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Intestinal microbiota nutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914794/effects-of-probiotics-prebiotics-and-synbiotics-on-human-health
#1
REVIEW
Paulina Markowiak, Katarzyna Śliżewska
The human gastrointestinal tract is colonised by a complex ecosystem of microorganisms. Intestinal bacteria are not only commensal, but they also undergo a synbiotic co-evolution along with their host. Beneficial intestinal bacteria have numerous and important functions, e.g., they produce various nutrients for their host, prevent infections caused by intestinal pathogens, and modulate a normal immunological response. Therefore, modification of the intestinal microbiota in order to achieve, restore, and maintain favourable balance in the ecosystem, and the activity of microorganisms present in the gastrointestinal tract is necessary for the improved health condition of the host...
September 15, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880224/parenteral-nutrition-associated-liver-disease-the-role-of-the-gut-microbiota
#2
REVIEW
Monika Cahova, Miriam Bratova, Petr Wohl
Parenteral nutrition (PN) provides life-saving nutritional support in situations where caloric supply via the enteral route cannot cover the necessary needs of the organism. However, it does have serious adverse effects, including parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD). The development of liver injury associated with PN is multifactorial, including non-specific intestine inflammation, compromised intestinal permeability, and barrier function associated with increased bacterial translocation, primary and secondary cholangitis, cholelithiasis, short bowel syndrome, disturbance of hepatobiliary circulation, lack of enteral nutrition, shortage of some nutrients (proteins, essential fatty acids, choline, glycine, taurine, carnitine, etc...
September 7, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879172/epigenetic-matters-the-link-between-early-nutrition-microbiome-and-long-term-health-development
#3
REVIEW
Flavia Indrio, Silvia Martini, Ruggiero Francavilla, Luigi Corvaglia, Fernanda Cristofori, Salvatore Andrea Mastrolia, Josef Neu, Samuli Rautava, Giovanna Russo Spena, Francesco Raimondi, Giuseppe Loverro
Epigenetic modifications are among the most important mechanisms by which environmental factors can influence early cellular differentiation and create new phenotypic traits during pregnancy and within the neonatal period without altering the deoxyribonucleic acid sequence. A number of antenatal and postnatal factors, such as maternal and neonatal nutrition, pollutant exposure, and the composition of microbiota, contribute to the establishment of epigenetic changes that can not only modulate the individual adaptation to the environment but also have an influence on lifelong health and disease by modifying inflammatory molecular pathways and the immune response...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862999/innovation-in-microbiome-based-strategies-for-promoting-metabolic-health
#4
Marina Romaní-Pérez, Ana Agusti, Yolanda Sanz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Update on the development of microbiome-based interventions and dietary supplements to combat obesity and related comorbidities, which are leading causes of global mortality. RECENT FINDINGS: The role of intestinal dysbiosis, partly resulting from unhealthy diets, in the development of obesity and metabolic disorders, is well documented by recent translational research. Human experimental trials with whole-faecal transplants are ongoing, and their results will be crucial as proof of concept that interventions intended to modulate the microbiome composition and function could be alternatives for the management of obesity and related comorbidities...
August 31, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830428/the-effect-of-oligofructose-enriched-inulin-supplementation-on-gut-microbiota-nutritional-status-and-gastrointestinal-symptoms-in-paediatric-coeliac-disease-patients-on-a-gluten-free-diet-study-protocol-for-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Urszula Krupa-Kozak, Natalia Drabińska, Elżbieta Jarocka-Cyrta
BACKGROUND: A lifelong gluten-free diet (GFD) is regarded as the only proven and accepted therapy for coeliac disease (CD). However, even patients who strictly follow a GFD often suffer from intestinal symptoms and malabsorption. Selective modulation of intestinal microbiota with prebiotics could remedy various symptoms associated with CD. The use of prebiotics in the treatment of intestinal diseases remains insufficiently investigated. To our knowledge, this study makes the first attempt to evaluate the effect of prebiotic supplementation on gastrointestinal symptoms and nutritional status of children with CD...
August 22, 2017: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822617/microbiota-dysbiosis-in-select-human-cancers-evidence-of-association-and-causality
#6
REVIEW
Jie Chen, Jada C Domingue, Cynthia L Sears
The human microbiota is a complex ecosystem of diverse microorganisms consisting of bacteria, viruses, and fungi residing predominantly in epidermal and mucosal habitats across the body, such as skin, oral cavity, lung, intestine and vagina. These symbiotic communities in health, or dysbiotic communities in disease, display tremendous interaction with the local environment and systemic responses, playing a critical role in the host's nutrition, immunity, metabolism and diseases including cancers. While the profiling of normal microbiota in healthy populations is useful and necessary, more recent studies have focused on the microbiota associated with disease, particularly cancers...
August 16, 2017: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820869/necrotizing-enterocolitis-and-high-intestinal-iron-uptake-due-to-genetic-variants
#7
Wolfgang Göpel, Josephine Drese, Tanja K Rausch, Nele Twisselmann, Bettina Bohnhorst, Andreas Müller, Axel Franz, Andreas Ziegler, Christoph Härtel, Egbert Herting
BACKGROUND: Intestinal iron is a nutritional compound, which is essential for enteric microbiota. We evaluated the hypothesis that polymorphisms which are known modifiers of intestinal iron uptake in adults are associated with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm infants. METHODS: Preterm infants (birth weight below 1,500 grams) were studied. Single nucleotide polymorphisms with known effects on serum iron levels (rs1800562, rs1799945, rs855791) were determined by polymerase chain reaction...
August 18, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802306/ilsi-southeast-asia-region-conference-proceedings-the-gut-its-microbes-and-health-relevance-for-asia
#8
Yuan Kun Lee, Patricia Conway, Sven Pettersson, G Balakrish Nair, Ingrid Surono, Yusra Egayanti, Maria Sofia Amarra
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The human being is a complex entity, involving interaction between microbes and the human host. Evidence shows that the nutritional value of food is influenced in part by the structure and operations of an individual's gut microbial community, and food in turn shapes the individual's microbiome. A conference was held to promote understanding of the intestinal microbiome and its implications for health and disease, particularly among Asian populations. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Papers describing 1) the intestinal ecosystem in Asian populations, 2) changes in intestinal microbiota through life and its effects, 3) the Asian gut microbiota in disease conditions, 4) indigenous probiotics to maintain a healthy gut microbiota, 5) probiotic regulation in an Asian country, and 6) the results of a panel discussion are included in this report...
2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796793/characterizing-the-gut-gallus-gallus-microbiota-following-the-consumption-of-an-iron-biofortified-rwandan-cream-seeded-carioca-phaseolus-vulgaris-l-bean-based-diet
#9
Spenser Reed, Hadar Neuman, Raymond P Glahn, Omry Koren, Elad Tako
Biofortification is a plant breeding method that introduces increased concentrations of minerals in staple food crops (e.g., legumes, cereal grains), and has shown success in alleviating insufficient Fe intake in various human populations. Unlike other strategies utilized to alleviate Fe deficiency, studies of the gut microbiota in the context of Fe biofortification have not yet been reported, although the consumption of Fe biofortified staple food crops has increased significantly over time. Hence, in this study, we performed a 6-week feeding trial in Gallus gallus (n = 14), aimed to investigate the alterations in the gut microbiome following administration of an Fe biofortified bean-based diet (biofortified, BFe) versus a bean based diet with poorly-bioavailable Fe (standard, SFe)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791008/free-fatty-acids-profiles-are-related-to-gut-microbiota-signatures-and-short-chain-fatty-acids
#10
Javier Rodríguez-Carrio, Nuria Salazar, Abelardo Margolles, Sonia González, Miguel Gueimonde, Clara G de Los Reyes-Gavilán, Ana Suárez
A growing body of evidence highlights the relevance of free fatty acids (FFA) for human health, and their role in the cross talk between the metabolic status and immune system. Altered serum FFA profiles are related to several metabolic conditions, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Recent studies have highlighted the link between gut microbiota and host metabolism. However, although most of the studies have focused on different clinical conditions, evidence on the role of these mediators in healthy populations is lacking...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768295/exclusive-enteral-nutrition-for-inducing-remission-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-in-paediatric-patients
#11
Amit Assa, Raanan Shamir
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Enteral nutrition as a treatment for inflammatory bowel diseases is an ongoing area of interest. Even in the era of biologic agents, exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) offers a unique, drug-free measure for induction of remission in luminal Crohn's disease. The purpose of this review is to discuss the role of EEN in the evolving therapeutic scheme for Crohn's disease, to report on new evidence for short and long-term efficacy and highlight findings on the mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory effects of EEN in light of current understanding of disease pathogenesis...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748273/changes-in-the-intestinal-microbiota-of-gibel-carp-carassius-gibelio-associated-with-cyprinid-herpesvirus-2-cyhv-2-infection
#12
Rong She, Tong-Tong Li, Dan Luo, Jia-Bao Li, Liu-Yi Yin, Huan Li, Yao-Min Liu, Xiang-Zhen Li, Qi-Gui Yan
Gut microbiota are integral to the host, and have received increased attention in recent years. However, information regarding the intestinal microbiota of many aquaculture animals is insufficient; elucidating the dynamics of the intestinal microbiota can be beneficial for nutrition, immunity, and disease control. In this study, we used 16S rRNA sequencing to observe changes in the intestinal microbiota of gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) associated with cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) infection. Our results indicate that the diversity of the intestinal microbiota was strongly reduced, and the composition was dramatically altered following CyHV-2 infection...
July 26, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737484/the-effect-of-fiber-and-prebiotics-on-children-s-gastrointestinal-disorders-and-microbiome
#13
Carrie A M Wegh, Margriet H C Schoterman, Elaine E Vaughan, Clara Belzer, Marc A Benninga
The bacteria received upon birth are the start of colonization of the approximately 10(14) bacteria that are present in the mature human gastrointestinal tract, better known as the microbiota. The gut microbiota is implicated in gastrointestinal health, nutrient metabolism and benefits such as prevention of infection. Dietary fiber, including prebiotics, escape digestion in the small intestine and reach the colon intact, where they are partially or completely fermented by the gut microbiota. Areas covered: The possible interactions between dietary fiber, prebiotics and microbiota are discussed as well as how this relates to functional gastrointestinal disorders...
July 24, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721546/health-benefits-observed-after-probiotic-lactobacillus-fermentum-ccm-7421-application-in-dogs
#14
REVIEW
Viola Strompfová, Ivana Kubašová, Andrea Lauková
The importance of the intestinal microbiota has attracted much interest in recent years particularly with respect to ways in which the microbiota can be manipulated in order to improve health. Improving gut health through the use of probiotic microorganisms has become an area of research activity in both human and animal nutrition. However, the amount of research using companion animals is insufficient. The present review evaluates and compares the effects achieved after application of canine-derived probiotic strain Lactobacillus fermentum CCM 7421 to healthy dogs as well as to dogs suffering from gastrointestinal disorders...
July 18, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715992/the-hibernator-microbiome-host-bacterial-interactions-in-an-extreme-nutritional-symbiosis
#15
Hannah V Carey, Fariba M Assadi-Porter
Animals that undergo seasonal cycles of feeding and fasting have adaptations that maintain integrity of organ systems when dietary nutrients are lacking. Food deprivation also challenges the gut microbiota, which relies heavily on host diet for metabolic substrates and the gastrointestinal tract, which is influenced by enteral nutrients and microbial activity. Winter fasting in hibernators shifts the microbiota to favor taxa with the capacity to degrade and utilize host-derived substrates and disfavor taxa that prefer complex plant polysaccharides...
August 21, 2017: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714911/nutrition-and-allergic-diseases
#16
EDITORIAL
R J J van Neerven, Huub Savelkoul
The development of IgE-mediated allergic diseases is influenced by many factors, including genetic and environmental factors such as pollution and farming, but also by nutrition. In the last decade, substantial progress has been made in our understanding of the impact that nutrition can have on allergic diseases. Many studies have addressed the effect of breastfeeding, pre-, pro- and synbiotics, vitamins and minerals, fiber, fruit and vegetables, cow's milk, and n-3 fatty acids, on the development of allergies...
July 17, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694488/outer-membrane-vesicles-secreted-by-pathogenic-and-nonpathogenic-bacteroides-fragilis-represent-different-metabolic-activities
#17
Natalya B Zakharzhevskaya, Anna A Vanyushkina, Ilya A Altukhov, Aleksey L Shavarda, Ivan O Butenko, Daria V Rakitina, Anastasia S Nikitina, Aleksandr I Manolov, Alina N Egorova, Eugene E Kulikov, Innokentii E Vishnyakov, Gleb Y Fisunov, Vadim M Govorun
Numerous studies are devoted to the intestinal microbiota and intercellular communication maintaining homeostasis. In this regard, vesicles secreted by bacteria represent one of the most popular topics for research. For example, the outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) of Bacteroides fragilis play an important nutritional role with respect to other microorganisms and promote anti-inflammatory effects on immune cells. However, toxigenic B. fragilis (ETBF) contributes to bowel disease, even causing colon cancer. If nontoxigenic B...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684750/molecular-ecological-network-analysis-reveals-the-effects-of-probiotics-and-florfenicol-on-intestinal-microbiota-homeostasis-an-example-of-sea-cucumber
#18
Gang Yang, Mo Peng, Xiangli Tian, Shuanglin Dong
Animal gut harbors diverse microbes that play crucial roles in the nutrition uptake, metabolism, and the regulation of host immune responses. The intestinal microbiota homeostasis is critical for health but poorly understood. Probiotics Paracoccus marcusii DB11 and Bacillus cereus G19, and antibiotics florfenicol did not significantly impact species richness and the diversity of intestinal microbiota of sea cucumber, in comparison with those in the control group by high-throughput sequencing. Molecular ecological network analysis indicated that P...
July 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684695/secretory-leukoprotease-inhibitor-slpi-expression-is-required-for-educating-murine-dendritic-cells-inflammatory-response-following-quercetin-exposure
#19
Stefania De Santis, Vanessa Galleggiante, Letizia Scandiffio, Marina Liso, Eduardo Sommella, Anastasia Sobolewski, Vito Spilotro, Aldo Pinto, Pietro Campiglia, Grazia Serino, Angelo Santino, Maria Notarnicola, Marcello Chieppa
Dendritic cells' (DCs) ability to present antigens and initiate the adaptive immune response confers them a pivotal role in immunological defense against hostile infection and, at the same time, immunological tolerance towards harmless components of the microbiota. Food products can modulate the inflammatory status of intestinal DCs. Among nutritionally-derived products, we investigated the ability of quercetin to suppress inflammatory cytokines secretion, antigen presentation, and DCs migration towards the draining lymph nodes...
July 6, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684691/administration-of-inulin-supplemented-gluten-free-diet-modified-calcium-absorption-and-caecal-microbiota-in-rats-in-a-calcium-dependent-manner
#20
Urszula Krupa-Kozak, Lidia H Markiewicz, Grzegorz Lamparski, Jerzy Juśkiewicz
In coeliac disease (CD), the risk of adverse calcium balance and reduced bone density is induced mainly by the disease, but also by a gluten-free diet (GFD), the only accepted CD therapy. Prebiotics through the beneficial impact on intestinal microbiota may stimulate calcium (Ca) absorption. In the present study, we hypothesised that the dietary inulin in GFD would influence positively the intestinal microbiota, and by that will stimulate the absorption of calcium (Ca), especially in the conditions of Ca malnutrition...
July 6, 2017: Nutrients
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