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Intestinal microbiota nutrition

Bastian Hornung, Vitor A P Martins Dos Santos, Hauke Smidt, Peter J Schaap
Humans are not autonomous entities. We are all living in a complex environment, interacting not only with our peers, but as true holobionts; we are also very much in interaction with our coexisting microbial ecosystems living on and especially within us, in the intestine. Intestinal microorganisms, often collectively referred to as intestinal microbiota, contribute significantly to our daily energy uptake by breaking down complex carbohydrates into simple sugars, which are fermented to short-chain fatty acids and subsequently absorbed by human cells...
2018: Genes & Nutrition
Heidi Cecilie Villmones, Erik Skaaheim Haug, Elling Ulvestad, Nils Grude, Tore Stenstad, Adrian Halland, Øyvind Kommedal
The small bowel is responsible for most of the body's nutritional uptake and for the development of intestinal and systemic tolerance towards microbes. Nevertheless, the human small bowel microbiota has remained poorly characterized, mainly owing to sampling difficulties. Sample collection directly from the distal ileum was performed during radical cystectomy with urinary diversion. Material from the ileal mucosa were analysed using massive parallel sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Samples from 27 Caucasian patients were included...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Carmela Cosola, Maria Teresa Rocchetti, Adamasco Cupisti, Loreto Gesualdo
In chronic kidney disease (CKD), cardiovascular (CV) damage is present in parallel which leads to an increased risk of CV disease. Both traditional and non-traditional risk factors contribute to CV damage in CKD. The systemic role of the microbiota as a central player in the pathophysiology of many organs is progressively emerging in the literature: the microbiota is indeed involved in a complex, bi-directional network between many organs, including the kidney and heart connection, although many of these relationships still need to be elucidated through in-depth mechanistic studies...
March 5, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Simona Rimoldi, Genciana Terova, Chiara Ascione, Riccardo Giannico, Fabio Brambilla
Animal by-product meals from the rendering industry could provide a sustainable and commercially viable alternative to fishmeal (FM) in aquaculture, as they are rich in most essential amino acids and contain important amounts of water-soluble proteins that improve feed digestibility and palatability. Among them, poultry by-product meal (PBM) have given encouraging results in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). However, the introduction of new ingredients in the diet needs to be carefully evaluated since diet is one of the main factors affecting the gut microbiota, which is a complex community that contributes to host metabolism, nutrition, growth, and disease resistance...
2018: PloS One
Anniina Rintala, Iiris Riikonen, Anne Toivonen, Sami Pietilä, Eveliina Munukka, Juha-Pekka Pursiheimo, Laura L Elo, Pekka Arikoski, Kristiina Luopajärvi, Ursula Schwab, Matti Uusitupa, Seppo Heinonen, Erkki Savilahti, Erkki Eerola, Jorma Ilonen
OBJECTIVES: Several studies have reported that the intestinal microbiota composition of celiac disease (CD) patients differs from healthy individuals. The possible role of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of the disease is, however, not known. Here, we aimed to assess the possible differences in early fecal microbiota composition between children that later developed CD and healthy controls matched for age, sex and HLA risk genotype. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to examine the fecal microbiota of 27 children with high genetic risk of developing CD...
March 5, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
Jannigje G Kers, Francisca C Velkers, Egil A J Fischer, Gerben D A Hermes, J A Stegeman, Hauke Smidt
The initial development of intestinal microbiota in poultry plays an important role in production performance, overall health and resistance against microbial infections. Multiplexed sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicons is often used in studies, such as feed intervention or antimicrobial drug trials, to determine corresponding effects on the composition of intestinal microbiota. However, considerable variation of intestinal microbiota composition has been observed both within and across studies. Such variation may in part be attributed to technical factors, such as sampling procedures, sample storage, DNA extraction, the choice of PCR primers and corresponding region to be sequenced, and the sequencing platforms used...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Ana D Mandić, Michael Blaut
In a recent article in Cell Reports, Dalby and colleagues convincingly demonstrate that choosing an inadequate control diet in animal experiments that investigate the interaction of nutrition, gut microbiota, and obesity development may lead to the wrong conclusions. The authors systematically compared the effects of refined high- and low-fat diets (rHFD and rLFD) with those of a standard chow diet on mouse physiology, microbiota composition, cecal fermentation, and intestinal morphology. The results obtained in this study question the conclusions drawn from animal studies that compared the effects of HFDs with those of chow diets...
March 1, 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Gianluca Lista, Fabio Meneghin, Ilia Bresesti, Francesca Castoldi
The development of a proper neonatal microbiota is of great importance, especially for the effects that dysbiosis has in acute and chronic diseases' onset. The microbiota, particularly the intestinal one, plays a crucial role in maintaining the health of the host, preventing colonization by pathogenic bacteria and significantly influencing the development and maturation of a normal gastrointestinal mucosal immunity. Several factors may interfere with the physiological development of microbiota, such as diseases during pregnancy, type of delivery, maternal nutrition, type of neonatal feeding, use of antibiotics, exposition to hospital environment (e...
December 22, 2017: La Pediatria Medica e Chirurgica: Medical and Surgical Pediatrics
Giusy Ranucci, Vittoria Buccigrossi, Eleonora Borgia, Daniela Piacentini, Federica Visentin, Luigi Cantarutti, Paola Baiardi, Mariagrazia Felisi, Maria Immacolata Spagnuolo, Stefania Zanconato, Eugenio Baraldi, Carlo Giaquinto, Alfredo Guarino
BACKGROUND: Early nutrition affects the risk of atopy and infections through modifications of intestinal microbiota. The Prebiotics in the Prevention of Atopy (PIPA) study was a 24-month randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. It aimed to evaluate the effects of a galacto-oligosaccharide/polydextrose (GOS/PDX)-formula (PF) on atopic dermatitis (AD) and common infections in infants who were born to atopic parents and to investigate the relationship among early nutrition, gut microbiota and clinical outcomes...
March 1, 2018: Nutrients
Alla Splichalova, Vera Slavikova, Zdislava Splichalova, Igor Splichal
Preterm infants born with immature organ systems, which can impede normal development, can also be highly sensitive to different biological and/or environmental factors. Animal models could aid in investigating and understanding the effects of different conditions on the health of these immunocompromised infants. The epitheliochorial placentation of the pig prevents the prenatal transfer of protective colostral immunoglobulins. Surgical colostrum-deprived piglets are free of maternal immunoglobulins, and the cells that are normally provided via colostrum...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Kuldeep Dhama
BACKGROUND: Punica granatum L (pomegranate), is a shrub mostly available in the Mediterranean Sea region. The fruits have gained the substantial attention among researchers due to its promising biological activities including anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antidiarrheal, immune modulatory, antitumor, wound healing and antifungal that have been attributed to various constituents of seeds, bark, juice, pericarp and leaf of this tree across the globe. The phenolic compounds of pomegranate have been documented to possess numbers of prophylactic and therapeutic utilities against various pathological infections as well as non-infectious disorders...
February 21, 2018: Recent Patents on Inflammation & Allergy Drug Discovery
Jing Gao, Kang Xu, Hongnan Liu, Gang Liu, Miaomiao Bai, Can Peng, Tiejun Li, Yulong Yin
The gut microbiota influences the health of the host, especially with regard to gut immune homeostasis and the intestinal immune response. In addition to serving as a nutrient enhancer, L-tryptophan (Trp) plays crucial roles in the balance between intestinal immune tolerance and gut microbiota maintenance. Recent discoveries have underscored that changes in the microbiota modulate the host immune system by modulating Trp metabolism. Moreover, Trp, endogenous Trp metabolites (kynurenines, serotonin, and melatonin), and bacterial Trp metabolites (indole, indolic acid, skatole, and tryptamine) have profound effects on gut microbial composition, microbial metabolism, the host's immune system, the host-microbiome interface, and host immune system-intestinal microbiota interactions...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Elisavet Stavropoulou, Gratiela G Pircalabioru, Eugenia Bezirtzoglou
Cytochromes are expressed in many different tissues of the human body. They are found mostly in intestinal and hepatic tissues. Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are enzymes that oxidize substances using iron and are able to metabolize a large variety of xenobiotic substances. CYP enzymes are linked to a wide array of reactions including and O-dealkylation, S-oxidation, epoxidation, and hydroxylation. The activity of the typical P450 cytochrome is influenced by a variety of factors, such as genus, environment, disease state, herbicide, alcohol, and herbal medications...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Miguel Carnero-Gregorio, Alberto Molares-Vila, Alberte Corbalán-Rivas, Carlos Villaverde-Taboada, Carmen Rodríguez-Cerdeira
Gut Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of chronic gastrointestinal disorders characterised by relapsing and remitting inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. The two most common types of IBDs are ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Patients with glycogen storage disease (GSD) type Ia present with gastrointestinal symptoms such as recurrent abdominal pain, bloating and changes in stool form or frequency, which is clinically difficult to distinguish from IBD. We report the case of a 36-year-old man with GSD type Ia and IBD-like disease...
February 13, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Axelle Septembre-Malaterre, Fabienne Remize, Patrick Poucheret
Nutritional recommendations emphasize fruit and vegetable consumption. This is related to health-benefits associated with bioactive nutritive molecules (nutrients, vitamins, minerals, fibers, …) as well as non-nutritive phytochemicals (phenolic compounds, flavonoids, bioactive peptides, …) content of these types of foods. Fermented fruit or vegetable products are part of various diets worldwide. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) fermentation is common among the various fermentation processes used. It produces changes in both profile and types of bioactive compounds...
February 2018: Food Research International
Stephen A McClave, Jayshil Patel, Neal Bhutiani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Maintaining gut barrier defenses, modulating immune responses, and supporting the role of commensal microbiota are major factors influencing outcome in critical illness. Of these, maintaining a commensal 'lifestyle' and preventing the emergence of a virulent pathobiome may be most important in reducing risk of infection and multiple organ failure. RECENT FINDINGS: The polymeric formulas utilized for enteral nutrition in the ICU are absorbed high in the gastrointestinal tract and may not reach the microbial burden in the cecum where their effect is most needed...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Martin Schwarzer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review focuses on the recent discoveries about the impact of intestinal microbiota on mammalian host juvenile growth. RECENT FINDINGS: Intestinal microbiota is a powerful modulator of many facets of multicellular host's physiology. Recent results from human field studies and animal research have clearly shown that not only the nutrition, but also the intestinal microbiota impacts host postnatal growth kinetics. Absence of microbiome leads to stunted growth in mammalian gnotobiotic models and changes in the composition of the intestinal microbiota can impact the postnatal growth kinetics both positively and negatively under normal nutritional conditions as well as in undernutrition...
February 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
M Q Wang, Y Li, C H Sun
The human gastro-intestinal tract is not only the habitat of gut microbiota, but also the main place that the body gets available nutrients. Therefore, the gut microbiota of human can be inseparable associated with the human nutrition. The common technologies used among gut microbiota research included metageonomic, metatranscriptomics, metaproteomics, and metabolomics. The research of gut microbiota based on above omics methods confirmed that diets were the main factors influencing the composition and expression of gut microbiota...
February 6, 2018: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
Micah L Battson, Dustin M Lee, Tiffany L Weir, Christopher L Gentile
The gut microbiome has emerged as a critical regulator of human physiology. Deleterious changes to the composition or number of gut bacteria, commonly referred to as gut dysbiosis, has been linked to the development and progression of numerous diet-related diseases, including cardiovascular disease (CVD). Most CVD risk factors, including aging, obesity, certain dietary patterns, and a sedentary lifestyle, have been shown to induce gut dysbiosis. Dysbiosis is associated with intestinal inflammation and reduced integrity of the gut barrier, which in turn increases circulating levels of bacterial structural components and microbial metabolites that may facilitate the development of CVD...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
B Wróblewska, J Juśkiewicz, B Kroplewski, A Jurgoński, E Wasilewska, D Złotkowska, L Markiewicz
The objective of this work was to identify the nutritional and physiological effects of commercial soy and whey protein preparations. Wistar rats were fed with soy (S), whey (W), or casein (C) preparations as the sole dietary protein source. The nitrogen balance, body composition, changes in caecal microbiota, mucosal and bacterial enzyme activities, and allergenic potential of the preparations were analysed. The whey diet elicited greater skeletal muscle anabolism than the soy diet. Rats from the S group had the lowest values of body weight, fat, and lean mass gain...
February 8, 2018: Food & Function
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