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Intestinal microbiota nutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077872/structural-basis-for-nutrient-acquisition-by-dominant-members-of-the-human-gut-microbiota
#1
Amy J Glenwright, Karunakar R Pothula, Satya P Bhamidimarri, Dror S Chorev, Arnaud Baslé, Susan J Firbank, Hongjun Zheng, Carol V Robinson, Mathias Winterhalter, Ulrich Kleinekathöfer, David N Bolam, Bert van den Berg
The human large intestine is populated by a high density of microorganisms, collectively termed the colonic microbiota, which has an important role in human health and nutrition. The survival of microbiota members from the dominant Gram-negative phylum Bacteroidetes depends on their ability to degrade dietary glycans that cannot be metabolized by the host. The genes encoding proteins involved in the degradation of specific glycans are organized into co-regulated polysaccharide utilization loci, with the archetypal locus sus (for starch utilisation system) encoding seven proteins, SusA-SusG...
January 11, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077318/alcohol-microbiome-life-style-influence-alcohol-and-non-alcoholic-organ-damage
#2
REVIEW
Manuela G Neuman, Samuel W French, Samir Zakhari, Stefen Malnick, Helmut K Seitz, Lawrence B Cohen, Mikko Salaspuro, Andreea Voinea Griffin, Andrei Barasch, Irina A Kirpich, Paul G Thomes, Laura W Schrum, Terrence M Donohue, Kusum Kharbanda, Marcus Cruz, Mihai Opris
This paper is based upon the "8th Charles Lieber's Satellite Symposium" organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism Annual Meeting, onJune 25, 2016 at New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. The integrative symposium investigated different aspects of alcohol-induced liver disease (ALD) as well as non-alcohol-induced liver disease (NAFLD) and possible repair. We revealedthe basic aspects of alcohol metabolism that may be responsible for the development of liver diseaseas well as the factors that determine the amount, frequency and which type of alcohol misuse leads to liver and gastrointestinal diseases...
January 7, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069752/microbiome-modulated-metabolites-at-the-interface-of-host-immunity
#3
REVIEW
Eran Blacher, Maayan Levy, Evgeny Tatirovsky, Eran Elinav
The mammalian gastrointestinal tract and associated mucosal immune system harbor a large repertoire of metabolites of prokaryotic and eukaryotic origin that play important roles in eukaryotic development and physiology. These often bioactive small molecules originate from nutrition- and environmental-related sources, or are endogenously produced and modulated by the host and its microbiota. A complex network of interactions exists between the intestinal mucosal immune system and the microbiota. This intimate cross-talk may be driven by metabolite secretion and signaling, and features profound influences on host immunity and physiology, including the endocrine, metabolic, and nervous system function in health and disease...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068209/the-role-of-early-life-nutrition-in-the-establishment-of-gastrointestinal-microbial-composition-and-function
#4
Erin C Davis, Mei Wang, Sharon M Donovan
The development of the human infant intestinal microbiota is a sequential process that begins in utero and continues during the first 2 to 3 years of life. Microbial composition and diversity are shaped by host genetics and multiple environmental factors, of which diet is a principal contributor. An understanding of this process is of clinical importance as the microbiota acquired in early life influence gastrointestinal, immune and neural development, and reduced microbial diversity or dysbiosis during infancy is associated with disorders in infancy and later childhood...
January 9, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056091/respiration-of-microbiota-derived-1-2-propanediol-drives-salmonella-expansion-during-colitis
#5
Franziska Faber, Parameth Thiennimitr, Luisella Spiga, Mariana X Byndloss, Yael Litvak, Sara Lawhon, Helene L Andrews-Polymenis, Sebastian E Winter, Andreas J Bäumler
Intestinal inflammation caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium increases the availability of electron acceptors that fuel a respiratory growth of the pathogen in the intestinal lumen. Here we show that one of the carbon sources driving this respiratory expansion in the mouse model is 1,2-propanediol, a microbial fermentation product. 1,2-propanediol utilization required intestinal inflammation induced by virulence factors of the pathogen. S. Typhimurium used both aerobic and anaerobic respiration to consume 1,2-propanediol and expand in the murine large intestine...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034306/influence-of-maternal-breast-milk-ingestion-on-acquisition-of-the-intestinal-microbiome-in-preterm-infants
#6
Katherine E Gregory, Buck S Samuel, Pearl Houghteling, Guru Shan, Frederick M Ausubel, Ruslan I Sadreyev, W Allan Walker
BACKGROUND: The initial acquisition and early development of the intestinal microbiome during infancy are important to human health across the lifespan. Mode of birth, antibiotic administration, environment of care, and nutrition have all been shown to play a role in the assembly of the intestinal microbiome during early life. For preterm infants, who are disproportionately at risk of inflammatory intestinal disease (i.e., necrotizing enterocolitis), a unique set of clinical factors influence the establishment of the microbiome...
December 30, 2016: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024525/gut-content-microbiota-of-introduced-bigheaded-carps-hypophthalmichthys-spp-inhabiting-the-largest-shallow-lake-in-central-europe
#7
Andrea K Borsodi, Attila Szabó, Gergely Krett, Tamás Felföldi, András Specziár, Gergely Boros
Studying the microbiota in the alimentary tract of bigheaded carps (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) gained special interest recently, as these types of investigations on non-native fish species may lead to a better understanding of their ecological role and feeding habits in an invaded habitat. For microbiological examinations, bigheaded carp gut contents and water column samples from Lake Balaton (Hungary) were collected from spring to autumn in 2013. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene were performed to reveal the composition...
January 2017: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001024/microbiota-and-prebiotics-modulate-uremic-toxins-generation
#8
Laetitia Koppe, Denis Fouque
Recent data have shown that the host-intestinal microbiota interaction is intrinsically linked with overall health. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) could influence intestinal microbiota and gut dysbiosis is also considered as a cause of progression of kidney disease. An increasing body of evidence indicates that dysbiosis is a key contributor of uremic retention solutes (URS) accumulating in patients with CKD. The discovery of the kidney- gut axis has created new therapeutic opportunities for nutritional intervention in order to prevent adverse outcomes...
December 21, 2016: Panminerva Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000477/probiotic-effectiveness-nutrition-in-cancer-treatment-and-prevention
#9
Débora Mara Kich, Angélica Vincenzi, Fernanda Majolo, Claucia Fernanda Volken de Souza, Márcia Inês Goettert
Among the neoplasias, colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death in men and women. The increasing incidence of this type of cancer is due to the increase in the population's life expectancy, by the increase in chronic inflammatory bowel diseases, primarily ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, and the change in eating habits. The American Cancer Society (2011) shows that diet might be responsible for approximately 30% of cancer cases in developed countries, moreover when considering only colorectal cancer, the number can reach 30% to 50%...
November 29, 2016: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997410/influence-of-nutrition-therapy-on-the-intestinal-microbiome
#10
Monika A Krezalek, Andrew Yeh, John C Alverdy, Michael Morowitz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review describes the relationship between nutritional therapies and the intestinal microbiome of critically ill patients. RECENT FINDINGS: The intestinal microbiome of the critically ill displays a near complete loss of health-promoting microbiota with overgrowth of virulent healthcare-associated pathogens. Early enteral nutrition within 24 h of admission to the ICU has been advocated in medical and surgical patients to avoid derangements of the intestinal epithelium and the microbiome associated with starvation...
December 16, 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940670/environmental-enteric-dysfunction-and-growth-failure-stunting-in-global-child-health
#11
REVIEW
Victor Owino, Tahmeed Ahmed, Michael Freemark, Paul Kelly, Alexander Loy, Mark Manary, Cornelia Loechl
Approximately 25% of the world's children aged <5 years have stunted growth, which is associated with increased mortality, cognitive dysfunction, and loss of productivity. Reducing by 40% the number of stunted children is a global target for 2030. The pathogenesis of stunting is poorly understood. Prenatal and postnatal nutritional deficits and enteric and systemic infections clearly contribute, but recent findings implicate a central role for environmental enteric dysfunction (EED), a generalized disturbance of small intestinal structure and function found at a high prevalence in children living under unsanitary conditions...
December 2016: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914804/nutrition-and-chronic-inflammatory-rheumatic-disease
#12
Luca Semerano, Chantal Julia, Ouidade Aitisha, Marie-Christophe Boissier
Nutrition is a major environmental influence on human health. Epidemiological and interventional studies suggest a pathophysiological or therapeutic role, respectively, for nutrition in inflammatory rheumatic diseases (IRDs). Nevertheless, the associations between nutrition and IRDs are often weak and inconsistent, and the available clinical trials on nutrition are methodologically flawed. Experimental evidence is accumulating that micronutrients in the diet may influence intestinal and systemic immune responses via complex interactions involving the gut microbiota...
November 30, 2016: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908847/homeostasis-of-the-gut-barrier-and-potential-biomarkers
#13
Jerry M Wells, Robert J Brummer, Muriel Derrien, Thomas T MacDonald, Freddy Troost, Patrice D Cani, Vassilia Theodorou, Jan Dekker, Agnes Méheust, Willem M de Vos, Annick Mercenier, Arjen Nauta, Clara L Garcia-Rodenas
The gut barrier plays a crucial role by spatially compartmentalizing bacteria to the lumen through the production of secreted mucus and is fortified by the production of sIgA and antimicrobial peptides and proteins. With exception of sIgA the expression of these protective barrier factors is largely controlled by innate immune recognition of microbial molecular ligands. Several specialized adaptations and checkpoints are operating in the mucosa to scale the immune response according to the threat and prevent overreaction to the trillions of symbionts inhabiting the human intestine...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890642/protective-effect-of-quercetin-on-high-fat-diet-induced-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-mice-is-mediated-by-modulating-intestinal-microbiota-imbalance-and-related-gut-liver-axis-activation
#14
David Porras, Esther Nistal, Susana Martínez-Flórez, Sandra Pisonero-Vaquero, José Luis Olcoz, Ramiro Jover, Javier González-Gallego, María Victoria García-Mediavilla, Sonia Sánchez-Campos
Gut microbiota is involved in obesity, metabolic syndrome and the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). It has been recently suggested that the flavonoid quercetin may have the ability to modulate the intestinal microbiota composition, suggesting a prebiotic capacity which highlights a great therapeutic potential in NAFLD. The present study aims to investigate benefits of experimental treatment with quercetin on gut microbial balance and related gut-liver axis activation in a nutritional animal model of NAFLD associated to obesity...
January 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889929/twenty-eight-years-of-intestinal-transplantation-in-paris-experience-of-the-oldest-european-centre
#15
F Lacaille, S Irtan, L Dupic, C Talbotec, F Lesage, V Colomb, N Salvi, F Moulin, F Sauvat, Y Aigrain, Y Revillon, O Goulet, C Chardot
AIM: Our aim is to describe our achievements in pediatric intestinal transplantation (ITx) and define areas for improvement. METHODS: After a period (1987-90) of 9 isolated small bowel transplants (SBTx) where only one patient survived with her graft, 110 ITx were performed on 101 children from 1994 to 2014: 60 SBTx, 45 liver-small bowel, 4 multivisceral (3 with kidneys), 1 modified multivisceral. Indications were short bowel syndrome (36), motility disorders (30), congenital enteropathies (34) and others (1)...
November 27, 2016: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862411/natural-and-artificial-hyperimmune-solutions-impact-on-health-in-puppies
#16
H Mila, A Grellet, C Mariani, A Feugier, B Guard, J Suchodolski, J Steiner, S Chastant-Maillard
Colostrum and milk are complex mammary secretions providing the puppy with many nutritional and immunological factors, which play a crucial role for its correct development and survival. In the case of colostrum and/or milk intake deficiency, puppies are at increased risk of infectious diseases. This work reviews the various nutritional hyperimmune supplementations proposed to provide a passive immune protection and to positively impact puppies' health. Some strategies rely on canine immunoglobulins: canine colostrum banking and canine serum/plasma supplementation...
November 15, 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856001/enteral-high-fat-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-blend-alters-the-pathogen-composition-of-the-intestinal-microbiome-in-premature-infants-with-an-enterostomy
#17
Noelle Younge, Qing Yang, Patrick C Seed
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of enteral fish oil and safflower oil supplementation on the intestinal microbiome in infants with an enterostomy born premature. STUDY DESIGN: Infants with an enterostomy born premature were randomized to receive early enteral supplementation with a high-fat polyunsaturated fatty acid (HF-PUFA) blend of fish oil and safflower oil vs standard nutritional therapy. We used 16S rRNA gene sequencing for longitudinal profiling of the microbiome from the time of study entry until bowel reanastomosis...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833747/microbiota-host-interplay-at-the-gut-epithelial-level-health-and-nutrition
#18
REVIEW
Jean-Paul Lallès
Growing evidence suggests the implication of the gut microbiota in various facets of health and disease. In this review, the focus is put on microbiota-host molecular cross-talk at the gut epithelial level with special emphasis on two defense systems: intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) and inducible heat shock proteins (iHSPs). Both IAP and iHSPs are induced by various microbial structural components (e.g. lipopolysaccharide, flagellin, CpG DNA motifs), metabolites (e.g. n-butyrate) or secreted signal molecules (e...
2016: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832763/a-comparison-of-intestinal-microbiota-in-a-population-of-low-risk-infants-exposed-and-not-exposed-to-intrapartum-antibiotics-the-baby-microbiota-of-the-intestine-cohort-study-protocol
#19
Julia Simioni, Eileen K Hutton, Elizabeth Gunn, Alison C Holloway, Jennifer C Stearns, Helen McDonald, Andrea Mousseau, Jonathan D Schertzer, Elyanne M Ratcliffe, Lehana Thabane, Michael G Surette, Katherine M Morrison
BACKGROUND: The intestinal microbiota influences metabolic, nutritional, and immunologic processes and has been associated with a broad range of adverse health outcomes including asthma, obesity and Type 2 diabetes. Early life exposures may alter the course of gut microbial colonization leading to differences in metabolic and immune regulation throughout life. Although approximately 50 % of low-risk full-term infants born in Canada are exposed to intrapartum antibiotics, little is known about the influence of this common prophylactic treatment on the developing neonatal intestinal microbiota...
November 10, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821062/the-highly-variable-microbiota-associated-to-intestinal-mucosa-correlates-with-growth-and-hypoxia-resistance-of-sea-bass-dicentrarchus-labrax-submitted-to-different-nutritional-histories
#20
François-Joël Gatesoupe, Christine Huelvan, Nicolas Le Bayon, Hervé Le Delliou, Lauriane Madec, Olivier Mouchel, Patrick Quazuguel, David Mazurais, José-Luis Zambonino-Infante
BACKGROUND: The better understanding of how intestinal microbiota interacts with fish health is one of the key to sustainable aquaculture development. The present experiment aimed at correlating active microbiota associated to intestinal mucosa with Specific Growth Rate (SGR) and Hypoxia Resistance Time (HRT) in European sea bass individuals submitted to different nutritional histories: the fish were fed either standard or unbalanced diets at first feeding, and then mixed before repeating the dietary challenge in a common garden approach at the juvenile stage...
November 8, 2016: BMC Microbiology
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