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Visceral fat and chronic diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193782/mitochondrial-mass-and-activity-as-a-function-of-body-composition-in-individuals-with-spinal-cord-injury
#1
Laura C O'Brien, Rodney C Wade, Liron Segal, Qun Chen, Jeannie Savas, Edward J Lesnefsky, Ashraf S Gorgey
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is accompanied by deterioration in body composition and severe muscle atrophy. These changes put individuals at risk for insulin resistance, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. To determine the relationships between skeletal muscle mitochondrial mass, activity, and body composition, 22 men with motor complete SCI were studied. Body composition assessment was performed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle to measure citrate synthase (CS) and complex III (CIII) activity...
February 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144263/neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio-as-a-possible-indicator-of-epicardial-adipose-tissue-in-patients-undergoing-hemodialysis
#2
Adalet Ozcicek, Fatih Ozcicek, Gursel Yildiz, Aysu Timuroglu, Levent Demirtas, Mutlu Buyuklu, Ufuk Kuyrukluyildiz, Emin Murat Akbas, Ergun Topal, Kultigin Turkmen
INTRODUCTION: Chronic inflammation is a major risk factor in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is the true visceral fat depot of the heart. The relationship between coronary artery disease and EAT was shown in healthy subjects and ESRD patients. In the present study we aimed to investigate the relationship between EAT and inflammation parameters including neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in hemodialysis (HD) patients...
February 1, 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135006/contribution-of-maladaptive-adipose-tissue-expansion-to-development-of-cardiovascular-disease
#3
Guanghong Jia, Yan Jia, James R Sowers
The overweight and obesity epidemic has led to an increase in the metabolic syndrome and associated cardiovascular disease (CVD). These abnormalities include insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, vascular stiffness, hypertension, stroke, and coronary heart disease. Visceral white adipocyte tissue (WAT) expansion and associated fibrosis/stiffness of WAT promote insulin resistance and CVD through increases in proinflammatory adipokines, oxidative stress, activation of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, dysregulation of adipocyte apoptosis and autophagy, dysfunctional immune modulation, and adverse changes in the gut microbiome...
December 6, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100211/waist-circumference-and-waist-to-height-ratio-are-associated-with-periodontal-pocketing-results-of-the-health-2000-survey
#4
Sanna Kangas, Petra Timonen, Matti Knuuttila, Antti Jula, Pekka Ylöstalo, Anna-Maija Hannele Syrjälä
BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI) has been found to associate with different parameters of chronic periodontal disease in previous studies. It is reasonable to expect that central adiposity measures, such as waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio, which indirectly takes into account visceral fat, are more accurate measures of obesity-related oral health risks than BMI. The aim of this study was to examine whether central obesity is associated with periodontal pocketing, an indication of infectious chronic periodontal disease...
January 18, 2017: BMC Oral Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046024/chest-fat-quantification-via-ct-based-on-standardized-anatomy-space-in-adult-lung-transplant-candidates
#5
Yubing Tong, Jayaram K Udupa, Drew A Torigian, Dewey Odhner, Caiyun Wu, Gargi Pednekar, Scott Palmer, Anna Rozenshtein, Melissa A Shirk, John D Newell, Mary Porteous, Joshua M Diamond, Jason D Christie, David J Lederer
PURPOSE: Overweight and underweight conditions are considered relative contraindications to lung transplantation due to their association with excess mortality. Yet, recent work suggests that body mass index (BMI) does not accurately reflect adipose tissue mass in adults with advanced lung diseases. Alternative and more accurate measures of adiposity are needed. Chest fat estimation by routine computed tomography (CT) imaging may therefore be important for identifying high-risk lung transplant candidates...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026829/retinol-binding-protein-4-rbp4-as-the-causative-factor-and-marker-of-vascular-injury-related-to-insulin-resistance
#6
Marcin Majerczyk, Magdalena Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, Monika Puzianowska-Kuźnicka, Jerzy Chudek
One of adipokines involved in the development of insulin resistance is retinol-binding protein 4(RBP4). The physiological role of RBP4 is transport of retinol from the liver to peripheral tissues. One of the first events related to the excessive visceral fat accumulation is the development of inflammation followed by hormonal adipose tissue dysfunction, including excessive RBP4 production. Reduced density of the membrane-type glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) is considered as a direct cause for the stimulation of RBP4 release to the circulation by adipocytes...
December 21, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994266/secretory-activity-of-subcutaneous-abdominal-adipose-tissue-in-male-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-and-osteoarthritis-association-with-clinical-and-laboratory-data
#7
Ewa Kontny, Agnieszka Zielińska, Krystyna Księżopolska-Orłowska, Piotr Głuszko
INTRODUCTION: Adipose tissue exerts widespread effects on the metabolism and immune system, but its activity differs between the genders. In the general population low-grade adipose tissue inflammation contributes to development of diseases of affluence. Little is known about the systemic impact of peripheral fat tissue in osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), characterized by chronic, low- and high-grade systemic inflammation, respectively. To clarify this we evaluated the secretory activity of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT) obtained from male patients affected with RA (n = 21) and OA (n = 13), and assessed its association with body mass and composition, demographic, clinical and laboratory data...
2016: Reumatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929385/the-metabolic-implications-of-glucocorticoids-in-a-high-fat-diet-setting-and-the-counter-effects-of-exercise
#8
REVIEW
Emily C Dunford, Michael C Riddell
Glucocorticoids (GCs) are steroid hormones, naturally produced by activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, that mediate the immune and metabolic systems. Synthetic GCs are used to treat a number of inflammatory conditions and diseases including lupus and rheumatoid arthritis. Generally, chronic or high dose GC administration is associated with side effects such as steroid-induced skeletal muscle loss, visceral adiposity, and diabetes development. Patients who are taking exogenous GCs could also be more susceptible to poor food choices, but the effect that increasing fat consumption in combination with elevated exogenous GCs has only recently been investigated...
December 5, 2016: Metabolites
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921045/clinical-scenario-of-the-metabolic-syndrome
#9
REVIEW
Swantje Brede, Georg Serfling, Johanna Klement, Sebastian M Schmid, Hendrik Lehnert
The term metabolic syndrome (MeS) refers to a cluster of associated symptoms composed of impaired fasting glucose, abdominal obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. MeS is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and diabetes-associated morbidity and mortality. The increased amount of visceral fat together with a chronic inflammatory state predisposes to the development of arteriosclerosis. Furthermore, insulin resistance (IR) and dyslipidemia are associated with fatty liver disease. In addition, MeS is linked to non-cardiovascular diseases such as cancer as well as psychiatric or endocrine disorders...
October 2016: Visceral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909908/obesity-and-liver-cancer
#10
Krasimira Aleksandrova, Marta Stelmach-Mardas, Sabrina Schlesinger
Obesity and related metabolic disorders have become globally prevalent posing a challenge for the chronically damaged liver and predisposing the development and progression of cancer. The rising phenomenon of "obesity epidemic" may provide means for understanding why liver cancer is one of the few malignancies with rising incidence in developed countries over the last decades. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes is an increasingly recognized trigger for liver cancer in Western populations characterized by low prevalence of established risk factors for liver cancer such as viral hepatitis and hepatotoxin exposure...
2016: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906857/obesity-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-recent-knowledge-and-future-directions
#11
Corrine Hanson, Tricia LeVan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity has been shown to have a significant impact on lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The purpose of this review is to discuss the most recent findings regarding the association between obesity, COPD, and COPD-related outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Evidence indicates that obese patients with COPD may compose a unique disease phenotype who are more susceptible than their lean counterparts to environmental exposures...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783862/adipose-tissue-derived-plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1-function-and-regulation
#12
Hiroshi Kaji
Adipose tissue has recently been reevaluated as an endocrine organ, and adipose-tissue-derived endocrine factors are termed adipokines. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is the primary inhibitor of PAs, which convert plasminogen into plasmin, a critical protease involved in fibrinolysis. PAI-1 induces fibrinogenesis by suppressing intravascular and tissue fibrinolysis. Moreover, PAI-1 exerts various cellular effects independently of fibrinolysis. Although PAI-1 is expressed in various tissues, its expression is regulated by numerous growth factors, cytokines, and hormones in a paracrine and endocrine manner...
September 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778168/visceral-to-subcutaneous-fat-ratio-predicts-acuity-of-diverticulitis
#13
Salvatore Docimo, Young Lee, Prav Chatani, Ann M Rogers, Frank Lacqua
INTRODUCTION: There is an association between obesity and more complicated diverticular disease. We hypothesize that this link may be due to an increased level of visceral fat rather than an elevated body mass index alone. Adipose tissue secretes inflammatory cytokines, and chronic inflammation may account for the link between obesity and a more severe presentation of diverticular disease. We have applied a quantitative measure of visceral fat content in a series of patients admitted with diverticulitis, comparing those who required emergent versus elective surgical procedures for diverticulitis...
October 24, 2016: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729977/preliminary-study-on-the-assessment-of-visceral-adipose-tissue-using-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#14
Francesca De Blasio, Erica P A Rutten, Emiel F M Wouters, Luca Scalfi, Francesco De Blasio, Marco A Akkermans, Martijn A Spruit, Frits M E Franssen
BACKGROUND: Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) was shown to be increased in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) compared to control subjects with comparable body mass index (BMI). Our aim was to determine the relation of VAT by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in patients with COPD by disease severity, BMI, other indices of body composition and static lung volumes. METHODS: 294 COPD patients admitted for rehabilitation were studied. Lung function, static lung volumes and body composition (i...
2016: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687742/the-effects-of-intermittent-calorie-restriction-on-metabolic-health-rationale-and-study-design-of-the-helena-trial
#15
Ruth Schübel, Mirja E Graf, Johanna Nattenmüller, Diana Nabers, Disorn Sookthai, Laura F Gruner, Theron Johnson, Christopher L Schlett, Oyunbileg von Stackelberg, Romy Kirsten, Nina Habermann, Mario Kratz, Hans-Ulrich Kauczor, Cornelia M Ulrich, Rudolf Kaaks, Tilman Kühn
Mechanistic studies suggest benefits of intermittent calorie restriction (ICR) in chronic disease prevention that may exceed those of continuous calorie restriction (CCR), even at equal net calorie intake. Despite promising results from first trials, it remains largely unknown whether ICR-induced metabolic alterations reported from experimental studies can also be observed in humans, and whether ICR diets are practicable and effective in real life situations. Thus, we initiated the HELENA Trial to test the effects of ICR (eu-caloric diet on five days and very low energy intake on two days per week) on metabolic parameters and body composition over one year...
September 28, 2016: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666926/postoperative-excessive-gain-in-visceral-adipose-tissue-as-well-as-body-mass-index-are-associated-with-adverse-outcomes-of-an-ileal-pouch
#16
Ganglei Liu, Xianrui Wu, Yi Li, Yuanyi Rui, Luca Stocchi, Feza H Remzi, Bo Shen
BACKGROUND: There are no published studies on the impact of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) change on outcomes of restorative proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA). The aim of this historic cohort study was to evaluate the impact of excessive VAT gain on the outcomes of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients with IPAA. METHODS: We evaluated all eligible patients with at least two sequential CT scans after pouch construction from our prospectively maintained Pouchitis Registry between 2002 and 2014...
September 25, 2016: Gastroenterology Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630017/proinflammatory-cytokines-remain-elevated-despite-long-term-remission-in-cushing-s-disease-a-prospective-study
#17
Nirali Shah, Henry H Ruiz, Usman Zafar, Kalmon D Post, Christoph Buettner, Eliza B Geer
CONTEXT: Inflammation contributes to the development of metabolic and cardiovascular disease. Cushing's disease (CD), a state of chronic glucocorticoid (GC) excess characterized by visceral obesity and insulin resistance, may be associated with increased systemic inflammation. Cardiovascular mortality in CD remains elevated even after successful remission. It is unclear whether a chronic low-grade inflammatory state persists even after remission of CD, which may account for the increased CVD mortality...
January 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27567109/body-composition-remodeling-and-mortality-the-health-aging-and-body-composition-study
#18
Adam J Santanasto, Bret H Goodpaster, Stephen B Kritchevsky, Iva Miljkovic, Suzanne Satterfield, Ann V Schwartz, Steven R Cummings, Robert M Boudreau, Tamara B Harris, Anne B Newman
BACKGROUND: Age-related losses of lean mass and shifts to central adiposity are related to functional decline and may predict mortality and/or explain part of the risk of weight loss. To determine how mortality risk is related to shifts in body composition, changes should be considered in the context of overall weight change. METHODS: Five-year changes in body composition were assessed with computed tomography (cm(2)) and dual x-ray absorptiometry (kg) in 869 men and 934 women initially aged 70-79 years...
August 27, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27555223/differential-effect-of-electroacupuncture-on-inflammatory-adipokines-in-two-rat-models-of-obesity
#19
Jacqueline J T Liaw, Philip V Peplow
Chronic inflammation is known to be associated with visceral obesity and insulin resistance which are characterized by altered levels of production of pro- and anti-inflammatory adipokines. The dysregulation of the production of inflammatory adipokines and their functions in obese individuals leads to a state of chronic low-grade inflammation and may promote obesity-linked metabolic disorders and cardiovascular diseases such as insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and atherosclerosis. Electroacupuncture (EA) was tested to see if there was a difference in its effect on pro- and anti-inflammatory adipokine levels in the blood serum and the white adipose tissue of obese Zucker fatty rats and high-fat diet-induced obese Long Evans rats...
August 2016: Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27499393/nutritional-status-of-older-patients-with-oropharyngeal-dysphagia-in-a-chronic-versus-an-acute-clinical-situation
#20
Silvia Carrión, Maria Roca, Alicia Costa, Viridiana Arreola, Omar Ortega, Elisabet Palomera, Mateu Serra-Prat, Mateu Cabré, Pere Clavé
BACKGROUND: Oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) is a prevalent risk factor for malnutrition (MN) in older patients and both conditions are related to poor outcome. OBJECTIVE: To explore the nutritional status in older patients with OD in a chronic and an acute clinical situation. DESIGN: We examined 95 older (≥70 years) patients with OD associated to chronic neurological diseases or aging, and 23 older patients with OD and acute community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) with videofluoroscopy; and 15 older people without OD...
July 26, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
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