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natural history of hepatitis b

Gábor Reuter, Ákos Boros, Róbert Mátics, Beatrix Kapusinszky, Eric Delwart, Péter Pankovics
Hepatitis E virus (HEV), family Hepeviridae, has public health concerns because of its zoonotic potential; however, the host species spectrum, animal to animal transmissions, the natural chain of hepevirus infections and the genetic diversity of HEV in wildlife especially in birds are less known. Using random amplification and next generation sequencing technology a genetically divergent avian HEV was serendipitously identified in wild bird in Hungary. HEV RNA was detected with high faecal viral load (1.33×10(8)genomiccopies/ml) measured by real-time PCR in faecal sample from a little egret (Egretta garzetta)...
October 29, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Layla Gomes Siravenha, Leonardo Quintão Siravenha, Lucimar Di Paula Madeira, Aldemir B Oliveira-Filho, Luiz Fernando Almeida Machado, Rosimar Neris Martins Feitosa, Antonio Carlos Rosário Vallinoto, Marluísa de Oliveira Guimarães Ishak, Ricardo Ishak
: The dental pulp is a sterile highly vascularized tissue and has been commonly used as a biological material to detect the genome of infectious agents that reach the dental tissue. Indeed, the pulp is also used to reveal past and ancient infections in the field of paleomicrobiology. The present study aimed to detect the presence of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) in a small community (approximately 400 inhabitants) in the Amazon region of Brazil (Nossa Senhora do Perpetuo Socorro, Vizeu, Para, Brazil) and standardize a technique for the detection of the virus in the dental pulp...
2016: PloS One
Vijay K Karra, Soumya J Chowdhury, Rajesh Ruttala, Sunil K Polipalli, Premashis Kar
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Quantification of serum hepatitis B antigen (HBsAg) is an important test that marks active infection with hepatitis B and helps in the prediction of the clinical outcome and management of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Correlation with HBV DNA quantitative levels may help in developing strategies for antiviral treatment. This study is aimed to evaluate HBsAg titres in various phase of HBV infection in HBsAg positive patients, and its correlation with HBV DNA viral load levels...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
Rosa Zampino, Caterina Sagnelli, Adriana Boemio, Evangelista Sagnelli, Nicola Coppola
 Due to virological, host and socio-economic factors, the clinical presentation and treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) differs between developing and developed countries and may differ between one low-income country and another. National healthcare prevention and treatment policies, environmental factors, social habits and personal life-styles all influence HBV transmission and the clinical management and therapy of CHB. These factors can have a strong impact on the natural history of the disease and on Access to treatment and may eventually determine substantial changes in disease progression and the development of serious complications and hepatocellular carcinoma...
November 2016: Annals of Hepatology
Elisabetta Degasperi, Flavio Caprioli, Omar El Sherif, David Back, Massimo Colombo, Alessio Aghemo
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) require long-term administration of immunomodulatory treatments to maintain disease remission. Due to the high worldwide prevalence of hepatitis B (HBV) or C (HCV) virus infections, presence of concurrent hepatitis can be a relevant clinical issue to manage when treating IBD. Areas covered: The paper summarizes epidemiological data about IBD and HBV/HCV infection and reviews current knowledge about the natural history of HBV and HCV in the IBD setting, concentrating on risk of hepatitis reactivation during immunosuppressive treatment...
December 2016: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Remco Bouckaert
BACKGROUND: Techniques for reconstructing geographical history along a phylogeny can answer many questions of interest about the geographical origins of species. Bayesian models based on the assumption that taxa move through a diffusion process have found many applications. However, these methods rely on diffusion processes on a plane, and do not take the spherical nature of our planet in account. Performing an analysis that covers the whole world thus does not take in account the distortions caused by projections like the Mercator projection...
2016: PeerJ
Edward J Filippone, John L Farber
Membranous nephropathy (MN) may occur in a kidney transplant as recurrence of the original disease (rMN) or as a de novo MN (dnMN). rMN often occurs early, within the first year, and often in a mild or subclinical fashion. Recurrence cannot be predicted by clinical features at the time of transplantation. The natural history is increasing proteinuria over time, with less chance for spontaneous remission compared to primary MN (pMN). Antiphospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) antibodies should be evaluated in all patients with pMN at the time of transplantation and serially...
November 2016: Clinical Transplantation
Thomas S Maldonado, Sheila N Blumberg, Sharvil U Sheth, Gabriel Perreault, Mikel Sadek, Todd Berland, Mark A Adelman, Caron B Rockman
BACKGROUND: Mesenteric venous thrombosis (MVT) is a relatively uncommon but potentially lethal condition associated with bowel ischemia and infarction. The natural history and long-term outcomes are poorly understood and under-reported. METHODS: A single-institution retrospective review of noncirrhotic patients diagnosed with MVT from 1999 to 2015 was performed using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision and radiology codes. Patients were excluded if no radiographic imaging was available for review...
October 2016: Journal of Vascular Surgery. Venous and Lymphatic Disorders
Shevanthi Nayagam, Mark Thursz, Elisa Sicuri, Lesong Conteh, Stefan Wiktor, Daniel Low-Beer, Timothy B Hallett
BACKGROUND: Despite the existence of effective prevention and treatment interventions, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection continues to cause nearly 1 million deaths each year. WHO aspires to global control and elimination of HBV infection. We aimed to evaluate the potential impact of public health interventions against HBV, propose targets for reducing incidence and mortality, and identify the key developments required to achieve them. METHODS: We developed a simulation model of the global HBV epidemic, incorporating data on the natural history of HBV, prevalence, mortality, vaccine coverage, treatment dynamics, and demographics...
September 13, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Jean-Pierre Allain, Ohene Opare-Sem
HBV testing and diagnosis of HBV-related liver disease in low-income and middle-income countries differs substantially from that in developed countries in terms of access to resources and expensive technologies requiring highly specialized staff. For identification and classification of HBV infection, genomic amplification methods to detect and quantify HBV DNA are often nonexistent or available only in central laboratories of major cities. When samples from peripheral locations do arrive, delays in receiving results generate loss to follow-up...
November 2016: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Claudio Bonifati, Viviana Lora, Dario Graceffa, Lorenzo Nosotti
The systemic therapies available for the management of Psoriasis (PsO) patients who cannot be treated with more conservative options, such as topical agents and/or phototherapy, with the exception of acitretin, can worsen or reactivate a chronic infection. Therefore, before administering immunosuppressive therapies with either conventional disease-modifying drugs (cDMARDs) or biological ones (bDMARDs) it is mandatory to screen patients for some infections, including hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV)...
July 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Elise M N Ferre, Stacey R Rose, Sergio D Rosenzweig, Peter D Burbelo, Kimberly R Romito, Julie E Niemela, Lindsey B Rosen, Timothy J Break, Wenjuan Gu, Sally Hunsberger, Sarah K Browne, Amy P Hsu, Shakuntala Rampertaap, Muthulekha Swamydas, Amanda L Collar, Heidi H Kong, Chyi-Chia Richard Lee, David Chascsa, Thomas Simcox, Angela Pham, Anamaria Bondici, Mukil Natarajan, Joseph Monsale, David E Kleiner, Martha Quezado, Ilias Alevizos, Niki M Moutsopoulos, Lynne Yockey, Cathleen Frein, Ariane Soldatos, Katherine R Calvo, Jennifer Adjemian, Morgan N Similuk, David M Lang, Kelly D Stone, Gulbu Uzel, Jeffrey B Kopp, Rachel J Bishop, Steven M Holland, Kenneth N Olivier, Thomas A Fleisher, Theo Heller, Karen K Winer, Michail S Lionakis
Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) is a rare primary immunodeficiency disorder typically caused by homozygous AIRE mutations. It classically presents with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis and autoimmunity that primarily targets endocrine tissues; hypoparathyroidism and adrenal insufficiency are most common. Developing any two of these classic triad manifestations establishes the diagnosis. Although widely recognized in Europe, where nonendocrine autoimmune manifestations are uncommon, APECED is less defined in patients from the Western Hemisphere...
August 18, 2016: JCI Insight
Kyong-Mi Chang, Mengfei Liu
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) evades, subverts, activates and regulates host immune components, thereby impacting its natural history and disease pathogenesis. Recent advances in our understanding of immune interactions in chronic viral infection and tumor therapy are applicable to chronic hepatitis B (CHB). With recent successes of tumor immunotherapy, there is a renewed interest in exploring immunotherapeutics in achieving sustained and functional cure of chronic hepatitis B. In this review, we discuss aspects of host innate and adaptive immune regulatory and pathogenic responses relevant for HBV infection...
August 25, 2016: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Calvin Q Pan, Erhei Dai, Kalyan R Bhamidimarri, Zheng Zeng, Paley Yin
BACKGROUND: Precore or/and basal core promoter (PC/BCP) mutations are frequently detected in hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-negative patients, but little is known about their clinical significance in HBeAg-positive patients. AIM: To characterize and report the clinical features of treatment-naive chronic hepatitis B patients who are HBeAg positive and harbor PC and/or BCP mutations. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Consecutive treatment-naive patients with chronic hepatitis B between 2004 and 2014 were enrolled...
August 22, 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Natalia Khalaf, Jun Ying, Sahil Mittal, Sarah Temple, Fasiha Kanwal, Jessica Davila, Hashem B El-Serag
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Determining the natural history and predictors of survival in patients with untreated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the United States is useful to test existing tumor classifications, identify subgroups of patients likely to benefit from treatment, and estimate lead time related to HCC surveillance. METHODS: We identified a national cohort of 518 veterans diagnosed with HCC from 2004 through 2011, with follow-up ending in 2014, who received no palliative or curative treatment...
August 10, 2016: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Vitina Sozzi, Renae Walsh, Margaret Littlejohn, Danni Colledge, Kathy Jackson, Nadia Warner, Lilly Yuen, Stephen A Locarnini, Peter A Revill
: The hepatitis B virus (HBV) exists as 9 major genotypes (A to I), one minor strain (designated J) and multiple subtypes. Marked differences in HBV natural history, disease progression and treatment response are exhibited by many of these genotypes and subtypes. For example, HBV genotype C is associated with later hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion and high rates of liver cancer compared to other HBV genotypes, whereas genotype A2 is rarely associated with HBeAg-negative disease or liver cancer...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Virology
X H Yang, X F Shi
Serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) quantification can reflect the level of HBV replication and can be used as a surrogate maker for the evaluation of infected cells. Recent studies have shown that HBsAg quantification can help to distinguish the nature history of chronic hepatitis B and predict spontaneous clearance of HBsAg and the risk of progressive liver diseases. The dynamic change in HBsAg helps to predict the therapeutic effects of interferon and nucleoside analogues and sustained virologic response, guide withdrawal, and improve and optimize the therapeutic strategy for chronic hepatitis B in clinical practice...
April 2016: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
Liliana Montella, Giovannella Palmieri, Raffaele Addeo, Salvatore Del Prete
Cancer treatment has been revolutionized by the advent of new molecular targeted and immunotherapeutic agents. Identification of the role of tumor angiogenesis changed the understanding of many tumors. After the unsuccessful results with chemotherapy, sorafenib, by interfering with angiogenic pathways, has become pivotal in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. Sorafenib is the only systemic treatment to show a modest but statistically significant survival benefit. All novel drugs and strategies for treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma must be compared with the results obtained with sorafenib, but no new drug or drug combination has yet achieved better results...
July 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Jeffrey D Stanaway, Abraham D Flaxman, Mohsen Naghavi, Christina Fitzmaurice, Theo Vos, Ibrahim Abubakar, Laith J Abu-Raddad, Reza Assadi, Neeraj Bhala, Benjamin Cowie, Mohammad H Forouzanfour, Justina Groeger, Khayriyyah Mohd Hanafiah, Kathryn H Jacobsen, Spencer L James, Jennifer MacLachlan, Reza Malekzadeh, Natasha K Martin, Ali A Mokdad, Ali H Mokdad, Christopher J L Murray, Dietrich Plass, Saleem Rana, David B Rein, Jan Hendrik Richardus, Juan Sanabria, Mete Saylan, Saeid Shahraz, Samuel So, Vasiliy V Vlassov, Elisabete Weiderpass, Steven T Wiersma, Mustafa Younis, Chuanhua Yu, Maysaa El Sayed Zaki, Graham S Cooke
BACKGROUND: With recent improvements in vaccines and treatments against viral hepatitis, an improved understanding of the burden of viral hepatitis is needed to inform global intervention strategies. We used data from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study to estimate morbidity and mortality for acute viral hepatitis, and for cirrhosis and liver cancer caused by viral hepatitis, by age, sex, and country from 1990 to 2013. METHODS: We estimated mortality using natural history models for acute hepatitis infections and GBD's cause-of-death ensemble model for cirrhosis and liver cancer...
September 10, 2016: Lancet
Bita Moudi, Zahra Heidari, Hamidreza Mahmoudzadeh-Sagheb
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection can result in a number of different clinical conditions, including asymptomatic HBV carriers to chronic hepatitis and primary hepatocellular carcinoma. Variations in cytokine genes have been discussed to affect the natural history of HBV infection. These cytokines may involve in the viral binding to the cells, modulating the host immune response to infection and pathological changes in the liver, and affecting the antiviral therapies. Various studies reveal that SNPs play an important role in pathogenesis of HBV...
October 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
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