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natural history of hepatitis b

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323748/serum-aminotransferase-flares-in-pregnant-and-postpartum-women-with-current-or-prior-treatment-for-chronic-hepatitis-b
#1
Christine Y Chang, Natali Aziz, Mugilan Poongkunran, Asad Javaid, Huy N Trinh, Daryl T Lau, Mindie H Nguyen
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Antiviral therapy is recommended for pregnant women with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA>200,000 IU/mL, but there is less consensus on management of women who discontinue therapy in anticipation of pregnancy or who become pregnant while on therapy. The goal of this study was to describe flares in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) during pregnancy and postpartum in CHB women with current and/or prior treatment. METHODS: This was a multicenter, retrospective study of 67 pregnancies in 56 CHB women treated before and/or during pregnancy...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293093/clinical-features-and-natural-history-of-cryptogenic-cirrhosis-compared-to-hepatitis-c-virus-related-cirrhosis
#2
Luca Rinaldi, Fabio Nascimbeni, Mauro Giordano, Chiara Masetti, Barbara Guerrera, Annalisa Amelia, Maria Chiara Fascione, Stefano Ballestri, Dante Romagnoli, Rosa Zampino, Riccardo Nevola, Enrica Baldelli, Natalina Iuliano, Valerio Rosato, Amedeo Lonardo, Luigi Elio Adinolfi
AIM: To characterize natural history of cryptogenic cirrhosis (CC) and compare its clinical features and outcomes to those of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related cirrhosis. METHODS: A prospective cohort of 102 consecutive patients at their first diagnosis of CC were enrolled in this study. The clinical data and outcomes were compared to an age- and Child-Pugh class-matched cohort of 110 patients with HCV-related cirrhosis. Diagnosis of cirrhosis was based on compatible clinical and laboratory parameters, ultrasound/endoscopic parameters and, whenever possible, on histological grounds and transient elastography...
February 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284515/hepatitis-b-and-pregnancy
#3
Eliana Castillo, Kellie Murphy, Julie van Schalkwyk
OBJECTIVE: To review the epidemiology, natural history, evaluation, and treatment of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection during pregnancy. This will aid obstetric care providers in counseling their patients regarding perinatal risks and management options available to pregnant women with hepatitis B. OUTCOMES: Outcomes evaluated include thresholds for HBV anti-viral treatment for prevention of perinatal transmission and for invasive procedures during pregnancy for women with hepatitis B infection...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251119/fibrosis-assessment-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-hbv-infection
#4
REVIEW
Pathik Parikh, John D Ryan, Emmanuel A Tsochatzis
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major cause of liver morbidity and mortality worldwide. While a proportion of the 250 million individuals chronically infected with HBV will not come to significant harm or require therapy, many others risk developing complications of the end-stage liver disease such as decompensated cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), without intervention. Due to the complex natural history of HBV infection, patients require an expert assessment to interpret biochemistry, viral serology and appropriately stage the disease, and to initiate monitoring and/or therapy where indicated...
February 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219385/language-support-for-linguistic-minority-chronic-hepatitis-b-c-patients-an-exploratory-study-of-availability-and-clinicians-perceptions-of-language-barriers-in-six-european-countries
#5
Abby M Falla, Irene K Veldhuijzen, Amena A Ahmad, Miriam Levi, Jan Hendrik Richardus
BACKGROUND: Language support for linguistic minorities can improve patient safety, clinical outcomes and the quality of health care. Most chronic hepatitis B/C infections in Europe are detected among people born in endemic countries mostly in Africa, Asia and Central/Eastern Europe, groups that may experience language barriers when accessing health care services in their host countries. We investigated availability of interpreters and translated materials for linguistic minority hepatitis B/C patients...
February 20, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184998/natural-history-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-children-in-japan-a-comparison-of-mother-to-child-transmission-with-horizontal-transmission
#6
Tomoko Takano, Hitoshi Tajiri, Satoyo Hosono, Ayano Inui, Jun Murakami, Kosuke Ushijima, Yoko Miyoshi, Yuri Etani, Daiki Abukawa, Mitsuyoshi Suzuki, Stephen Brooks
BACKGROUND: It is necessary to evaluate the natural history of children with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in each country to consider their long-term management. METHODS: A multi-center observational study of children with chronic HBV infection who were diagnosed at age ≤15 years was carried out in 18 hospitals in Japan. RESULTS: We reviewed children with HBV infection including 381 with mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) and 154 with horizontal transmission, genotype C being the most prevalent virus genotype (83%)...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111892/the-role-of-interleukin-27-in-predicting-spontaneous-hbeag-seroconversion-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-infection
#7
Jie Li, Lung-Yi Mak, Danny Ka-Ho Wong, James Fung, Wai-Kay Seto, Ching-Lung Lai, Man-Fung Yuen
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hepatitis B e seroconversion, associated with preceding hepatic inflammation, marks the transition from immune active to residual phase in the natural disease history of chronic hepatitis B. Recently, interleukin-27 has been reported to be associated with hepatic inflammation in hepatitis B infection. We aimed to evaluate the role of interleukin-27 in predicting spontaneous e seroconversion in chronic hepatitis B. METHODS: 142 treatment-naive hepatitis B patients with positive e antigen were recruited...
January 23, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070201/association-of-tnf-%C3%AE-gene-polymorphisms-with-production-of-protein-and-susceptibility-to-chronic-hepatitis-b-infection-in-the-south-east-iranian-population
#8
Zahra Heidari, Bita Moudi, Hamidreza Mahmoudzadeh Sagheb, Mehrnoosh Moudi
BACKGROUND: The host genetic background regulates the natural history of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between TNF-α gene polymorphism in the promoter region and susceptibility to chronic hepatitis B virus infection. METHODS: Four polymorphisms of TNF-α gene including -238 A/G, -308 A/G, -857 C/T, and -863 A/C were analyzed by PCR-RFLP in 100 chronic HBV infected patients (HBV group), 40 spontaneously recovered HBV subjects (SR group), and 100 healthy controls (C group)...
November 2016: Hepatitis Monthly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065745/alteration-of-methyl-cpg-binding-domain-family-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b
#9
Jing Zhao, Yu-Chen Fan, Long-Yan Chen, Shuai Gao, Feng Li, Kai Wang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Epigenetics contributes to the outcome of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. However, the role of methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD) family in the natural history of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) has not been demonstrated. It is aimed to investigate the dynamic expression of MBD family and assess the potential association of MBD family in the progression of CHB. METHODS: Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to determine the mRNA levels of MBD family in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 223 patients with CHB as training cohort, 146 patients with CHB as validation cohort [immune-tolerant (IT), immune clearance (IC), non/low-replicative (LR) and HBeAg negative hepatitis (ENH)], and 14 healthy controls (HCs)...
January 5, 2017: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056849/platelet-counts-modulate-the-quantitative-relationship-between-hepatitis-b-viral-dna-and-surface-antigen-concentrations-a-cross-sectional-study-of-hematological-histological-and-viral-factors
#10
Chao-Wei Hsu, Kung-Hao Liang, Chih-Lang Lin, Tong-Hong Wang, Chau-Ting Yeh
BACKGROUND: The concentrations of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA and surface antigen (HBsAg) are two critical virological variables to be monitored in chronic hepatitis B. HBsAg is derived from the HBV genome. Thus, higher HBV-DNA concentrations should implicate higher HBsAg levels. Nevertheless, the two variables do not manifest a simple linear relationship due to elusive host factor involvements. The aim of this study was to address the discrepancy of HBV DNA and HBsAg levels by a quantitative modeling of HBsAg concentrations...
January 5, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002881/assessing-the-clinical-and-economic-impact-of-increasing-treatment-uptake-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-infection-using-a-markov-model
#11
Mohamed A Chinnaratha, Billingsley Kaambwa, Richard J Woodman, Robert J Fraser, Alan J Wigg
Treatment uptake in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is low in South Australia and the cost-effectiveness of increasing treatment uptake rates in this population has not been assessed. AIMS & METHODS: Using a cohort Markov model, cost-effectiveness was assessed for 3 different treatment uptake scenarios: 2.9% (current level -scenario 1), 10% (Scenario 2) and 15% (Scenario 3). The initial HBV population included 2550 treatment eligible patients who transitioned between six different health states over a 10- year period...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989815/a-novel-avian-like-hepatitis-e-virus-in-wild-aquatic-bird-little-egret-egretta-garzetta-in-hungary
#12
Gábor Reuter, Ákos Boros, Róbert Mátics, Beatrix Kapusinszky, Eric Delwart, Péter Pankovics
Hepatitis E virus (HEV), family Hepeviridae, has public health concerns because of its zoonotic potential; however, the host species spectrum, animal to animal transmissions, the natural chain of hepevirus infections and the genetic diversity of HEV in wildlife especially in birds are less known. Using random amplification and next generation sequencing technology a genetically divergent avian HEV was serendipitously identified in wild bird in Hungary. HEV RNA was detected with high faecal viral load (1.33×10(8) genomic copies/ml) measured by real-time PCR in faecal sample from a little egret (Egretta garzetta)...
October 29, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27968847/bushenjianpi-formula-combined-with-entecavir-for-hbeag-negative-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients-a-multicentre-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#13
Yue-Qiu Gao, Xin Zhang, Man Li, Zhen-Hua Zhou, Xue-Hua Sun, Xiao-Jun Zhu, Shu-Gen Jin
BACKGROUND: The treatment combination of traditional Chinese medicine with western medicine results in significant decrease of serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA and increase of HBeAg loss in patients with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) without any serious adverse events. We aimed to assess whether the Bushenjianpi Formula combined with entecavir could increase the HBsAg loss rate in patients with HBeAg-negative CHB. METHODS: In this multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we recruited patients with HBeAg-negative CHB from ten third-level grade-A hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine...
October 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935953/factors-predicting-hbsag-seroclearance-and-alanine-transaminase-elevation-in-hbeag-negative-hepatitis-b-virus-infected-patients-with-persistently-normal-liver-function
#14
Tai-Long Chien, Jing-Houng Wang, Kwong-Ming Kee, Chien-Hung Chen, Chao-Hung Hung, Sheng-Nan Lu
BACKGROUND: A certain proportion of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients with persistently normal alanine transaminase (ALT) levels have significant fibrosis. Using liver stiffness measurements (Fibroscan®) and laboratory data, including serum ALT, quantitative HBsAg (qHBsAg), and HBV DNA, we attempted to predict the natural histories of these patients. METHODS: Non-cirrhotic HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B patients with persistently normal ALT were followed up prospectively with the end points of HBsAg seroclearance and ALT elevation above the upper limit of normal...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932014/tackling-the-burden-of-the-hepatitis-c-virus-in-the-uk-characterizing-and-assessing-the-clinical-and-economic-consequences
#15
T Ward, J Gordon, H Bennett, S Webster, D Sugrue, B Jones, M Brenner, P McEwan
OBJECTIVES: The hepatitis C virus (HCV) remains a significant public health issue. This study aimed to quantify the clinical and economic burden of chronic hepatitis C in the UK, stratified by disease severity, age and awareness of infection, with concurrent assessment of the impact of implementing a treatment prioritization approach. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A previously published back projection, natural history and cost-effectiveness HCV model was adapted to a UK setting to estimate the disease burden of chronic hepatitis C and end-stage liver disease (ESLD) between 1980 and 2035...
December 2016: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924080/global-epidemiology-and-burden-of-hcv-infection-and-hcv-related-disease
#16
REVIEW
Aaron P Thrift, Hashem B El-Serag, Fasiha Kanwal
Chronic HCV infection is a global health problem that affects >184 million people worldwide. HCV is associated with several hepatic and extrahepatic disorders, including several malignancies. The burden of HCV-related disorders is influenced by the number of new and existing cases, number of existing cases and the natural history of the infection. The natural history of HCV is affected by several demographic, virological, clinical and lifestyle factors. Major variations exist in the burden of HCV among different populations and geographical regions, as well as over time...
December 7, 2016: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876615/a-novel-avian-like-hepatitis-e-virus-in-wild-aquatic-bird-little-egret-egretta-garzetta-in-hungary
#17
Gábor Reuter, Ákos Boros, Róbert Mátics, Beatrix Kapusinszky, Eric Delwart, Péter Pankovics
Hepatitis E virus (HEV), family Hepeviridae, has public health concerns because of its zoonotic potential; however, the host species spectrum, animal to animal transmissions, the natural chain of hepevirus infections and the genetic diversity of HEV in wildlife especially in birds are less known. Using random amplification and next generation sequencing technology a genetically divergent avian HEV was serendipitously identified in wild bird in Hungary. HEV RNA was detected with high faecal viral load (1.33×10(8)genomiccopies/ml) measured by real-time PCR in faecal sample from a little egret (Egretta garzetta)...
December 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783693/detection-of-hcv-persistent-infections-in-the-dental-pulp-a-novel-approach-for-the-detection-of-past-and-ancient-infections
#18
Layla Gomes Siravenha, Leonardo Quintão Siravenha, Lucimar Di Paula Madeira, Aldemir B Oliveira-Filho, Luiz Fernando Almeida Machado, Rosimar Neris Martins Feitosa, Antonio Carlos Rosário Vallinoto, Marluísa de Oliveira Guimarães Ishak, Ricardo Ishak
The dental pulp is a sterile highly vascularized tissue and has been commonly used as a biological material to detect the genome of infectious agents that reach the dental tissue. Indeed, the pulp is also used to reveal past and ancient infections in the field of paleomicrobiology. The present study aimed to detect the presence of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) in a small community (approximately 400 inhabitants) in the Amazon region of Brazil (Nossa Senhora do Perpetuo Socorro, Vizeu, Para, Brazil) and standardize a technique for the detection of the virus in the dental pulp...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746617/clinical-significance-of-quantitative-hbsag-titres-and-its-correlation-with-hbv-dna-levels-in-the-natural-history-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#19
Vijay K Karra, Soumya J Chowdhury, Rajesh Ruttala, Sunil K Polipalli, Premashis Kar
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Quantification of serum hepatitis B antigen (HBsAg) is an important test that marks active infection with hepatitis B and helps in the prediction of the clinical outcome and management of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Correlation with HBV DNA quantitative levels may help in developing strategies for antiviral treatment. This study is aimed to evaluate HBsAg titres in various phase of HBV infection in HBsAg positive patients, and its correlation with HBV DNA viral load levels...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740514/%C3%A2-treatment-of-chronic-hbv-infection-in-developing-countries
#20
REVIEW
Rosa Zampino, Caterina Sagnelli, Adriana Boemio, Evangelista Sagnelli, Nicola Coppola
 Due to virological, host and socio-economic factors, the clinical presentation and treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) differs between developing and developed countries and may differ between one low-income country and another. National healthcare prevention and treatment policies, environmental factors, social habits and personal life-styles all influence HBV transmission and the clinical management and therapy of CHB. These factors can have a strong impact on the natural history of the disease and on Access to treatment and may eventually determine substantial changes in disease progression and the development of serious complications and hepatocellular carcinoma...
November 2016: Annals of Hepatology
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