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Intestinal microbiota nutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622070/loop-ileostomy-mediated-fecal-stream-diversion-is-associated-with-microbial-dysbiosis
#1
Emma L Beamish, Judith Johnson, Elisabeth J Shaw, Nigel A Scott, Arnab Bhowmick, Rachael J Rigby
Loop ileostomy is an effective procedure to protect downstream intestinal anastomoses. Ileostomy reversal surgery is often carried out within 12 months of formation but is associated with substantial morbidity due to severe post-operative complications. Distal ileum is deprived of enteral nutrition and rendered inactive, often becoming atrophied and fibrotic. This study aimed to investigate the microbial and morphological changes that occur in the defunctioned ileum following loop ileostomy-mediated faecal stream diversion...
June 16, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604736/how-nutrition-and-the-maternal-microbiota-shape-the-neonatal-immune-system
#2
REVIEW
Andrew J Macpherson, Mercedes Gomez de Agüero, Stephanie C Ganal-Vonarburg
The mucosal surfaces of mammals are densely colonized with microorganisms that are commonly referred to as the commensal microbiota. It is believed that the fetus in utero is sterile and that colonization with microorganisms starts only after birth. Nevertheless, the unborn fetus is exposed to a multitude of metabolites that originate from the commensal microbiota of the mother that reach systemic sites of the maternal body. The intestinal microbiota is strongly personalized and influenced by environmental factors, including nutrition...
June 12, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589947/gut-microbiota-composition-in-relation-to-the-metabolic-response-to-12-week-combined-polyphenol-supplementation-in-overweight-men-and-women
#3
J Most, J Penders, M Lucchesi, G H Goossens, E E Blaak
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The intestinal microbiota may have a profound impact on host metabolism. As evidence suggests that polyphenols affect substrate utilization, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of polyphenol supplementation on intestinal microbiota composition in humans. Furthermore, we examined whether (changes in) gut microbiota composition may determine the metabolic response to polyphenol supplementation. SUBJECTS/METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo (PLA)-controlled trial, 37 overweight and obese men and women (18 males/19 females, 37...
June 7, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588586/the-research-progress-on-intestinal-stem-cells-and-its-relationship-with-intestinal-microbiota
#4
REVIEW
Qihang Hou, Lulu Ye, Lulu Huang, Qinghua Yu
The intestine is home to trillions of microorganisms, and the vast diversity within this gut microbiota exists in a balanced state to protect the intestinal mucosal barrier. Research into the association of the intestinal microbiota with health and disease (including diet, nutrition, obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, and cancer) continues to expand, with the field advancing at a rapid rate. Intestinal stem cells (ISCs) are the fundamental component of the mucosal barrier; they undergo continuous proliferation to replace the epithelium, which is also intimately involved in intestinal diseases...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587219/in-vitro-study-of-the-metabolic-characteristics-of-eight-isoquinoline-alkaloids-from-natural-plants-in-rat-gut-microbiota
#5
Chi-Yu He, Jie Fu, Jia-Wen Shou, Zhen-Xiong Zhao, Long Ren, Yan Wang, Jian-Dong Jiang
Gut microbiota is populated with an immense number of microorganisms, which can be regulated by dietary components and drugs to markedly affect the nutritional and health status of the host. Eight medicinal isoquinoline alkaloids from natural plants were cultured anaerobically with rat gut microbiota and an LC/MS(n)-IT-TOF technique was used to identify the resulting metabolites. Palmatine, tetrahydropalmatine, dauricine, and tetrandrine containing nitro-hexatomic isoquinoline rings could be easily transformed by the intestinal flora in vitro and a total of nine demethylated metabolites were detected...
June 4, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581020/insights-into-the-fecal-microbiota-of-captive-iberian-lynx-lynx-pardinus
#6
José Alberto Núñez-Díaz, M Carmen Balebona, Eva M Alcaide, Irene Zorrilla, Miguel Ángel Moriñigo
The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) is an endangered species restricted to several areas of Spain and Portugal. Its low genetic diversity likely provokes immune depression and high susceptibility to infectious diseases. The intestinal microbiota is closely related to host health and nutrition. In order to contribute to the knowledge of the Iberian lynx intestinal microbiota, fecal microbiota of captive specimens from two breeding centers ("La Olivilla" and "El Acebuche"), located in Southern Spain, were studied by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE)...
March 2017: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566122/necrotizing-enterocolitis-classification-and-two-initial-steps-towards-prevention
#7
Sandra Meinich Juhl
The premature infant suffers from immaturity of all organ systems, one of them being the gastrointestinal tract. When the infant is born, the immature gastrointestinal tract is exposed to milk and simultaneously colonized by high densities of bacteria. The combination of milk, microbiota and an immature gut, leaves the infant vulnerable to developing the dreaded intestinal emergency necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). NEC is often very aggressive and no cure exists, which means that prevention is an utmost important topic to researchers, physicians, parents - and infants...
June 2017: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526795/exploring-a-possible-link-between-the-intestinal-microbiota-and-feed-efficiency-in-pigs
#8
Ursula M McCormack, Tânia Curião, Stefan G Buzoianu, Maria L Prieto, Tomas Ryan, Patrick Varley, Fiona Crispie, Elizabeth Magowan, Barbara U Metzler-Zebeli, Donagh Berry, Orla O'Sullivan, Paul D Cotter, Gillian E Gardiner, Peadar G Lawlor
Feed efficiency (FE) is critical in pig production for both economic and environmental reasons. As the intestinal microbiota plays an important role in energy harvest, it is likely to influence FE. Our aim was therefore to characterize the intestinal microbiota of pigs ranked as low, medium and high residual feed intake (RFI; a metric for FE), where genetic, nutritional and management effects were minimized, in order to explore a possible link between the intestinal microbiota and FE. Eighty one pigs were ranked on RFI between weaning and day 126 post-weaning, and 32 were selected as the extremes in RFI (12 low, 10 medium, 10 high)...
May 19, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521318/breastfeeding-childhood-asthma-and-allergic-disease
#9
Wendy H Oddy
The worldwide prevalence of childhood asthma has been increasing considerably, and the protection afforded by breastfeeding in its development has been the subject of controversy for more than 80 years. Previous systematic reviews have generally found a protective effect of breastfeeding on allergic outcomes, although many studies have methodological limitations. Although breastfeeding is protective against lower respiratory tract infection during infancy, such protection has not been demonstrated for asthma in all studies...
2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501098/alterations-in-intestinal-microbiota-relate-to-intestinal-failure-associated-liver-disease-and-central-line-infections
#10
Panliang Wang, Ying Wang, Lina Lu, Weihui Yan, Yijing Tao, Kejun Zhou, Jie Jia, Wei Cai
BACKGROUND: The gut microbiota plays a vital role in modulating the metabolic and immune functions of the intestines. We aimed to analyze the dysbiosis of microbiota in infants with short bowel syndrome (SBS) with different complications. PROCEDURE: We included 26 fecal samples from 18 infants with SBS during parenteral nutrition. The samples were categorized into three groups: asymptomatic, parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD), and central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI)...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497760/the-intestinal-microbiome-and-paediatric-liver-disease
#11
REVIEW
Daniel H Leung, Dean Yimlamai
The intestinal microbiome has been the intense focus of recent study, but how the microbiota affects connected organs, such as the liver, has not been fully elucidated. The microbiome regulates intestinal permeability and helps to metabolise the human diet into small molecules, thus directly affecting liver health. Several studies have linked intestinal dysbiosis to the severity and progression of liver diseases, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, total parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease, and cystic fibrosis-associated liver disease...
June 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486162/the-impact-of-nutrition-on-intestinal-bacterial-communities
#12
REVIEW
Harry J Flint, Sylvia H Duncan, Petra Louis
What we eat influences the species composition of our gut microbiota. This is not only because diet composition determines the supply of substrates for microbial growth (in the form of dietary residue, mainly fibre, that reaches the large intestine) but also because of impacts on gut transit and the gut environment. In turn the metabolic activities of the gut microbiota, which have important health consequences, are influenced by diet and diet-driven changes in microbiota composition. Better understanding of the metabolic capabilities and host-interactions of dominant members of the gut microbiota will aid our ability to improve human health through diet...
May 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468236/non-traditional-aspects-of-renal-diets-focus-on-fiber-alkali-and-vitamin-k1-intake
#13
Adamasco Cupisti, Claudia D'Alessandro, Loreto Gesualdo, Carmela Cosola, Maurizio Gallieni, Maria Francesca Egidi, Maria Fusaro
Renal diets for advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) are structured to achieve a lower protein, phosphate and sodium intake, while supplying adequate energy. The aim of this nutritional intervention is to prevent or correct signs, symptoms and complications of renal insufficiency, delaying the start of dialysis and preserving nutritional status. This paper focuses on three additional aspects of renal diets that can play an important role in the management of CKD patients: the vitamin K1 and fiber content, and the alkalizing potential...
April 29, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441866/interactions-of-insoluble-residue-from-enzymatic-hydrolysis-of-brewer-s-spent-grain-with-intestinal-microbiota-in-mice
#14
Johanna Maukonen, Anna-Marja Aura, Piritta Niemi, Gulam Shere Raza, Klaus Niemelä, Jaroslaw Walkowiak, Ismo Mattila, Kaisa Poutanen, Johanna Buchert, Karl-Heinz Herzig
Brewer's spent grain (BSG) is the major side-stream from brewing. As BSG is rich in dietary fiber and protein, it could be used in more valuable applications, such as nutritional additives for foods. Our aim was to elucidate whether an insoluble lignin-rich fraction (INS) from BSG is metabolized by mice gut microbiota and how it affects the microbiota. Our results indicated that lignin was partially degraded by the gut microbiota, degradation products were absorbed, and finally excreted in urine. Therefore, they contribute to the phenolic pool circulating in the mammalian body, and may have systemic effects on health...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439072/fecal-microbial-characterization-of-hospitalized-patients-with-suspected-infectious-diarrhea-shows-significant-dysbiosis
#15
Tzipi Braun, Ayelet Di Segni, Marina BenShoshan, Roy Asaf, James E Squires, Sarit Farage Barhom, Efrat Glick Saar, Karen Cesarkas, Gill Smollan, Batia Weiss, Sharon Amit, Nathan Keller, Yael Haberman
Hospitalized patients are at increased risk for acquiring healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and inadequate nutrition. The human intestinal microbiota plays vital functions in nutrient supply and protection from pathogens, yet characterization of the microbiota of hospitalized patients is lacking. We used 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing to characterize the global pattern of microbial composition of fecal samples from 196 hospitalized patients with suspected infectious diarrhea in comparison to healthy, non-hospitalized subjects (n = 881), and to traditional culture results...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425133/fecal-microbiota-signatures-of-adult-patients-with-different-types-of-short-bowel-syndrome
#16
Yuhua Huang, Feilong Guo, Yousheng Li, Jian Wang, Jieshou Li
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a common cause of intestinal failure and can be divided into three types depending on intestinal anatomy. Gut dysbiosis has been observed in pediatric SBS patients and is associated with impaired outcome. Little is known about the changes in gut microbiota of adult SBS patients. Therefore, we aim to characterize the fecal microbiota of adult patients with different types of SBS. METHODS: Fifteen fecal samples from healthy controls and adult patients with type II or type III SBS were collected (five in each group)...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420790/honeybee-gut-microbiota-promotes-host-weight-gain-via-bacterial-metabolism-and-hormonal-signaling
#17
Hao Zheng, J Elijah Powell, Margaret I Steele, Carsten Dietrich, Nancy A Moran
Social bees harbor a simple and specialized microbiota that is spatially organized into different gut compartments. Recent results on the potential involvement of bee gut communities in pathogen protection and nutritional function have drawn attention to the impact of the microbiota on bee health. However, the contributions of gut microbiota to host physiology have yet to be investigated. Here we show that the gut microbiota promotes weight gain of both whole body and the gut in individual honey bees. This effect is likely mediated by changes in host vitellogenin, insulin signaling, and gustatory response...
May 2, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412519/vitamin-d-signaling-in-intestinal-innate-immunity-and-homeostasis
#18
REVIEW
Vassil Dimitrov, John H White
The lumen of the gut hosts a plethora of microorganisms that participate in food assimilation, inactivation of harmful particles and in vitamin synthesis. On the other hand, enteric flora, a number of food antigens, and toxins are capable of triggering immune responses causing inflammation, which, when unresolved, may lead to chronic conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It is important, therefore, to contain the gut bacteria within the lumen, control microbial load and composition, as well as ensure adequate innate and adaptive immune responses to pathogenic threats...
April 12, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406692/effect-of-pre-and-post-weaning-high-fat-dietary-manipulation-on-intestinal-microflora-and-alkaline-phosphatase-activity-in-male-rats
#19
Z Šefčíková, D Bujňáková
We investigated the impact of a high-fat (HF) diet during pre- and post-weaning periods on the intestinal microbiota and alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity in male rats. Nutrition from birth was influenced by feeding rat dams with either a standard or HF diet. After weaning male pups nursed by control dams continued on a standard diet (CC) or HF diet (C->HF), while offspring nursed by HF dams continued on HF diet (HF) or standard diet (HF->C). The numbers of Bacteriodes/Prevotella (BAC) and Lactobacillus/Enterococcus (LAB) in the gut were determined by FISH technique...
April 12, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378134/pediatric-short-bowel-syndrome-and-subsequent-development-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-an-illustrative-case-and-literature-review
#20
Katherine J Baxter, Jahnavi K Srinivasan, Thomas R Ziegler, Tanvi Dhere, Richard R Ricketts, Megan M Durham
Short bowel syndrome (SBS) in neonates is an uncommon but highly morbid condition. As SBS survival increases, physiologic complications become more apparent. Few reports in the literature elucidate outcomes for adults with a pediatric history of SBS. We present a case report of a patient, born with complicated gastroschisis resulting in SBS at birth, who subsequently developed symptoms and pathologic changes of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) as an adult. The patient lived from age 7, after a Bianchi intestinal lengthening procedure, to age 34 independent of parenteral nutrition (PN), but requiring hydration fluid via G-tube...
June 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
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