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Visceral fat and chronic diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115717/changes-in-liver-function-and-body-composition-by-direct-acting-antiviral-therapy-for-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#1
Ryosuke Sugimoto, Motoh Iwasa, Nagisa Hara, Yasuyuki Tamai, Kyoko Yoshikawa, Suguru Ogura, Hideaki Tanaka, Akiko Eguchi, Norihiko Yamamoto, Yoshinao Kobayashi, Hiroshi Hasegawa, Yoshiyuki Takei
AIM: Management of low skeletal muscle mass (LSM) is a very important topic since LSM affects patient mortality in liver diseases. Changes in body composition are unexplored in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients, including those with liver cirrhosis, who receive direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy. Body composition measurements and liver function tests were performed before and after DAA therapy. METHODS: Blood examination, visceral fat area (VFA) and extremity skeletal muscle mass were measured using the multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis method: i) at 24 weeks pre DAA therapy; ii) at the start of DAA therapy; iii) at the end of DAA therapy; iv) at 24 weeks post DAA therapy; and v) at 48 weeks post DAA therapy...
November 8, 2017: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102876/maternal-high-fat-diet-induces-sex-specific-endocannabinoid-system-changes-in-newborn-rats-and-programs-adiposity-energy-expenditure-and-food-preference-in-adulthood
#2
Camilla P Dias-Rocha, Mariana M Almeida, Erika M Santana, Julia C B Costa, Juliana G Franco, Carmen C Pazos-Moura, Isis H Trevenzoli
Early life inadequate nutrition triggers developmental adaptations and adult chronic disease. Maternal high-fat (HF) diet promotes visceral obesity and hypothalamic leptin resistance in male rat offspring at weaning and adulthood. Obesity is related to over active endocannabinoid system (ECS). The ECS consists mainly of endogenous ligands, cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2), and the enzymes fatty acid anandamide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL). We hypothesized that perinatal maternal HF diet would regulate offspring ECS in hypothalamus and brown adipose tissue (BAT) at birth, prior to visceral obesity development, and program food preference and energy expenditure of adult offspring...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073165/negative-legacy-of-obesity
#3
Kohsuke Shirakawa, Jin Endo, Yoshinori Katsumata, Tsunehisa Yamamoto, Masaharu Kataoka, Sarasa Isobe, Naohiro Yoshida, Keiichi Fukuda, Motoaki Sano
Obesity promotes excessive inflammation, which is associated with senescence-like changes in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and the development of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases. We have reported that a unique population of CD44hi CD62Llo CD4+ T cells that constitutively express PD-1 and CD153 exhibit cellular senescence and cause VAT inflammation by producing large amounts of osteopontin. Weight loss improves glycemic control and reduces cardiovascular disease risk factors, but its long-term effects on cardiovascular events and longevity in obese individuals with T2DM are somewhat disappointing and not well understood...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072970/dipteryx-alata-vogel-may-improve-lipid-profile-and-atherogenic-indices-in-wistar-rats-dipteryx-alata-and-atherogenic-indices
#4
Adriana Maria Ragassi Fiorini, Sandra Maria Barbalho, Élen Landgraf Guiguer, Marie Oshiiwa, Claudemir Gregório Mendes, Rogério Lopes Vieites, Agnaldo Bruno Chies, Priscilla Bianca de Oliveira, Maricelma da Silva Soares de Souza, Claudia Cristina T Nicolau
Worldwide prevalence of noncommunicable chronic degenerative diseases is among the main causes of death worldwide. The consumption of some foods such as nuts and seeds may be beneficial in preventing these diseases. Dipteryx alata Vogel (DA), known popularly as Baru, belongs to the family Fabaceae and is a native fruit tree from the Brazilian savanna. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of seeds of DA on the metabolic and oxidative profile of Wistar rats. Animals were divided randomly into four groups (n = 10): G1 (control group), and G2 (treated with DA 20%), G3 (treated with DA 30%), and G4 (treated with DA 40%)...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039967/central-obesity-and-the-mediterranean-diet-a-systematic-review-of-intervention-trials
#5
C L Bendall, H L Mayr, R S Opie, M Bes-Rastrollo, C Itsiopoulos, C J Thomas
Central obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation, and is a risk factor for cardiometabolic syndrome. The Mediterranean diet pattern has a convincing evidence-base for improving cardiometabolic health. This review investigated the impact of Mediterranean diet interventions on central obesity, specifically. A systematic literature search was conducted in the MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE and Cochrane library databases. Search terms included: 'Mediterranean Diet', 'Mediterranean dietary pattern', 'central obesity' and 'visceral fat'...
October 17, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974138/cardiovascular-risk-of-adipokines-a-review
#6
Frédéric Dutheil, Brett Ashley Gordon, Geraldine Naughton, Edward Crendal, Daniel Courteix, Elodie Chaplais, David Thivel, Gérard Lac, Amanda Clare Benson
Over the last two decades, the understanding of adipose tissue has undergone radical change. The perception has evolved from an inert energy storage tissue to that of an active endocrine organ. Adipose tissue releases a cluster of active molecules named adipokines. The severity of obesity-related diseases does not necessarily correlate with the extent of body fat accumulation but is closely related to body fat distribution, particularly to visceral localization. There is a distinction between the metabolic function of central obesity (visceral abdominal) and peripheral obesity (subcutaneous) in the production of adipokines...
January 1, 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943558/the-serum-level-of-kl-6-is-associated-with-the-risk-of-insulin-resistance-and-new-onset-diabetes-mellitus-the-tanno-sobetsu-study
#7
Hiroshi Akasaka, Hirofumi Ohnishi, Yoshifumi Narita, Masami Kameda, Takayuki Miki, Hiroki Takahashi, Wari Yamamoto, Hitoshi Sohma, Naoya Masumori, Tetsuji Miura
Objective Inflammatory cytokines generated in visceral fat have been shown to contribute to the development of insulin resistance. The involvement of pulmonary inflammation in insulin resistance remains unclear, but smoking is known to be a risk factor for diabetes as well as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We herein examined the hypothesis that increased serum levels of lung interstitial injury biomarkers (SP-A, SP-D and KL-6) are associated with the risk of diabetes development. Methods For cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, we enrolled 750 apparently healthy non-diabetic subjects who received annual examinations in 2011 or 2012 in the Tanno-Sobetsu cohort...
September 25, 2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912902/effects-of-dapagliflozin-on-body-composition-and-liver-tests-in-patients-with-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-associated-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-prospective-open-label-uncontrolled-study
#8
Hiroshi Tobita, Shuichi Sato, Tatsuya Miyake, Shunji Ishihara, Yoshikazu Kinoshita
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is an active form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Risk factors for NASH include type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obesity. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors used to treat T2DM prevent glucose reabsorption in the kidney and increase glucose urinary excretion. Dapagliflozin is a potent, selective SGLT2 inhibitor that reduces hyperglycemia in patients with T2DM and has been demonstrated to reduce some complications associated with NASH in rodent models...
2017: Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911004/inherent-aerobic-capacity-dependent-differences-in-breast-carcinogenesis
#9
Henry J Thompson, Lee W Jones, Lauren G Koch, Steven L Britton, Elizabeth S Neil, John N McGinley
Although regular physical activity is associated with improvement in aerobic capacity and lower breast cancer risk, there are heritable sets of traits that affect improvement in aerobic capacity in response to physical activity. Although aerobic capacity segregates risk for a number of chronic diseases, the effect of the heritable component on cancer risk has not been evaluated. Therefore, we investigated breast carcinogenesis in rodent models of heritable fitness in the absence of induced physical activity...
September 1, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859115/development-and-validation-of-a-rapid-and-robust-method-to-determine-visceral-adipose-tissue-volume-using-computed-tomography-images
#10
Aaroh M Parikh, Adriana M Coletta, Z Henry Yu, Gaiane M Rauch, Joey P Cheung, Laurence E Court, Ann H Klopp
BACKGROUND: Visceral adiposity is a risk factor for many chronic diseases. Existing methods to quantify visceral adipose tissue volume using computed tomographic (CT) images often use a single slice, are manual, and are time consuming, making them impractical for large population studies. We developed and validated a method to accurately, rapidly, and robustly measure visceral adipose tissue volume using CT images. METHODS: In-house software, Medical Executable for the Efficient and Robust Quantification of Adipose Tissue (MEERQAT), was developed to calculate visceral adipose tissue volume using a series of CT images within a manually identified region of interest...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826901/relation-between-calcified-atherosclerosis-in-the-renal-arteries-and-kidney-function-from-the-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis
#11
MULTICENTER STUDY
Devesh Vashishtha, Robyn L McClelland, Joachim H Ix, Dena E Rifkin, Nancy Jenny, Matthew Allison
Renal artery calcium (RAC) has been shown to be associated with higher odds of hypertension (HTN). The purpose of this study was to determine if the presence and extent of RAC is associated with renal function. We analyzed cross-sectional data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). A subsample of 1,226 participants underwent computed tomography of the abdomen and also had venous blood samples measured for kidney function. RAC was the primary predictor variable and the following measures of kidney function were the outcome variables: estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR), and chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage...
October 15, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811790/cardiorespiratory-fitness-and-its-association-with-adiposity-indices-in-young-adults
#12
Mozaffer Rahim Hingorjo, Sitwat Zehra, Zainab Hasan, Masood Anwar Qureshi
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and adiposity in young adults. METHODS: Data was collected from 133 students of a medical college of Pakistan. The study was conducted on young adults, aged 17-24 years, recruited from Jinnah Medical & Dental College, Karachi, between Aug-Dec, 2015. Queen's College Step Test was conducted to measure CRF and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) evaluated. Anthropometric measurements (body mass index, body fat, visceral fat, waist circumference) were taken to assess adiposity...
May 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789943/reciprocal-inflammatory-signaling-between-intestinal-epithelial-cells-and-adipocytes-in-the-absence-of-immune-cells
#13
Yu Takahashi, Shintaro Sato, Yosuke Kurashima, Chen-Yi Lai, Makoto Otsu, Mikio Hayashi, Takayuki Yamaguchi, Hiroshi Kiyono
Visceral fat accumulation as observed in Crohn's disease and obesity is linked to chronic gut inflammation, suggesting that accumulation of gut adipocytes can trigger local inflammatory signaling. However, direct interactions between intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and adipocytes have not been investigated, in part because IEC physiology is difficult to replicate in culture. In this study, we originally prepared intact, polarized, and cytokine responsive IEC monolayers from primary or induced pluripotent stem cell-derived intestinal organoids by simple and repeatable methods...
September 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765165/the-relationship-between-body-composition-and-bone-quality-measured-with-hr-pqct-in-peritoneal-dialysis-patients
#14
Coralie Fournie, Solenne Pelletier, Justine Bacchetta, Stéphanie Boutroy, Cyrille Confavreux, Jocelyne Drai, Walid Arkouche, Denis Fouque, Roland Chapurlat, Fitsum Guebre-Egziabher
BACKGROUND: Bone is known to be impaired in chronic kidney disease and dialysis patients. Recent studies have shown that body composition (fat mass and lean mass) may impact bone health. Some of these effects may be related to mediators that are secreted by adipose tissue. METHODS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between body composition (dual x-ray absorptiometry [DEXA]) and adipokines (leptin, adiponectin), with bone density and microarchitecture assessed with high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) in chronic peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients in a single-center prospective study...
September 2017: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726335/preperitoneal-fat-as-a-noninvsasive-marker-of-increased-risk-of-severe-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#15
Daniella Braz Parente, Jaime Araújo Oliveira Netso, Pedro Emmanuel Alvarenga Americano Brasil, Fernando Fernandes Paiva, José Pedro Rodrigues Ravani, Marilia Brito Gomes, Valeria Lanzoni, Carlos Frederico Ferreira Campos, Lilian Machado-Silva, Renata Mello Perez, Rosana Souza Rodrigues
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Fat distribution may have prognostic value in the evaluation of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. This study was conducted to evaluate associations of MRI-measured abdominal fat areas with steatosis, steatohepatitis, and fibrosis, assessed histopathologically, in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: This prospective study included 66 patients with type 2 diabetes (12 males, 54 females, age 26-68 years), without chronic liver disease of other causes...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673384/testosterone-therapy-of-men-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-randomized-double-blinded-placebo-controlled-study
#16
Line Velling Magnussen
The prevalence of chronic diseases including obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) are increasing. The usage of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) has escalated in the Western countries during the past decades especially in aging men without clear organic indication for TRT although the safety of long-term TRT has not been clarified regarding the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Aging men with T2D have an increased risk of CVD and these patients are often characterized by lowered T-levels, ectopic fat depots, a deranged adipokine profile with e...
July 2017: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647971/-association-between-body-fat-percentage-visceral-fat-index-and-cardiometabolic-risk-factor-clustering-among-population-aged-35-year-old-or-over-in-tibet-autonomous-region-and-xinjiang-uygur-autonomous-region
#17
J L Wang, Z Chen, L F Zhang, X Wang, Y Dong, J Y Nie, C Y Zheng, L Shao, Y Tian, Z W Wang
Objective: To investigate the association between body fat percentage (BFP), visceral fat index (VFI) and Cardiometabolic Risk Factor Clustering (CRFC), among population aged 35 or older in Tibet and Xinjiang areas. Methods: Using the stratified multi-stage random sampling method, 7 571 residents aged 35 or above were examined with international standardized examination between 2015 and 2016. Of the eligible 5 643 participants, association of BFP and VFI with CRFC was defined as having two or more of the four risk factors: hypertension, diabetes mellitus, high TG and low HDL-C, at the same time...
June 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643028/polycystic-ovary-syndrome-adipose-tissue-and-metabolic-syndrome
#18
REVIEW
Alessandro P Delitala, Giampiero Capobianco, Giuseppe Delitala, Pier Luigi Cherchi, Salvatore Dessole
PURPOSE: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder that affects women of reproductive age and is characterized by ovulatory dysfunction and/or androgen excess or polycystic ovaries. Women with PCOS present a number of systemic symptoms in addition to those related to the reproductive system. It has been associated with functional derangements in adipose tissue, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). METHODS: A detailed literature search on Pubmed was done for articles about PCOS, adipokines, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome...
June 22, 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629772/impact-of-the-cardiovascular-system-associated-adipose-tissue-on-atherosclerotic-pathology
#19
REVIEW
Dimitry A Chistiakov, Andrey V Grechko, Veronika A Myasoedova, Alexandra A Melnichenko, Alexander N Orekhov
Cardiac obesity makes an important contribution to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. One of the important pathways of this contribution is the inflammatory process that takes place in the adipose tissue. In this review, we consider the role of the cardiovascular system-associated fat in atherosclerotic cardiovascular pathology and a non-atherosclerotic cause of coronary artery disease, such as atrial fibrillation. Cardiovascular system-associated fat not only serves as the energy store, but also releases adipokines that control local and systemic metabolism, heart/vascular function and vessel tone, and a number of vasodilating and anti-inflammatory substances...
August 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604513/severe-sarcopenia-and-increased-fat-stores-in-pediatric-patients-with-liver-kidney-or-intestine-failure
#20
Richard S Mangus, Weston J Bush, Christina Miller, Chandrashekhar A Kubal
OBJECTIVES: Malnutrition and wasting predict clinical outcomes in children with severe chronic illness. Objectively calculated malnutrition in children with end-stage organ failure has not been well studied. This analysis compares children with kidney, liver or intestine failure to healthy controls to quantitate the disparity in muscle and fat stores. METHODS: Children younger than 19 years with end-stage liver, kidney, or intestine failure and with pretransplant computed tomography (CT) imaging were selected from the transplant database...
November 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
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