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Intestinal microbiota nutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721546/health-benefits-observed-after-probiotic-lactobacillus-fermentum-ccm-7421-application-in-dogs
#1
REVIEW
Viola Strompfová, Ivana Kubašová, Andrea Lauková
The importance of the intestinal microbiota has attracted much interest in recent years particularly with respect to ways in which the microbiota can be manipulated in order to improve health. Improving gut health through the use of probiotic microorganisms has become an area of research activity in both human and animal nutrition. However, the amount of research using companion animals is insufficient. The present review evaluates and compares the effects achieved after application of canine-derived probiotic strain Lactobacillus fermentum CCM 7421 to healthy dogs as well as to dogs suffering from gastrointestinal disorders...
July 18, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715992/the-hibernator-microbiome-host-bacterial-interactions-in-an-extreme-nutritional-symbiosis
#2
Hannah V Carey, Fariba M Assadi-Porter
Animals that undergo seasonal cycles of feeding and fasting have adaptations that maintain integrity of organ systems when dietary nutrients are lacking. Food deprivation also challenges the gut microbiota, which relies heavily on host diet for metabolic substrates and the gastrointestinal tract, which is influenced by enteral nutrients and microbial activity. Winter fasting in hibernators shifts the microbiota to favor taxa with the capacity to degrade and utilize host-derived substrates and disfavor taxa that prefer complex plant polysaccharides...
July 17, 2017: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714911/nutrition-and-allergic-diseases
#3
EDITORIAL
R J J van Neerven, Huub Savelkoul
The development of IgE-mediated allergic diseases is influenced by many factors, including genetic and environmental factors such as pollution and farming, but also by nutrition. In the last decade, substantial progress has been made in our understanding of the impact that nutrition can have on allergic diseases. Many studies have addressed the effect of breastfeeding, pre-, pro- and synbiotics, vitamins and minerals, fiber, fruit and vegetables, cow's milk, and n-3 fatty acids, on the development of allergies...
July 17, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694488/outer-membrane-vesicles-secreted-by-pathogenic-and-nonpathogenic-bacteroides-fragilis-represent-different-metabolic-activities
#4
Natalya B Zakharzhevskaya, Anna A Vanyushkina, Ilya A Altukhov, Aleksey L Shavarda, Ivan O Butenko, Daria V Rakitina, Anastasia S Nikitina, Aleksandr I Manolov, Alina N Egorova, Eugene E Kulikov, Innokentii E Vishnyakov, Gleb Y Fisunov, Vadim M Govorun
Numerous studies are devoted to the intestinal microbiota and intercellular communication maintaining homeostasis. In this regard, vesicles secreted by bacteria represent one of the most popular topics for research. For example, the outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) of Bacteroides fragilis play an important nutritional role with respect to other microorganisms and promote anti-inflammatory effects on immune cells. However, toxigenic B. fragilis (ETBF) contributes to bowel disease, even causing colon cancer. If nontoxigenic B...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684750/molecular-ecological-network-analysis-reveals-the-effects-of-probiotics-and-florfenicol-on-intestinal-microbiota-homeostasis-an-example-of-sea-cucumber
#5
Gang Yang, Mo Peng, Xiangli Tian, Shuanglin Dong
Animal gut harbors diverse microbes that play crucial roles in the nutrition uptake, metabolism, and the regulation of host immune responses. The intestinal microbiota homeostasis is critical for health but poorly understood. Probiotics Paracoccus marcusii DB11 and Bacillus cereus G19, and antibiotics florfenicol did not significantly impact species richness and the diversity of intestinal microbiota of sea cucumber, in comparison with those in the control group by high-throughput sequencing. Molecular ecological network analysis indicated that P...
July 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684695/secretory-leukoprotease-inhibitor-slpi-expression-is-required-for-educating-murine-dendritic-cells-inflammatory-response-following-quercetin-exposure
#6
Stefania De Santis, Vanessa Galleggiante, Letizia Scandiffio, Marina Liso, Eduardo Sommella, Anastasia Sobolewski, Vito Spilotro, Aldo Pinto, Pietro Campiglia, Grazia Serino, Angelo Santino, Maria Notarnicola, Marcello Chieppa
Dendritic cells' (DCs) ability to present antigens and initiate the adaptive immune response confers them a pivotal role in immunological defense against hostile infection and, at the same time, immunological tolerance towards harmless components of the microbiota. Food products can modulate the inflammatory status of intestinal DCs. Among nutritionally-derived products, we investigated the ability of quercetin to suppress inflammatory cytokines secretion, antigen presentation, and DCs migration towards the draining lymph nodes...
July 6, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684691/administration-of-inulin-supplemented-gluten-free-diet-modified-calcium-absorption-and-caecal-microbiota-in-rats-in-a-calcium-dependent-manner
#7
Urszula Krupa-Kozak, Lidia H Markiewicz, Grzegorz Lamparski, Jerzy Juśkiewicz
In coeliac disease (CD), the risk of adverse calcium balance and reduced bone density is induced mainly by the disease, but also by a gluten-free diet (GFD), the only accepted CD therapy. Prebiotics through the beneficial impact on intestinal microbiota may stimulate calcium (Ca) absorption. In the present study, we hypothesised that the dietary inulin in GFD would influence positively the intestinal microbiota, and by that will stimulate the absorption of calcium (Ca), especially in the conditions of Ca malnutrition...
July 6, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681454/human-monocytes-downregulate-innate-response-receptors-following-exposure-to-the-microbial-metabolite-n-butyrate
#8
Felix Lasitschka, Thomas Giese, Marco Paparella, Stefan R Kurzhals, Guido Wabnitz, Katrin Jacob, Judith Gras, Konrad A Bode, Anne-Kristin Heninger, Timea Sziskzai, Yvonne Samstag, Cornelia Leszinski, Bettina Jocher, Mohammed Al-Saeedi, Stefan C Meuer, Jutta Schröder-Braunstein
INTRODUCTION: Hyporesponsiveness of human lamina propria immune cells to microbial and nutritional antigens represents one important feature of intestinal homeostasis. It is at least partially mediated by low expression of the innate response receptors CD11b, CD14, CD16 as well as the cystine-glutamate transporter xCT on these cells. Milieu-specific mechanisms leading to the down-regulation of these receptors on circulating monocytes, the precursor cells of resident macrophages, are mostly unknown...
July 6, 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676459/shaping-functional-gut-microbiota-using-dietary-bioactives-to-reduce-colon-cancer-risk
#9
REVIEW
Derek V Seidel, M Andrea Azcárate-Peril, Robert S Chapkin, Nancy D Turner
Colon cancer is a multifactorial disease associated with a variety of lifestyle factors. Alterations in the gut microbiota and the intestinal metabolome are noted during colon carcinogenesis, implicating them as critical contributors or results of the disease process. Diet is a known determinant of health, and as a modifier of the gut microbiota and its metabolism, a critical element in maintenance of intestinal health. This review summarizes recent evidence demonstrating the role and responses of the intestinal microbiota during colon tumorigenesis and the ability of dietary bioactive compounds and probiotics to impact colon health from the intestinal lumen to the epithelium and systemically...
July 1, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659297/nutritional-strategies-and-gut-microbiota-composition-as-risk-factors-for-necrotizing-enterocolitis-in-very-preterm-infants
#10
Jean-Christophe Rozé, Pierre-Yves Ancel, Patricia Lepage, Laetitia Martin-Marchand, Ziad Al Nabhani, Johanne Delannoy, Jean-Charles Picaud, Alexandre Lapillonne, Julio Aires, Mélanie Durox, Dominique Darmaun, Josef Neu, Marie-José Butel
Background: The pathophysiology of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains poorly understood.Objective: We assessed the relation between feeding strategies, intestinal microbiota composition, and the development of NEC.Design: We performed a prospective nationwide population-based study, EPIPAGE 2 (Etude Epidémiologique sur les Petits Ages Gestationnels), including preterm infants born at <32 wk of gestation in France in 2011. From individual characteristics observed during the first week of life, we calculated a propensity score for the risk of NEC (Bell's stage 2 or 3) after day 7 of life...
June 28, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655159/two-distinct-metacommunities-characterize-the-gut-microbiota-in-crohn-s-disease-patients
#11
Qing He, Yuan Gao, Zhuye Jie, Xinlei Yu, Janne Marie Laursen, Liang Xiao, Ying Li, Lingling Li, Faming Zhang, Qiang Feng, Xiaoping Li, Jinghong Yu, Chuan Liu, Ping Lan, Ting Yan, Xin Liu, Xun Xu, Huanming Yang, Jian Wang, Lise Madsen, Susanne Brix, Jianping Wang, Karsten Kristiansen, Huijue Jia
Background: The inflammatory intestinal disorder Crohn's disease (CD) has become a health challenge worldwide. The gut microbiota closely interacts with the host immune system, but its functional impact in CD is unclear. Except for studies on a small number of CD patients, analyses of the gut microbiota in CD have used 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing. Here we employed metagenomic shotgun sequencing to provide a detailed characterization of the compositional and functional features of the CD microbiota, comprising also unannotated bacteria, and investigated its modulation by exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN)...
June 26, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622070/loop-ileostomy-mediated-fecal-stream-diversion-is-associated-with-microbial-dysbiosis
#12
Emma L Beamish, Judith Johnson, Elisabeth J Shaw, Nigel A Scott, Arnab Bhowmick, Rachael J Rigby
Loop ileostomy is an effective procedure to protect downstream intestinal anastomoses. Ileostomy reversal surgery is often performed within 12 months of formation but is associated with substantial morbidity due to severe post-surgical complications. Distal ileum is deprived of enteral nutrition and rendered inactive, often becoming atrophied and fibrotic. This study aimed to investigate the microbial and morphological changes that occur in the defunctioned ileum following loop ileostomy-mediated fecal stream diversion...
June 16, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604736/how-nutrition-and-the-maternal-microbiota-shape-the-neonatal-immune-system
#13
REVIEW
Andrew J Macpherson, Mercedes Gomez de Agüero, Stephanie C Ganal-Vonarburg
The mucosal surfaces of mammals are densely colonized with microorganisms that are commonly referred to as the commensal microbiota. It is believed that the fetus in utero is sterile and that colonization with microorganisms starts only after birth. Nevertheless, the unborn fetus is exposed to a multitude of metabolites that originate from the commensal microbiota of the mother that reach systemic sites of the maternal body. The intestinal microbiota is strongly personalized and influenced by environmental factors, including nutrition...
June 12, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589947/gut-microbiota-composition-in-relation-to-the-metabolic-response-to-12-week-combined-polyphenol-supplementation-in-overweight-men-and-women
#14
J Most, J Penders, M Lucchesi, G H Goossens, E E Blaak
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The intestinal microbiota may have a profound impact on host metabolism. As evidence suggests that polyphenols affect substrate utilization, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of polyphenol supplementation on intestinal microbiota composition in humans. Furthermore, we examined whether (changes in) gut microbiota composition may determine the metabolic response to polyphenol supplementation. SUBJECTS/METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo (PLA)-controlled trial, 37 overweight and obese men and women (18 males/19 females, 37...
June 7, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588586/the-research-progress-on-intestinal-stem-cells-and-its-relationship-with-intestinal-microbiota
#15
REVIEW
Qihang Hou, Lulu Ye, Lulu Huang, Qinghua Yu
The intestine is home to trillions of microorganisms, and the vast diversity within this gut microbiota exists in a balanced state to protect the intestinal mucosal barrier. Research into the association of the intestinal microbiota with health and disease (including diet, nutrition, obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, and cancer) continues to expand, with the field advancing at a rapid rate. Intestinal stem cells (ISCs) are the fundamental component of the mucosal barrier; they undergo continuous proliferation to replace the epithelium, which is also intimately involved in intestinal diseases...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587219/in-vitro-study-of-the-metabolic-characteristics-of-eight-isoquinoline-alkaloids-from-natural-plants-in-rat-gut-microbiota
#16
Chi-Yu He, Jie Fu, Jia-Wen Shou, Zhen-Xiong Zhao, Long Ren, Yan Wang, Jian-Dong Jiang
Gut microbiota is populated with an immense number of microorganisms, which can be regulated by dietary components and drugs to markedly affect the nutritional and health status of the host. Eight medicinal isoquinoline alkaloids from natural plants were cultured anaerobically with rat gut microbiota and an LC/MS(n)-IT-TOF technique was used to identify the resulting metabolites. Palmatine, tetrahydropalmatine, dauricine, and tetrandrine containing nitro-hexatomic isoquinoline rings could be easily transformed by the intestinal flora in vitro and a total of nine demethylated metabolites were detected...
June 4, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581020/insights-into-the-fecal-microbiota-of-captive-iberian-lynx-lynx-pardinus
#17
José Alberto Núñez-Díaz, M Carmen Balebona, Eva M Alcaide, Irene Zorrilla, Miguel Ángel Moriñigo
The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) is an endangered species restricted to several areas of Spain and Portugal. Its low genetic diversity likely provokes immune depression and high susceptibility to infectious diseases. The intestinal microbiota is closely related to host health and nutrition. In order to contribute to the knowledge of the Iberian lynx intestinal microbiota, fecal microbiota of captive specimens from two breeding centers ("La Olivilla" and "El Acebuche"), located in Southern Spain, were studied by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE)...
March 2017: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566122/necrotizing-enterocolitis-classification-and-two-initial-steps-towards-prevention
#18
Sandra Meinich Juhl
The premature infant suffers from immaturity of all organ systems, one of them being the gastrointestinal tract. When the infant is born, the immature gastrointestinal tract is exposed to milk and simultaneously colonized by high densities of bacteria. The combination of milk, microbiota and an immature gut, leaves the infant vulnerable to developing the dreaded intestinal emergency necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). NEC is often very aggressive and no cure exists, which means that prevention is an utmost important topic to researchers, physicians, parents - and infants...
June 2017: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526795/exploring-a-possible-link-between-the-intestinal-microbiota-and-feed-efficiency-in-pigs
#19
Ursula M McCormack, Tânia Curião, Stefan G Buzoianu, Maria L Prieto, Tomas Ryan, Patrick Varley, Fiona Crispie, Elizabeth Magowan, Barbara U Metzler-Zebeli, Donagh Berry, Orla O'Sullivan, Paul D Cotter, Gillian E Gardiner, Peadar G Lawlor
Feed efficiency (FE) is critical in pig production for both economic and environmental reasons. As the intestinal microbiota plays an important role in energy harvest, it is likely to influence FE. Our aim was therefore to characterize the intestinal microbiota of pigs ranked as low, medium and high residual feed intake (RFI; a metric for FE), where genetic, nutritional and management effects were minimized, in order to explore a possible link between the intestinal microbiota and FE. Eighty one pigs were ranked on RFI between weaning and day 126 post-weaning, and 32 were selected as the extremes in RFI (12 low, 10 medium, 10 high)...
May 19, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521318/breastfeeding-childhood-asthma-and-allergic-disease
#20
Wendy H Oddy
The worldwide prevalence of childhood asthma has been increasing considerably, and the protection afforded by breastfeeding in its development has been the subject of controversy for more than 80 years. Previous systematic reviews have generally found a protective effect of breastfeeding on allergic outcomes, although many studies have methodological limitations. Although breastfeeding is protective against lower respiratory tract infection during infancy, such protection has not been demonstrated for asthma in all studies...
2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
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