAs in vitro...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Saif Ullah Munshi, Thanh Thi Thanh Tran, Truc Nhu Thanh Vo, Shahina Tabassum, Nahida Sultana, Trang Hoa Nguyen, Munira Jahan, Chau Ngoc Le, Stephen Baker, Motiur Rahman
The natural history and treatment outcome of hepatitis B viruses (HBV) infection is largely dependent on genotype, subgenotype, and the presence or absence of virulence associated mutations. We have studied the prevalence of genotype and subgenotype as well as virulence and drug resistance associated mutations and prevalence of recombinant among HBV from Bangladesh. A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted among treatment naïve chronic HBV patients attending at Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh for HBV viral load assessment between June and August 2015...
2017: PloS One
Ka-Shing Cheung, Wai-Kay Seto, James Fung, Lung-Yi Mak, Ching-Lung Lai, Man-Fung Yuen
AIM: To investigate the epidemiology and natural history of Wilson's disease in the Chinese. METHODS: Data were retrieved via electronic search of hospital medical registry of the Hong Kong Hospital Authority, which covers all the public healthcare services. We identified cases of Wilson's disease between 2000 and 2016 by the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 code. We analyzed the incidence rate, prevalence and adverse outcomes of Wilson's disease...
November 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Zhan-Qing Zhang, Xiao-Nan Zhang, Wei Lu, Yan-Bing Wang, Qi-Cheng Weng, Yan-Ling Feng
BACKGROUND: The current clinical practice on chronic hepatitis B (CHB) requires better on-treatment monitoring of viral persistence. Quantified assays for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and core-related antigen (HBcrAg) hold promise for further optimization of therapy. Here, we aimed to characterize HBcrAg during the natural course of CHB. METHODS: Four-hundred and forty four treatment naïve CHB patients, who all underwent liver histology examination, were enrolled in this cross-sectional study...
December 4, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
Hans Van Remoortel, Vere Borra, Emmy De Buck, Veerle Compernolle, Philippe Vandekerckhove
BACKGROUND: The purpose of a donor medical questionnaire is to identify the blood donor's history relative to the current known blood-safety risks. A temporary deferral from blood donation after an endoscopic examination is enforced because of the reusable nature of the endoscope and close contact with the inner body. The objective of this systematic review was to find the best available evidence on the association between an endoscopic examination and the risk of transfusion-transmissible infections...
February 2018: Transfusion
Xiaoyan Li, Liang Zhou, Lin Gu, Yurong Gu, Lubiao Chen, Yifan Lian, Yuehua Huang
BACKGROUND: There is limited information on innate immunity, especially natural killer (NK) cell function, in different chronic hepatitis B (CHB) stages. Therefore, we examined whether the clinical staging strategy accurately reflects veritable NK cell immunity. METHODS: A total of 237 eligible CHB patients and 22 healthy controls were enrolled in our study. Demographic and clinical data were collected, and the CHB phases (immune active-IA, immune tolerant phase-IT, inactive CHB-IC, and grey zone-GZ) were classified according to the latest American Association for the Study of Liver Disease guidelines...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
L-Y Mak, D K-H Wong, K-S Cheung, W-K Seto, C-L Lai, M-F Yuen
BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) cannot be completely eradicated due to the presence of covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) in the nuclei of infected hepatocytes. While quantification of intrahepatic cccDNA requires liver biopsies, serological markers can be non-invasive alternatives to reflect intrahepatic viral replicative activity. Recently, hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) has been advocated as a novel serum marker for disease monitoring and prognostication of CHB...
January 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
An-Jiang Wang, A-Ping Peng, Bi-Min Li, Na Gan, Li Pei, Xue-Lian Zheng, Jun-Bo Hong, Hai-Ying Xiao, Jia-Wei Zhong, Xuan Zhu
AIM: To explore the natural history of covert hepatic encephalopathy (CHE) in absence of medication intervention. METHODS: Consecutive outpatient cirrhotic patients in a Chinese tertiary care hospital were enrolled and evaluated for CHE diagnosis. They were followed up for a mean of 11.2 ± 1.3 mo. Time to the first cirrhosis-related complications requiring hospitalization, including overt HE (OHE), resolution of CHE and death/transplantation, were compared between CHE and no-CHE patients...
September 14, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Kefeng Wang, Hang Yang, Wenjun He, Yi Xia, Zhongjun Xia, Su Li, Huiqiang Huang, Zhiming Li, Panpan Liu, Wenqi Jiang
Extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTL) is a rare subtype of lymphoma that is often associated with poor clinical prognosis. Several studies have shown that hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection may be associated with increased risk of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma; however, because of the rarity of ENKTL, little is known about its association with HBV. Our study aimed to assess whether HBV infection was associated with increased odds of ENKTL. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study including 417 ENKTL cases and 488 age- and sex-matched subjects with nonmalignant diseases unrelated to HBV infection...
2017: Journal of Cancer
Alexander J Stockdale, Mas Chaponda, Apostolos Beloukas, Richard Odame Phillips, Philippa C Matthews, Athanasios Papadimitropoulos, Simon King, Laura Bonnett, Anna Maria Geretti
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis D virus (also known as hepatitis delta virus) can establish a persistent infection in people with chronic hepatitis B, leading to accelerated progression of liver disease. In sub-Saharan Africa, where HBsAg prevalence is higher than 8%, hepatitis D virus might represent an important additive cause of chronic liver disease. We aimed to establish the prevalence of hepatitis D virus among HBsAg-positive populations in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: We systematically reviewed studies of hepatitis D virus prevalence among HBsAg-positive populations in sub-Saharan Africa...
October 2017: Lancet Global Health
Stanley M Lemon, Jördis J Ott, Pierre Van Damme, Daniel Shouval
Although epidemic jaundice was well known to physicians of antiquity, it is only in recent years that medical science has begun to unravel the origins of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and the unique pathobiology underlying acute hepatitis A in humans. Improvements in sanitation and the successful development of highly efficacious vaccines have markedly reduced the worldwide prevalence and incidence of this enterically-transmitted infection over the past quarter century, yet the virus persists in vulnerable populations and remains a common cause of food-borne disease outbreaks in economically-advantaged societies...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
Claudia Colomba, Antonio Cascio, Calogero Caruso, Marcello Trizzino, Claudia Gioè, Giuliana Guadagnino, Antonino Tuttolomondo, Antonio Pinto, Annalisa Saracino, Gioacchino Angarano, Danilo Di Bona
Immunological mechanisms involved in the genesis of the immune response against viral infections take into account the activation of both innate adaptative response. Innate immune defenses trigger a rapid local response, which is often sufficient to control viral infection, and promotes the subsequent activation of specific immune defenses. Natural killer (NK) cells that constitute a subpopulation of lymphocyte-related cells are a key factor of innate immune response and play a role in defense against viral infections by killing infected cells or by producing cytokines and interacting with adaptative immune system's cells...
July 2017: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
Yu Gou, Yanhua Zhao, Chenli Rao, Shu Feng, Tingting Wang, Dongdong Li, Chuanmin Tao
BACKGROUND: The natural history of HBV infection includes immune tolerance (IT), immune clearance (IC), HBeAg-negative inactive/quiescent carrier (ENQ), and HBeAg-negative hepatitis (ENH) phases. As the current biomarkers for discriminating the four phases still have some weaknesses, additional serological indicators are needed. Hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) encoded with the precore/core gene contains denatured HBeAg, HBV core antigen (HBcAg), and a 22-KDa precore protein (p22cr) and has been demonstrated to have a close association with the natural history of hepatitis B infection...
July 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
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