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Intestinal microbiota nutrition

Massimo Marzorati, Tom Van de Wiele
The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) hosts the most complex microbial community in the human body. Given the extensive metabolic potential which is present in this community, this additional organ is of key importance to maintain a healthy status and several diseases are frequently correlated with an alteration of the composition/functionality of the gut microbiota. Consequently, there is a great interest in identifying potential approaches that could modulate the microbiota and its metabolism to bring about a positive health effect...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Jordi Mayneris-Perxachs, David T Bolick, Joy Leng, Greg L Medlock, Glynis L Kolling, Jason A Papin, Jonathan R Swann, Richard L Guerrant
BACKGROUND: Environmental enteropathy, which is linked to undernutrition and chronic infections, affects the physical and mental growth of children in developing areas worldwide. Key to understanding how these factors combine to shape developmental outcomes is to first understand the effects of nutritional deficiencies on the mammalian system including the effect on the gut microbiota. OBJECTIVE: We dissected the nutritional components of environmental enteropathy by analyzing the specific metabolic and gut-microbiota changes that occur in weaned-mouse models of zinc or protein deficiency compared with well-nourished controls...
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Didier Bouchon, Martin Zimmer, Jessica Dittmer
Bacterial symbionts represent essential drivers of arthropod ecology and evolution, influencing host traits such as nutrition, reproduction, immunity, and speciation. However, the majority of work on arthropod microbiota has been conducted in insects and more studies in non-model species across different ecological niches will be needed to complete our understanding of host-microbiota interactions. In this review, we present terrestrial isopod crustaceans as an emerging model organism to investigate symbiotic associations with potential relevance to ecosystem functioning...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Beatriz Gullón, Patricia Gullón, Freni K Tavaria, Remedios Yáñez
Quinoa and amaranth belong to the group of the so called "superfoods" and have a nutritional composition that confers multiple benefits. In this work, we explored the possibility of these foods exhibiting a prebiotic effect. These pseudocereals were subjected to an in vitro digestion and used as carbon sources in batch cultures with faecal human inocula. The effects on the microbiota composition and their metabolic products were determined by assessment of variations in pH, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production and changes in the dynamic bacterial populations by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)...
September 14, 2016: Food & Function
Pamela Vazquez-Gutierrez, Tomas de Wouters, Julia Werder, Christophe Chassard, Christophe Lacroix
The gut microbiota plays an important role in host health, in particular by its barrier effect and competition with exogenous pathogenic bacteria. In the present study, the competition of Bifidobacterium pseudolongum PV8-2 (Bp PV8-2) and Bifidobacterium kashiwanohense PV20-2 (Bk PV20-2), isolated from anemic infant gut microbiota and selected for their high iron sequestration properties, was investigated against Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhi) and Escherichia coli O157:H45 (EHEC) by using co-culture tests and assays with intestinal cell lines...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Agus Firmansyah, Nalinee Chongviriyaphan, Drupadi Hs Dillon, Nguyen Cong Khan, Tatsuya Morita, Kraisid Tontisirin, Le Danh Tuyen, Weiping Wang, Jacques Bindels, Paul Deurenberg, Sherlin Ong, Jo Hautvast, Diederick Meyer, Elaine E Vaughan
Inulin-based prebiotics are non-digestible polysaccharides that influence the composition of the gut microbiota in infants and children, notably eliciting a bifidogenic effect with high short chain fatty acid levels. Inulin, a generic term that comprises β-(2,1)-linked linear fructans, is typically isolated from the chicory plant root, and derivatives such as oligofructose and long chain inulin appear to have different physiological properties. The first 1000 days of a child's life are increasingly recognized as a critical timeframe for health also into adulthood, whereby nutrition plays a key role...
December 2016: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Sena Bluemel, Brandon Williams, Rob Knight, Bernd Schnabl
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are a major health burden in industrialized countries. Although alcohol abuse and nutrition play a central role for disease pathogenesis, preclinical models support a contribution of the gut microbiota to ALD and NAFLD. This review describes changes in the intestinal microbiota compositions related to ALD and NAFLD. Findings from in vitro, animal and human studies are used to explain how intestinal pathology contributes to disease progression...
September 29, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Camille Mayeur, Laura Gillard, Johanne Le Beyec, André Bado, Francisca Joly, Muriel Thomas
Extensive resection of small bowel often leads to short bowel syndrome (SBS). SBS patients develop clinical mal-absorption and dehydration relative to the reduction of absorptive area, acceleration of gastrointestinal transit time and modifications of the gastrointestinal intra-luminal environment. As a consequence of severe mal-absorption, patients require parenteral nutrition (PN). In adults, the overall adaptation following intestinal resection includes spontaneous and complex compensatory processes such as hyperphagia, mucosal remodeling of the remaining part of the intestine and major modifications of the microbiota...
March 8, 2016: Microorganisms
Lena M Bruder, Marcel Dörkes, Bernhard M Fuchs, Wolfgang Ludwig, Wolfgang Liebl
The gut microbiome represents a key contributor to human physiology, metabolism, immune function, and nutrition. Elucidating the composition and genetics of the gut microbiota under various conditions is essential to understand how microbes function individually and as a community. Metagenomic analyses are increasingly used to study intestinal microbiota. However, for certain scientific questions it is sufficient to examine taxon-specific submetagenomes, covering selected bacterial genera in a targeted manner...
October 2016: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
Giovanni Casella, Roberta Pozzi, Marta Cicognetti, Francesco Bachetti, Gabriele Torti, Moris Cadei, Vincenzo Villanacci, Vittorio Baldini, Gabrio Bassotti
The association between gluten related disorders and psychiatric diseases has been firmly demonstrated. Non celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is a syndrome diagnosed in patients responsive to gluten free diet after ruling out celiac disease and wheat allergy. The pathogenesis of neuro-psychiatric disorders in NCGS is unclear. An association between gluten and schizophrenia was described for the first time in 1950 by Bender et al. In the 50', Dicke noted that gluten free diet improved mood in celiac patients...
September 20, 2016: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
Ross N Butler, Margaret Kosek, Nancy F Krebs, Cornelia U Loechl, Alexander Loy, Victor O Owino, Michael B Zimmermann, Douglas J Morrison
The International Atomic Energy Agency convened a technical meeting on environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) in Vienna (28-30 October 2015; to bring together international experts in the fields of EED, nutrition and stable isotope technologies. Advances in stable isotope labelling techniques open up new possibilities to improve our understanding of gastrointestinal dysfunction and the role of the microbiota in host health. In the context of EED, little is known about the role gut dysfunction may play in macro- and micronutrient bioavailability and requirements and what the consequences may be for nutritional status and linear growth...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Matthew W Ralls, Farokh Rustom Demehri, Yongjia Feng, Sasha Raskind, Chunhai Ruan, Arno Schintlmeister, Alexander Loy, Buck Hanson, David Berry, Charles F Burant, Daniel H Teitelbaum
BACKGROUND: Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) leads to a shift in small intestinal microbiota with a characteristic dominance of Proteobacteria. This study examined how metabolomic changes within the small bowel support an altered microbial community in enterally deprived mice. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were given TPN or enteral chow. Metabolomic analysis of jejunal contents was performed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). In some experiments, leucine in TPN was partly substituted with (13)C-leucine...
September 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Francisco J Barba, Nooshin Nikmaram, Shahin Roohinejad, Anissa Khelfa, Zhenzhou Zhu, Mohamed Koubaa
Glucosinolates are a large group of plant secondary metabolites with nutritional effects, and are mainly found in cruciferous plants. After ingestion, glucosinolates could be partially absorbed in their intact form through the gastrointestinal mucosa. However, the largest fraction is metabolized in the gut lumen. When cruciferous are consumed without processing, myrosinase enzyme present in these plants hydrolyzes the glucosinolates in the proximal part of the gastrointestinal tract to various metabolites, such as isothiocyanates, nitriles, oxazolidine-2-thiones, and indole-3-carbinols...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
R Pieper, C Villodre Tudela, M Taciak, J Bindelle, J F Pérez, J Zentek
The physiological role of the gastrointestinal microbiota has become an important subject of nutrition research in pigs in the past years, and the importance of intestinal microbial activity in the etiology of disease is doubtless. This review summarizes the recent knowledge related to the microbial ecology of protein fermentation and the appearance of protein-derived metabolites along the pig intestine. The amount of fermentable protein depends on factors such as dietary protein concentration, protein digestibility due to secondary or tertiary structure, the interaction with dietary compounds or anti-nutritional factors, and the secretion of endogenous proteins into the gut lumen...
August 30, 2016: Animal Health Research Reviews
Jeremiah Bernier-Latmani, Tatiana V Petrova
Here we detail a protocol for whole-mount immunostaining of mouse small-intestinal villi that can be used to generate high-resolution 3D images of all gut cell types, including blood and lymphatic vessel cells, neurons, smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts and immune cells. The procedure describes perfusion, fixation, dissection, immunostaining, mounting, clearing, confocal imaging and quantification, using intestinal vasculature as an example. As intestinal epithelial cells prevent visualization with some antibodies, we also provide an optional protocol to remove these cells before fixation...
September 2016: Nature Protocols
J Salcedo, S A Frese, D A Mills, D Barile
The composition of porcine milk oligosaccharides (PMO) was analyzed during early lactation and their relation to piglet gut microbiome was investigated. Pigs are considered ideal intestinal models to simulate humans because of the striking similarity in intestinal physiopathology to humans. The evolution of PMO was investigated in the milk from 3 healthy sows at prefarrowing, farrowing, and d 7 and 14 postpartum by Nano-LC Chip Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight mass spectrometer (Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, CA)...
October 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Pamela Vernocchi, Federica Del Chierico, Lorenza Putignani
The gut microbiota is composed of a huge number of different bacteria, that produce a large amount of compounds playing a key role in microbe selection and in the construction of a metabolic signaling network. The microbial activities are affected by environmental stimuli leading to the generation of a wide number of compounds, that influence the host metabolome and human health. Indeed, metabolite profiles related to the gut microbiota can offer deep insights on the impact of lifestyle and dietary factors on chronic and acute diseases...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Ajay Kumar Jain, Abhineet Sharma, Sumit Arora, Keith Blomenkamp, Ik Chan Jun, Robert Luong, David John Westrich, Aayush Mittal, Paula M Buchanan, Miguel A Guzman, John Long, Brent A Neuschwander-Tetri, Jeffery Teckman
BACKGROUND: Parenteral nutrition (PN) is a lifesaving therapy but is associated with gut atrophy and cholestasis. While bile acids (BAs) can modulate intestinal growth via gut receptors, the gut microbiome likely influences gut proliferation and inflammation. BAs also regulate the bile salt export pump (BSEP) involved in cholestasis. We hypothesized that the BA receptor agonist oleanolic acid (OA) regulates gut TGR5 receptor and modulates gut microbiota to prevent PN-associated injury...
August 8, 2016: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Celeste M Lavallee, Jayden A R MacPherson, Mi Zhou, Yanhua Gao, Pamela R Wizzard, Paul W Wales, Justine M Turner, Benjamin P Willing
BACKGROUND: Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a cause of intestinal microbial dysbiosis and impaired gut barrier function. This may contribute to life-threatening parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease and sepsis in infants. We compared the effects of a lipid emulsion containing long-chain ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs; SMOFlipid) and a predominantly ω-6 PUFA emulsion (Intralipid) on microbial composition and host response at the mucosal surface. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Neonatal piglets were provided isocaloric, isonitrogenous TPN for 14 days versus sow-fed (SF) controls...
August 5, 2016: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Mingming Sun, Wei Wu, Zhanju Liu, Yingzi Cong
Gut microbiota has been well recognized in regulation of intestinal homeostasis and pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases. However, the mechanisms involved are still not completely understood. Further, the components of the microbiota which are critically responsible for such effects are also largely unknown. Accumulating evidence suggests that, in addition to pathogen-associated molecular patterns, nutrition and bacterial metabolites might greatly impact the immune response in the gut and beyond. Short chain fatty acids (SCFA), which are metabolized by gut bacteria from otherwise indigestible fiber-rich diets, have been shown to ameliorate diseases in animal models of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and allergic asthma...
July 23, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology
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