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natural history of hepatitis b

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070201/association-of-tnf-%C3%AE-gene-polymorphisms-with-production-of-protein-and-susceptibility-to-chronic-hepatitis-b-infection-in-the-south-east-iranian-population
#1
Zahra Heidari, Bita Moudi, Hamidreza Mahmoudzadeh Sagheb, Mehrnoosh Moudi
BACKGROUND: The host genetic background regulates the natural history of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between TNF-α gene polymorphism in the promoter region and susceptibility to chronic hepatitis B virus infection. METHODS: Four polymorphisms of TNF-α gene including -238 A/G, -308 A/G, -857 C/T, and -863 A/C were analyzed by PCR-RFLP in 100 chronic HBV infected patients (HBV group), 40 spontaneously recovered HBV subjects (SR group), and 100 healthy controls (C group)...
November 2016: Hepatitis Monthly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065745/alteration-of-methyl-cpg-binding-domain-family-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b
#2
Jing Zhao, Yu-Chen Fan, Long-Yan Chen, Shuai Gao, Feng Li, Kai Wang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Epigenetics contributes to the outcome of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. However, the role of methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD) family in the natural history of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) has not been demonstrated. It is aimed to investigate the dynamic expression of MBD family and assess the potential association of MBD family in the progression of CHB. METHODS: Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to determine the mRNA levels of MBD family in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 223 patients with CHB as training cohort, 146 patients with CHB as validation cohort [immune-tolerant (IT), immune clearance (IC), non/low-replicative (LR) and HBeAg negative hepatitis (ENH)], and 14 healthy controls (HCs)...
January 5, 2017: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056849/platelet-counts-modulate-the-quantitative-relationship-between-hepatitis-b-viral-dna-and-surface-antigen-concentrations-a-cross-sectional-study-of-hematological-histological-and-viral-factors
#3
Chao-Wei Hsu, Kung-Hao Liang, Chih-Lang Lin, Tong-Hong Wang, Chau-Ting Yeh
BACKGROUND: The concentrations of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA and surface antigen (HBsAg) are two critical virological variables to be monitored in chronic hepatitis B. HBsAg is derived from the HBV genome. Thus, higher HBV-DNA concentrations should implicate higher HBsAg levels. Nevertheless, the two variables do not manifest a simple linear relationship due to elusive host factor involvements. The aim of this study was to address the discrepancy of HBV DNA and HBsAg levels by a quantitative modeling of HBsAg concentrations...
January 5, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002881/assessing-the-clinical-and-economic-impact-of-increasing-treatment-uptake-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-infection-using-a-markov-model
#4
Mohamed A Chinnaratha, Billingsley Kaambwa, Richard J Woodman, Robert J Fraser, Alan J Wigg
: Treatment uptake in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is low in South Australia and the cost-effectiveness of increasing treatment uptake rates in this population has not been assessed. AIMS & METHODS: Using a cohort Markov model, cost-effectiveness was assessed for 3 different treatment uptake scenarios: 2.9% (current level -scenario 1), 10% (Scenario 2) and 15% (Scenario 3). The initial HBV population included 2550 treatment eligible patients who transitioned between six different health states over a 10- year period...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989815/a-novel-avian-like-hepatitis-e-virus-in-wild-aquatic-bird-little-egret-egretta-garzetta-in-hungary
#5
Gábor Reuter, Ákos Boros, Róbert Mátics, Beatrix Kapusinszky, Eric Delwart, Péter Pankovics
Hepatitis E virus (HEV), family Hepeviridae, has public health concerns because of its zoonotic potential; however, the host species spectrum, animal to animal transmissions, the natural chain of hepevirus infections and the genetic diversity of HEV in wildlife especially in birds are less known. Using random amplification and next generation sequencing technology a genetically divergent avian HEV was serendipitously identified in wild bird in Hungary. HEV RNA was detected with high faecal viral load (1.33×10(8) genomic copies/ml) measured by real-time PCR in faecal sample from a little egret (Egretta garzetta)...
October 29, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27968847/bushenjianpi-formula-combined-with-entecavir-for-hbeag-negative-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients-a-multicentre-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#6
Yue-Qiu Gao, Xin Zhang, Man Li, Zhen-Hua Zhou, Xue-Hua Sun, Xiao-Jun Zhu, Shu-Gen Jin
BACKGROUND: The treatment combination of traditional Chinese medicine with western medicine results in significant decrease of serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA and increase of HBeAg loss in patients with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) without any serious adverse events. We aimed to assess whether the Bushenjianpi Formula combined with entecavir could increase the HBsAg loss rate in patients with HBeAg-negative CHB. METHODS: In this multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we recruited patients with HBeAg-negative CHB from ten third-level grade-A hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine...
October 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935953/factors-predicting-hbsag-seroclearance-and-alanine-transaminase-elevation-in-hbeag-negative-hepatitis-b-virus-infected-patients-with-persistently-normal-liver-function
#7
Tai-Long Chien, Jing-Houng Wang, Kwong-Ming Kee, Chien-Hung Chen, Chao-Hung Hung, Sheng-Nan Lu
BACKGROUND: A certain proportion of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients with persistently normal alanine transaminase (ALT) levels have significant fibrosis. Using liver stiffness measurements (Fibroscan®) and laboratory data, including serum ALT, quantitative HBsAg (qHBsAg), and HBV DNA, we attempted to predict the natural histories of these patients. METHODS: Non-cirrhotic HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B patients with persistently normal ALT were followed up prospectively with the end points of HBsAg seroclearance and ALT elevation above the upper limit of normal...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932014/tackling-the-burden-of-the-hepatitis-c-virus-in-the-uk-characterizing-and-assessing-the-clinical-and-economic-consequences
#8
T Ward, J Gordon, H Bennett, S Webster, D Sugrue, B Jones, M Brenner, P McEwan
OBJECTIVES: The hepatitis C virus (HCV) remains a significant public health issue. This study aimed to quantify the clinical and economic burden of chronic hepatitis C in the UK, stratified by disease severity, age and awareness of infection, with concurrent assessment of the impact of implementing a treatment prioritization approach. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A previously published back projection, natural history and cost-effectiveness HCV model was adapted to a UK setting to estimate the disease burden of chronic hepatitis C and end-stage liver disease (ESLD) between 1980 and 2035...
December 2016: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924080/global-epidemiology-and-burden-of-hcv-infection-and-hcv-related-disease
#9
REVIEW
Aaron P Thrift, Hashem B El-Serag, Fasiha Kanwal
Chronic HCV infection is a global health problem that affects >184 million people worldwide. HCV is associated with several hepatic and extrahepatic disorders, including several malignancies. The burden of HCV-related disorders is influenced by the number of new and existing cases, number of existing cases and the natural history of the infection. The natural history of HCV is affected by several demographic, virological, clinical and lifestyle factors. Major variations exist in the burden of HCV among different populations and geographical regions, as well as over time...
December 7, 2016: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876615/a-novel-avian-like-hepatitis-e-virus-in-wild-aquatic-bird-little-egret-egretta-garzetta-in-hungary
#10
Gábor Reuter, Ákos Boros, Róbert Mátics, Beatrix Kapusinszky, Eric Delwart, Péter Pankovics
Hepatitis E virus (HEV), family Hepeviridae, has public health concerns because of its zoonotic potential; however, the host species spectrum, animal to animal transmissions, the natural chain of hepevirus infections and the genetic diversity of HEV in wildlife especially in birds are less known. Using random amplification and next generation sequencing technology a genetically divergent avian HEV was serendipitously identified in wild bird in Hungary. HEV RNA was detected with high faecal viral load (1.33×10(8)genomiccopies/ml) measured by real-time PCR in faecal sample from a little egret (Egretta garzetta)...
December 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783693/detection-of-hcv-persistent-infections-in-the-dental-pulp-a-novel-approach-for-the-detection-of-past-and-ancient-infections
#11
Layla Gomes Siravenha, Leonardo Quintão Siravenha, Lucimar Di Paula Madeira, Aldemir B Oliveira-Filho, Luiz Fernando Almeida Machado, Rosimar Neris Martins Feitosa, Antonio Carlos Rosário Vallinoto, Marluísa de Oliveira Guimarães Ishak, Ricardo Ishak
: The dental pulp is a sterile highly vascularized tissue and has been commonly used as a biological material to detect the genome of infectious agents that reach the dental tissue. Indeed, the pulp is also used to reveal past and ancient infections in the field of paleomicrobiology. The present study aimed to detect the presence of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) in a small community (approximately 400 inhabitants) in the Amazon region of Brazil (Nossa Senhora do Perpetuo Socorro, Vizeu, Para, Brazil) and standardize a technique for the detection of the virus in the dental pulp...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746617/clinical-significance-of-quantitative-hbsag-titres-and-its-correlation-with-hbv-dna-levels-in-the-natural-history-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#12
Vijay K Karra, Soumya J Chowdhury, Rajesh Ruttala, Sunil K Polipalli, Premashis Kar
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Quantification of serum hepatitis B antigen (HBsAg) is an important test that marks active infection with hepatitis B and helps in the prediction of the clinical outcome and management of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Correlation with HBV DNA quantitative levels may help in developing strategies for antiviral treatment. This study is aimed to evaluate HBsAg titres in various phase of HBV infection in HBsAg positive patients, and its correlation with HBV DNA viral load levels...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740514/%C3%A2-treatment-of-chronic-hbv-infection-in-developing-countries
#13
Rosa Zampino, Caterina Sagnelli, Adriana Boemio, Evangelista Sagnelli, Nicola Coppola
 Due to virological, host and socio-economic factors, the clinical presentation and treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) differs between developing and developed countries and may differ between one low-income country and another. National healthcare prevention and treatment policies, environmental factors, social habits and personal life-styles all influence HBV transmission and the clinical management and therapy of CHB. These factors can have a strong impact on the natural history of the disease and on Access to treatment and may eventually determine substantial changes in disease progression and the development of serious complications and hepatocellular carcinoma...
November 2016: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718758/challenges-in-treating-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-concurrent-viral-hepatitis-infection
#14
Elisabetta Degasperi, Flavio Caprioli, Omar El Sherif, David Back, Massimo Colombo, Alessio Aghemo
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) require long-term administration of immunomodulatory treatments to maintain disease remission. Due to the high worldwide prevalence of hepatitis B (HBV) or C (HCV) virus infections, presence of concurrent hepatitis can be a relevant clinical issue to manage when treating IBD. Areas covered: The paper summarizes epidemiological data about IBD and HBV/HCV infection and reviews current knowledge about the natural history of HBV and HCV in the IBD setting, concentrating on risk of hepatitis reactivation during immunosuppressive treatment...
December 2016: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651992/phylogeography-by-diffusion-on-a-sphere-whole-world-phylogeography
#15
Remco Bouckaert
BACKGROUND: Techniques for reconstructing geographical history along a phylogeny can answer many questions of interest about the geographical origins of species. Bayesian models based on the assumption that taxa move through a diffusion process have found many applications. However, these methods rely on diffusion processes on a plane, and do not take the spherical nature of our planet in account. Performing an analysis that covers the whole world thus does not take in account the distortions caused by projections like the Mercator projection...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646575/membranous-nephropathy-in-the-kidney-allograft
#16
REVIEW
Edward J Filippone, John L Farber
Membranous nephropathy (MN) may occur in a kidney transplant as recurrence of the original disease (rMN) or as a de novo MN (dnMN). rMN often occurs early, within the first year, and often in a mild or subclinical fashion. Recurrence cannot be predicted by clinical features at the time of transplantation. The natural history is increasing proteinuria over time, with less chance for spontaneous remission compared to primary MN (pMN). Antiphospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) antibodies should be evaluated in all patients with pMN at the time of transplantation and serially...
November 2016: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638992/mesenteric-vein-thrombosis-can-be-safely-treated-with-anticoagulation-but-is-associated-with-significant-sequelae-of-portal-hypertension
#17
Thomas S Maldonado, Sheila N Blumberg, Sharvil U Sheth, Gabriel Perreault, Mikel Sadek, Todd Berland, Mark A Adelman, Caron B Rockman
BACKGROUND: Mesenteric venous thrombosis (MVT) is a relatively uncommon but potentially lethal condition associated with bowel ischemia and infarction. The natural history and long-term outcomes are poorly understood and under-reported. METHODS: A single-institution retrospective review of noncirrhotic patients diagnosed with MVT from 1999 to 2015 was performed using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision and radiology codes. Patients were excluded if no radiographic imaging was available for review...
October 2016: Journal of Vascular Surgery. Venous and Lymphatic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638356/requirements-for-global-elimination-of-hepatitis-b-a-modelling-study
#18
Shevanthi Nayagam, Mark Thursz, Elisa Sicuri, Lesong Conteh, Stefan Wiktor, Daniel Low-Beer, Timothy B Hallett
BACKGROUND: Despite the existence of effective prevention and treatment interventions, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection continues to cause nearly 1 million deaths each year. WHO aspires to global control and elimination of HBV infection. We aimed to evaluate the potential impact of public health interventions against HBV, propose targets for reducing incidence and mortality, and identify the key developments required to achieve them. METHODS: We developed a simulation model of the global HBV epidemic, incorporating data on the natural history of HBV, prevalence, mortality, vaccine coverage, treatment dynamics, and demographics...
December 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27625189/screening-and-diagnosis-of-hbv-in-low-income-and-middle-income-countries
#19
Jean-Pierre Allain, Ohene Opare-Sem
HBV testing and diagnosis of HBV-related liver disease in low-income and middle-income countries differs substantially from that in developed countries in terms of access to resources and expensive technologies requiring highly specialized staff. For identification and classification of HBV infection, genomic amplification methods to detect and quantify HBV DNA are often nonexistent or available only in central laboratories of major cities. When samples from peripheral locations do arrive, delays in receiving results generate loss to follow-up...
November 2016: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27605880/management-of-psoriasis-patients-with-hepatitis-b-or-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#20
REVIEW
Claudio Bonifati, Viviana Lora, Dario Graceffa, Lorenzo Nosotti
The systemic therapies available for the management of Psoriasis (PsO) patients who cannot be treated with more conservative options, such as topical agents and/or phototherapy, with the exception of acitretin, can worsen or reactivate a chronic infection. Therefore, before administering immunosuppressive therapies with either conventional disease-modifying drugs (cDMARDs) or biological ones (bDMARDs) it is mandatory to screen patients for some infections, including hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV)...
July 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
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