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Intestinal microbiota nutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439072/fecal-microbial-characterization-of-hospitalized-patients-with-suspected-infectious-diarrhea-shows-significant-dysbiosis
#1
Tzipi Braun, Ayelet Di Segni, Marina BenShoshan, Roy Asaf, James E Squires, Sarit Farage Barhom, Efrat Glick Saar, Karen Cesarkas, Gill Smollan, Batia Weiss, Sharon Amit, Nathan Keller, Yael Haberman
Hospitalized patients are at increased risk for acquiring healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and inadequate nutrition. The human intestinal microbiota plays vital functions in nutrient supply and protection from pathogens, yet characterization of the microbiota of hospitalized patients is lacking. We used 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing to characterize the global pattern of microbial composition of fecal samples from 196 hospitalized patients with suspected infectious diarrhea in comparison to healthy, non-hospitalized subjects (n = 881), and to traditional culture results...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425133/fecal-microbiota-signatures-of-adult-patients-with-different-types-of-short-bowel-syndrome
#2
Yuhua Huang, Feilong Guo, Yousheng Li, Jian Wang, Jieshou Li
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a common cause of intestinal failure and can be divided into three types depending on intestinal anatomy. Gut dysbiosis has been observed in pediatric SBS patients and is associated with impaired outcome. Little is known about the changes in gut microbiota of adult SBS patients. Therefore, we aim to characterize the fecal microbiota of adult patients with different types of SBS. METHODS: Fifteen fecal samples from healthy controls and adult patients with type II or type III SBS were collected (five in each group)...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420790/honeybee-gut-microbiota-promotes-host-weight-gain-via-bacterial-metabolism-and-hormonal-signaling
#3
Hao Zheng, J Elijah Powell, Margaret I Steele, Carsten Dietrich, Nancy A Moran
Social bees harbor a simple and specialized microbiota that is spatially organized into different gut compartments. Recent results on the potential involvement of bee gut communities in pathogen protection and nutritional function have drawn attention to the impact of the microbiota on bee health. However, the contributions of gut microbiota to host physiology have yet to be investigated. Here we show that the gut microbiota promotes weight gain of both whole body and the gut in individual honey bees. This effect is likely mediated by changes in host vitellogenin, insulin signaling, and gustatory response...
April 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412519/vitamin-d-signaling-in-intestinal-innate-immunity-and-homeostasis
#4
REVIEW
Vassil Dimitrov, John H White
The lumen of the gut hosts a plethora of microorganisms that participate in food assimilation, inactivation of harmful particles and in vitamin synthesis. On the other hand, enteric flora, a number of food antigens, and toxins are capable of triggering immune responses causing inflammation, which, when unresolved, may lead to chronic conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It is important, therefore, to contain the gut bacteria within the lumen, control microbial load and composition, as well as ensure adequate innate and adaptive immune responses to pathogenic threats...
April 12, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406692/effect-of-pre-and-post-weaning-high-fat-dietary-manipulation-on-intestinal-microflora-and-alkaline-phosphatase-activity-in-male-rats
#5
Z Šefčíková, D Bujňáková
We investigated the impact of a high-fat (HF) diet during pre- and post-weaning periods on the intestinal microbiota and alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity in male rats. Nutrition from birth was influenced by feeding rat dams with either a standard or HF diet. After weaning male pups nursed by control dams continued on a standard diet (CC) or HF diet (C->HF), while offspring nursed by HF dams continued on HF diet (HF) or standard diet (HF->C). The numbers of Bacteriodes/Prevotella (BAC) and Lactobacillus/Enterococcus (LAB) in the gut were determined by FISH technique...
April 12, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378134/pediatric-short-bowel-syndrome-and-subsequent-development-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-an-illustrative-case-and-literature-review
#6
Katherine J Baxter, Jahnavi K Srinivasan, Thomas R Ziegler, Tanvi Dhere, Richard R Ricketts, Megan M Durham
Short bowel syndrome (SBS) in neonates is an uncommon but highly morbid condition. As SBS survival increases, physiologic complications become more apparent. Few reports in the literature elucidate outcomes for adults with a pediatric history of SBS. We present a case report of a patient, born with complicated gastroschisis resulting in SBS at birth, who subsequently developed symptoms and pathologic changes of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) as an adult. The patient lived from age 7, after a Bianchi intestinal lengthening procedure, to age 34 independent of parenteral nutrition (PN), but requiring hydration fluid via G-tube...
April 4, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345807/low-fodmap-in-2017-lessons-learned-from-clinical-trials-and-mechanistic-studies
#7
REVIEW
S Eswaran
Given the prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and the suboptimal response to most therapeutic approaches, there has been increasing interest in and adoption of dietary treatment strategies, such as the low Fermentable Oligo-, Di-, & Mono-Saccharides and Polyols (FODMAP) diet. FODMAPs are a diverse group of carbohydrates that exert effects in the gastrointestinal tract not only via fermentation but likely via alterations in the microbiota, metabolome, permeability, and intestinal immunity as well. Clinical evidence for efficacy of this diet is mounting, but there are significant questions regarding short- and long-term safety and effects on the microbiota and nutrition that remain unanswered...
April 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320307/perturbation-of-microbiota-in-one-day-old-broiler-chickens-with-antibiotic-for-24-hours-negatively-affects-intestinal-immune-development
#8
Dirkjan Schokker, Alfons J M Jansman, Gosse Veninga, Naomi de Bruin, Stephanie A Vastenhouw, Freddy M de Bree, Alex Bossers, Johanna M J Rebel, Mari A Smits
BACKGROUND: Gut microbial colonization and development of immune competence are intertwined and are influenced by early-life nutritional, environmental, and management factors. Perturbation of the gut microbiome at young age affects the crosstalk between intestinal bacteria and host cells of the intestinal mucosa. RESULTS: We investigated the effect of a perturbation of the normal early life microbial colonization of the jejunum in 1-day old chickens. Perturbation was induced by administering 0...
March 20, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298634/weaning-age-influences-the-severity-of-gastrointestinal-microbiome-shifts-in-dairy-calves
#9
S J Meale, S C Li, P Azevedo, H Derakhshani, T J DeVries, J C Plaizier, M A Steele, E Khafipour
Ruminants microbial consortium is responsible for ruminal fermentation, a process which converts fibrous feeds unsuitable for human consumption into desirable dairy and meat products, begins to establish soon after birth. However, it undergoes a significant transition when digestion shifts from the lower intestine to ruminal fermentation. We hypothesised that delaying the transition from a high milk diet to an exclusively solid food diet (weaning) would lessen the severity of changes in the gastrointestinal microbiome during this transition...
March 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298536/pasteurization-procedures-for-donor-human-milk-affect-body-growth-intestinal-structure-and-resistance-against-bacterial-infections-in-preterm-pigs
#10
Yanqi Li, Duc Ninh Nguyen, Marita de Waard, Lars Christensen, Ping Zhou, Pingping Jiang, Jing Sun, Anders Miki Bojesen, Charlotte Lauridsen, Jens Lykkesfeldt, Trine Kastrup Dalsgaard, Stine Brandt Bering, Per Torp Sangild
Background: Holder pasteurization (HP) destroys multiple bioactive factors in donor human milk (DM), and UV-C irradiation (UVC) is potentially a gentler method for pasteurizing DM for preterm infants.Objective: We investigated whether UVC-treated DM improves gut maturation and resistance toward bacterial infections relative to HP-treated DM.Methods: Bacteria, selected bioactive components, and markers of antioxidant capacity were measured in unpasteurized donor milk (UP), HP-treated milk, and UVC-treated milk (all from the same DM pool)...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286497/fine-flounder-paralichthys-adspersus-microbiome-showed-important-differences-between-wild-and-reared-specimens
#11
Carolina Ramírez, Jaime Romero
The intestinal microbiota is involved in a wide range of biological processes that benefit the host, including providing nutrition and modulating the immune system. Fine flounder (Paralichthys adspersus) is a flatfish of commercial interest that is native to the Chilean coast. The high value of this flatfish has prompted the development of stock enhancement and aquaculture activities. Knowledge of microbiota may help to improve the cultivation of this species; however, few comparative studies have evaluated the intestinal microbiota composition in farmed versus wild fishes...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283691/-modulation-of-the-intestinal-microbiota-by-nutritional-interventions
#12
S Derer, H Lehnert, C Sina, A E Wagner
Humans live in symbiosis with billions of commensal bacteria. The so-called microbiota live on different biological interfaces such as the skin, the urogenital tract and the gastrointestinal tract. Commensal bacteria replace potentially pathogenic microbes, synthesize vitamins and ferment dietary fibre. An imbalance in the bacterial composition of the intestinal microbiota has been associated with various diseases including gut-associated disorders such as inflammatory bowel diseases, colorectal cancer and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease...
March 10, 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276612/a-gut-reaction-the-combined-influence-of-exercise-and-diet-on-gastrointestinal-microbiota-in-rats
#13
Romeo Batacan, Andrew Fenning, Vincent J Dalbo, Aaron T Scanlan, Mitch J Duncan, Robert J Moore, Dragana Stanley
AIMS: Intestinal microbiota modulates the development of clinical conditions, including metabolic syndrome and obesity. Many of these conditions are influenced by nutritional and exercise behaviours. This study aimed to investigate the ability of exercise to re-shape the intestinal microbiota and the influence of the diet on the process. METHODS AND RESULTS: A rat model was used to examine the intestinal microbiota responses to four activity conditions, including: high intensity interval training, light intensity training, sedentary and normal control, each containing two nutritional conditions: high-fat high-fructose diet (HF) and standard chow (SC) diet...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275113/potential-mechanisms-of-effects-of-serum-derived-bovine-immunoglobulin-protein-isolate-therapy-in-patients-with-diarrhea-predominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#14
Nelson Valentin, Michael Camilleri, Paula Carlson, Sean C Harrington, Deborah Eckert, Jessica O'Neill, Duane Burton, Jun Chen, Audrey L Shaw, Andres Acosta
Serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin/protein isolate (SBI), an oral nutritional therapy, is efficacious in diverse diarrheal diseases. In an open-label study in 15 patients with irritable bowel syndrome-diarrhea (IBS-D), we evaluated effects of SBI (5.0 g, twice a day) for 8 weeks on safety, on bowel function and abdominal pain, tryptophan metabolism (K:T ratio), intestinal permeability ((13)C-mannitol and lactulose excretion), bile acid synthesis (fasting serum FGF-19 and C4), duodenal and stool microbiome, and the expression of 90 genes related to inflammation, immune function, and tight junctions in duodenal mucosa...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273475/integrative-physiology-at-the-crossroads-of-nutrition-microbiota-animal-physiology-and-human-health
#15
REVIEW
François Leulier, Lesley T MacNeil, Won-Jae Lee, John F Rawls, Patrice D Cani, Martin Schwarzer, Liping Zhao, Stephen J Simpson
Nutrition is paramount in shaping all aspects of animal biology. In addition, the influence of the intestinal microbiota on physiology is now widely recognized. Given that diet also shapes the intestinal microbiota, this raises the question of how the nutritional environment and microbial assemblages together influence animal physiology. This research field constitutes a new frontier in the field of organismal biology that needs to be addressed. Here we review recent studies using animal models and humans and propose an integrative framework within which to define the study of the diet-physiology-microbiota systems and ultimately link it to human health...
March 7, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261667/protein-malnutrition-modifies-innate-immunity-and-gene-expression-by-intestinal-epithelial-cells-and-human-rotavirus-infection-in-neonatal-gnotobiotic-pigs
#16
Anastasia N Vlasova, Francine C Paim, Sukumar Kandasamy, Moyasar A Alhamo, David D Fischer, Stephanie N Langel, Loic Deblais, Anand Kumar, Juliet Chepngeno, Lulu Shao, Huang-Chi Huang, Rosario A Candelero-Rueda, Gireesh Rajashekara, Linda J Saif
Malnutrition affects millions of children in developing countries, compromising immunity and contributing to increased rates of death from infectious diseases. Rotavirus is a major etiological agent of childhood diarrhea in developing countries, where malnutrition is prevalent. However, the interactions between the two and their combined effects on immune and intestinal functions are poorly understood. In this study, we used neonatal gnotobiotic (Gn) pigs transplanted with the fecal microbiota of a healthy 2-month-old infant (HIFM) and fed protein-deficient or -sufficient bovine milk diets...
March 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244679/use-of-the-low-fodmap-diet-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#17
REVIEW
Peter R Gibson
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-like symptoms are not uncommon in patients with quiescent inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). While gluten-free diet is applied by patients, there are no reported interventional studies. The low-FODMAP diet, on the other hand, has efficacy similar to that seen in patients with IBS in three unblinded or observational studies of IBD cohorts who had well-controlled inflammatory disease and in one small randomized cross-over study. FODMAP intake by patients with IBD is not elevated, and, in one study, fructan intakes were lower in patients with Crohn's disease than in controls...
March 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182098/antioxidant-immunomodulating-and-microbial-modulating-activities-of-the-sustainable-and-ecofriendly-spirulina
#18
REVIEW
Alberto Finamore, Maura Palmery, Sarra Bensehaila, Ilaria Peluso
The highly nutritional and ecofriendly Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) has hypolipidemic, hypoglycemic, and antihypertensive properties. Spirulina contains functional compounds, such as phenolics, phycocyanins, and polysaccharides, with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunostimulating effects. Studies conducted on Spirulina suggest that it is safe in healthy subjects, but attitude to eating probably affects the acceptability of Spirulina containing foods. Although the antioxidant effect of Spirulina is confirmed by the intervention studies, the concerted modulation of antioxidant and inflammatory responses, suggested by in vitro and animal studies, requires more confirmation in humans...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176851/comparative-study-of-the-gut-microbiome-potentially-related-to-milk-protein-in-murrah-buffaloes-bubalus-bubalis-and-chinese-holstein-cattle
#19
Jiachao Zhang, Chuanbiao Xu, Dongxue Huo, Qisong Hu, Qiannan Peng
Previous studies suggested a close relationship between ruminant gut microbes and the mammary gland. In this study, shotgun metagenomic sequencing was used to reveal the differences in the intestinal microbiome potentially related to milk components in Murrah buffaloes and Chinese Holstein cattle. A PCoA based on the weighted Unifrac distances showed an apparent clustering pattern in the structure of intestinal microbiota between buffalo and cattle. We could attribute the structural difference to the genera of Sutterella, Coprococcus and Dorea...
February 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161414/dairy-propionibacteria-prevent-the-proliferative-effect-of-plant-lectins-on-sw480%C3%A2-cells-and-protect-the-metabolic-activity-of-the-intestinal-microbiota-in%C3%A2-vitro
#20
Gabriela Zárate, Gabriel D Sáez, Adriana Pérez Chaia
Plant lectins are specific carbohydrate-binding proteins that are widespread in legumes such as beans and pulses, seeds, cereals, and many plants used as farm feeds. They are highly resistant to cooking and digestion, reaching the intestinal lumen and/or blood circulation with biological activity. Since many legume lectins trigger harmful local and systemic reactions after their binding to the mucosal surface, these molecules are generally considered anti-nutritive and/or toxic substances. In the gut, specific cell receptors and bacteria may interact with these dietary components, leading to changes in intestinal physiology...
April 2017: Anaerobe
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