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Visceral fat and chronic diseases

Swantje Brede, Georg Serfling, Johanna Klement, Sebastian M Schmid, Hendrik Lehnert
The term metabolic syndrome (MeS) refers to a cluster of associated symptoms composed of impaired fasting glucose, abdominal obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. MeS is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and diabetes-associated morbidity and mortality. The increased amount of visceral fat together with a chronic inflammatory state predisposes to the development of arteriosclerosis. Furthermore, insulin resistance (IR) and dyslipidemia are associated with fatty liver disease. In addition, MeS is linked to non-cardiovascular diseases such as cancer as well as psychiatric or endocrine disorders...
October 2016: Visceral Medicine
Krasimira Aleksandrova, Marta Stelmach-Mardas, Sabrina Schlesinger
Obesity and related metabolic disorders have become globally prevalent posing a challenge for the chronically damaged liver and predisposing the development and progression of cancer. The rising phenomenon of "obesity epidemic" may provide means for understanding why liver cancer is one of the few malignancies with rising incidence in developed countries over the last decades. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes is an increasingly recognized trigger for liver cancer in Western populations characterized by low prevalence of established risk factors for liver cancer such as viral hepatitis and hepatotoxin exposure...
2016: Recent Results in Cancer Research
Corrine Hanson, Tricia LeVan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity has been shown to have a significant impact on lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The purpose of this review is to discuss the most recent findings regarding the association between obesity, COPD, and COPD-related outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Evidence indicates that obese patients with COPD may compose a unique disease phenotype who are more susceptible than their lean counterparts to environmental exposures...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
Hiroshi Kaji
Adipose tissue has recently been reevaluated as an endocrine organ, and adipose-tissue-derived endocrine factors are termed adipokines. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is the primary inhibitor of PAs, which convert plasminogen into plasmin, a critical protease involved in fibrinolysis. PAI-1 induces fibrinogenesis by suppressing intravascular and tissue fibrinolysis. Moreover, PAI-1 exerts various cellular effects independently of fibrinolysis. Although PAI-1 is expressed in various tissues, its expression is regulated by numerous growth factors, cytokines, and hormones in a paracrine and endocrine manner...
September 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
Salvatore Docimo, Young Lee, Prav Chatani, Ann M Rogers, Frank Lacqua
INTRODUCTION: There is an association between obesity and more complicated diverticular disease. We hypothesize that this link may be due to an increased level of visceral fat rather than an elevated body mass index alone. Adipose tissue secretes inflammatory cytokines, and chronic inflammation may account for the link between obesity and a more severe presentation of diverticular disease. We have applied a quantitative measure of visceral fat content in a series of patients admitted with diverticulitis, comparing those who required emergent versus elective surgical procedures for diverticulitis...
October 24, 2016: Surgical Endoscopy
Francesca De Blasio, Erica P A Rutten, Emiel F M Wouters, Luca Scalfi, Francesco De Blasio, Marco A Akkermans, Martijn A Spruit, Frits M E Franssen
BACKGROUND: Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) was shown to be increased in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) compared to control subjects with comparable body mass index (BMI). Our aim was to determine the relation of VAT by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in patients with COPD by disease severity, BMI, other indices of body composition and static lung volumes. METHODS: 294 COPD patients admitted for rehabilitation were studied. Lung function, static lung volumes and body composition (i...
2016: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
Ruth Schübel, Mirja E Graf, Johanna Nattenmüller, Diana Nabers, Disorn Sookthai, Laura F Gruner, Theron Johnson, Christopher L Schlett, Oyunbileg von Stackelberg, Romy Kirsten, Nina Habermann, Mario Kratz, Hans-Ulrich Kauczor, Cornelia M Ulrich, Rudolf Kaaks, Tilman Kühn
Mechanistic studies suggest benefits of intermittent calorie restriction (ICR) in chronic disease prevention that may exceed those of continuous calorie restriction (CCR), even at equal net calorie intake. Despite promising results from first trials, it remains largely unknown whether ICR-induced metabolic alterations reported from experimental studies can also be observed in humans, and whether ICR diets are practicable and effective in real life situations. Thus, we initiated the HELENA Trial to test the effects of ICR (eu-caloric diet on five days and very low energy intake on two days per week) on metabolic parameters and body composition over one year...
September 28, 2016: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Ganglei Liu, Xianrui Wu, Yi Li, Yuanyi Rui, Luca Stocchi, Feza H Remzi, Bo Shen
BACKGROUND: There are no published studies on the impact of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) change on outcomes of restorative proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA). The aim of this historic cohort study was to evaluate the impact of excessive VAT gain on the outcomes of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients with IPAA. METHODS: We evaluated all eligible patients with at least two sequential CT scans after pouch construction from our prospectively maintained Pouchitis Registry between 2002 and 2014...
September 25, 2016: Gastroenterology Report
Nirali Shah, Henry H Ruiz, Usman Zafar, Kalmon D Post, Christoph Buettner, Eliza B Geer
CONTEXT: Inflammation contributes to the development of metabolic and cardiovascular disease. Cushing's disease (CD), a state of chronic glucocorticoid (GC) excess characterized by visceral obesity and insulin resistance, may be associated with increased systemic inflammation. Cardiovascular mortality in CD remains elevated even after successful remission. It is unclear whether a chronic low-grade inflammatory state persists even after remission of CD, which may account for the increased CVD mortality...
September 15, 2016: Clinical Endocrinology
Adam J Santanasto, Bret H Goodpaster, Stephen B Kritchevsky, Iva Miljkovic, Suzanne Satterfield, Ann V Schwartz, Steven R Cummings, Robert M Boudreau, Tamara B Harris, Anne B Newman
BACKGROUND: Age-related losses of lean mass and shifts to central adiposity are related to functional decline and may predict mortality and/or explain part of the risk of weight loss. To determine how mortality risk is related to shifts in body composition, changes should be considered in the context of overall weight change. METHODS: Five-year changes in body composition were assessed with computed tomography (cm(2)) and dual x-ray absorptiometry (kg) in 869 men and 934 women initially aged 70-79 years...
August 27, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Jacqueline J T Liaw, Philip V Peplow
Chronic inflammation is known to be associated with visceral obesity and insulin resistance which are characterized by altered levels of production of pro- and anti-inflammatory adipokines. The dysregulation of the production of inflammatory adipokines and their functions in obese individuals leads to a state of chronic low-grade inflammation and may promote obesity-linked metabolic disorders and cardiovascular diseases such as insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and atherosclerosis. Electroacupuncture (EA) was tested to see if there was a difference in its effect on pro- and anti-inflammatory adipokine levels in the blood serum and the white adipose tissue of obese Zucker fatty rats and high-fat diet-induced obese Long Evans rats...
August 2016: Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies
Silvia Carrión, Maria Roca, Alicia Costa, Viridiana Arreola, Omar Ortega, Elisabet Palomera, Mateu Serra-Prat, Mateu Cabré, Pere Clavé
BACKGROUND: Oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) is a prevalent risk factor for malnutrition (MN) in older patients and both conditions are related to poor outcome. OBJECTIVE: To explore the nutritional status in older patients with OD in a chronic and an acute clinical situation. DESIGN: We examined 95 older (≥70 years) patients with OD associated to chronic neurological diseases or aging, and 23 older patients with OD and acute community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) with videofluoroscopy; and 15 older people without OD...
July 26, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Malcolm M Wells, Zhe Li, Bryan Addeman, Charles A McKenzie, Amol Mujoomdar, Melanie Beaton, Jeffery Bird
Background/Aims. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic liver disease that can progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. This retrospective chart review investigated the incidence of hepatic steatosis in London, Ontario, Canada. Methods. A retrospective chart review was performed on emergency room (ER) patients undergoing nonscheduled computed tomography (CT) imaging over a six-month period in London, Ontario. CT images and reports were examined to determine presence of steatosis. Analyses of the electronic chart for a period of six months following the CT and communication with the patients' family doctors were used to determine if there was follow-up...
2016: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Petra Lenártová, Marta Habánová, Jana Mrázová, Peter Chlebo, Joanna Wyka
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is a major public health problem, which leads to the formation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and is one of the main causes of avoidable death and disability worldwide. OBJECTIVE: The aim of study was analysis and comparison of the visceral fat in the body of the three groups of subjects (non-smokers, smokers and COPD patients) by Tanita Viscan 140. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The control group was composed of: (1) non-smokers (n=30), consisted of 13 males (43...
2016: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
Ding Xie, Wendy B Bollag
Obesity is a serious health hazard with rapidly increasing prevalence in the United States. In 2014, the World Health Organization estimated that nearly 2 billion people worldwide were overweight with an estimated 600 million of these obese. Obesity is associated with many chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease and hypertension. Data from the Framingham Heart study suggest that approximately 78% of the risk for hypertension in men and 65% in women is related to excess body weight, a relationship that is further supported by studies showing increases in blood pressure with weight gain and decreases with weight loss...
July 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
Carolina Dalmasso, Rodrigo Maranon, Chetan Patil, Elizabeth Bui, Mohadetheh Moulana, Howei Zhang, Andrew Smith, Licy L Yanes Cardozo, Jane F Reckelhoff
Postmenopausal women who have had polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and chronic hyperandrogenemia may be at a greater risk for cardiovascular disease than normoandrogenemic postmenopausal women. The cardiometabolic effect of chronic hyperandrogenemia in women with PCOS after menopause is unclear. The present study was performed to test the hypothesis that chronic hyperandrogenemia in aging female rats would have more deleterious effects on metabolic function, blood pressure, and renal function than in normoandrogenemic age-matched females...
July 2016: Endocrinology
Zoltan Pataky, Laurence Genton, Laurent Spahr, Vladimir Lazarevic, Sylvain Terraz, Nadia Gaïa, Laura Rubbia-Brandt, Alain Golay, Jacques Schrenzel, Claude Pichard
BACKGROUND: NAFLD is likely to become the most common cause of chronic liver disease. The first-line treatment includes weight loss. AIMS: To analyze the impact of a hypocaloric hyperproteic diet (HHD) on gut microbiota in NAFLD patients. METHODS: Fifteen overweight/obese patients with NAFLD were included. At baseline and after a 3-week HHD (Eurodiets(®), ~1000 kcal/day, ~125 g protein/day), we measured gut microbiota composition and function by shotgun metagenomics; body weight; body composition by bioelectrical impedance analysis; liver and visceral fat by magnetic resonance imaging; plasma C-reactive protein (CRP); and liver tests...
September 2016: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Santosh Kumar Sinha, Ramesh Thakur, Mukesh Jitendra Jha, Amit Goel, Varun Kumar, Ashutosh Kumar, Vikas Mishra, Chandra Mohan Varma, Vinay Krishna, Avinash Kumar Singh, Mohit Sachan
BACKGROUND: Obesity is an important risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Estimation of visceral adipose tissue is important and several methods are available as its surrogate. Although correlation of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) with visceral adipose tissue as estimated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and/or CT is excellent, it is costlier and cumbersome. EAT can be accurately measured by two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography. It tends to be higher in patients with acute coronary syndrome than in subjects without coronary artery disease (CAD) and in those with stable angina...
May 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
Emine Colgecen, Huseyin Ede, Mustafa Fatih Erkoc, Yurdanur Akyuz, Ali Riza Erbay
BACKGROUND: Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the most commonly encountered baldness pattern in men. Epicardial fat tissue is found on the cardiac surface between the myocardium and visceral pericardium. Both AGA and epicardial fat thickness (EFT) are related to coronary artery disease, which is also reflected by an increase in carotid intima media thickness (CIMT). OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation of AGA severity with EFT. METHODS: One hundred twenty-six male patients with AGA aged 18 to 55 years without histories of chronic disease were enrolled...
April 2016: Annals of Dermatology
Melissa J Conroy, Karen C Galvin, Maria E Kavanagh, Ann Marie Mongan, Suzanne L Doyle, Niamh Gilmartin, Cliona O'Farrelly, John V Reynolds, Joanne Lysaght
Obesity is a global health problem presenting serious risk of disease fuelled by chronic inflammation, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, liver disease and cancer. Visceral fat, in particular the omentum and liver of obese individuals are sites of excessive inflammation. We propose that chemokine-mediated trafficking of pro-inflammatory cells to the omentum and liver contributes to local and subsequent systemic inflammation. Oesophagogastric adenocarcinoma (OAC) is an exemplar model of obesity and inflammation driven cancer...
July 2016: Immunology and Cell Biology
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