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Intestinal microbiota nutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802306/ilsi-southeast-asia-region-conference-proceedings-the-gut-its-microbes-and-health-relevance-for-asia
#1
Yuan Kun Lee, Patricia Conway, Sven Pettersson, G Balakrish Nair, Ingrid Surono, Yusra Egayanti, Maria Sofia Amarra
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The human being is a complex entity, involving interaction between microbes and the human host. Evidence shows that the nutritional value of food is influenced in part by the structure and operations of an individual's gut microbial community, and food in turn shapes the individual's microbiome. A conference was held to promote understanding of the intestinal microbiome and its implications for health and disease, particularly among Asian populations. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Papers describing 1) the intestinal ecosystem in Asian populations, 2) changes in intestinal microbiota through life and its effects, 3) the Asian gut microbiota in disease conditions, 4) indigenous probiotics to maintain a healthy gut microbiota, 5) probiotic regulation in an Asian country, and 6) the results of a panel discussion are included in this report...
2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796793/characterizing-the-gut-gallus-gallus-microbiota-following-the-consumption-of-an-iron-biofortified-rwandan-cream-seeded-carioca-phaseolus-vulgaris-l-bean-based-diet
#2
Spenser Reed, Hadar Neuman, Raymond P Glahn, Omry Koren, Elad Tako
Biofortification is a plant breeding method that introduces increased concentrations of minerals in staple food crops (e.g., legumes, cereal grains), and has shown success in alleviating insufficient Fe intake in various human populations. Unlike other strategies utilized to alleviate Fe deficiency, studies of the gut microbiota in the context of Fe biofortification have not yet been reported, although the consumption of Fe biofortified staple food crops has increased significantly over time. Hence, in this study, we performed a 6-week feeding trial in Gallus gallus (n = 14), aimed to investigate the alterations in the gut microbiome following administration of an Fe biofortified bean-based diet (biofortified, BFe) versus a bean based diet with poorly-bioavailable Fe (standard, SFe)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791008/free-fatty-acids-profiles-are-related-to-gut-microbiota-signatures-and-short-chain-fatty-acids
#3
Javier Rodríguez-Carrio, Nuria Salazar, Abelardo Margolles, Sonia González, Miguel Gueimonde, Clara G de Los Reyes-Gavilán, Ana Suárez
A growing body of evidence highlights the relevance of free fatty acids (FFA) for human health, and their role in the cross talk between the metabolic status and immune system. Altered serum FFA profiles are related to several metabolic conditions, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Recent studies have highlighted the link between gut microbiota and host metabolism. However, although most of the studies have focused on different clinical conditions, evidence on the role of these mediators in healthy populations is lacking...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768295/exclusive-enteral-nutrition-for-inducing-remission-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-in-paediatric-patients
#4
Amit Assa, Raanan Shamir
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Enteral nutrition as a treatment for inflammatory bowel diseases is an ongoing area of interest. Even in the era of biologic agents, exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) offers a unique, drug-free measure for induction of remission in luminal Crohn's disease. The purpose of this review is to discuss the role of EEN in the evolving therapeutic scheme for Crohn's disease, to report on new evidence for short and long-term efficacy and highlight findings on the mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory effects of EEN in light of current understanding of disease pathogenesis...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748273/changes-in-the-intestinal-microbiota-of-gibel-carp-carassius-gibelio-associated-with-cyprinid-herpesvirus-2-cyhv-2-infection
#5
Rong She, Tong-Tong Li, Dan Luo, Jia-Bao Li, Liu-Yi Yin, Huan Li, Yao-Min Liu, Xiang-Zhen Li, Qi-Gui Yan
Gut microbiota are integral to the host, and have received increased attention in recent years. However, information regarding the intestinal microbiota of many aquaculture animals is insufficient; elucidating the dynamics of the intestinal microbiota can be beneficial for nutrition, immunity, and disease control. In this study, we used 16S rRNA sequencing to observe changes in the intestinal microbiota of gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) associated with cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) infection. Our results indicate that the diversity of the intestinal microbiota was strongly reduced, and the composition was dramatically altered following CyHV-2 infection...
July 26, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737484/the-effect-of-fiber-and-prebiotics-on-children-s-gastrointestinal-disorders-and-microbiome
#6
Carrie A M Wegh, Margriet H C Schoterman, Elaine E Vaughan, Clara Belzer, Marc A Benninga
The bacteria received upon birth are the start of colonization of the approximately 10(14) bacteria that are present in the mature human gastrointestinal tract, better known as the microbiota. The gut microbiota is implicated in gastrointestinal health, nutrient metabolism and benefits such as prevention of infection. Dietary fiber, including prebiotics, escape digestion in the small intestine and reach the colon intact, where they are partially or completely fermented by the gut microbiota. Areas covered: The possible interactions between dietary fiber, prebiotics and microbiota are discussed as well as how this relates to functional gastrointestinal disorders...
July 24, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721546/health-benefits-observed-after-probiotic-lactobacillus-fermentum-ccm-7421-application-in-dogs
#7
REVIEW
Viola Strompfová, Ivana Kubašová, Andrea Lauková
The importance of the intestinal microbiota has attracted much interest in recent years particularly with respect to ways in which the microbiota can be manipulated in order to improve health. Improving gut health through the use of probiotic microorganisms has become an area of research activity in both human and animal nutrition. However, the amount of research using companion animals is insufficient. The present review evaluates and compares the effects achieved after application of canine-derived probiotic strain Lactobacillus fermentum CCM 7421 to healthy dogs as well as to dogs suffering from gastrointestinal disorders...
July 18, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715992/the-hibernator-microbiome-host-bacterial-interactions-in-an-extreme-nutritional-symbiosis
#8
Hannah V Carey, Fariba M Assadi-Porter
Animals that undergo seasonal cycles of feeding and fasting have adaptations that maintain integrity of organ systems when dietary nutrients are lacking. Food deprivation also challenges the gut microbiota, which relies heavily on host diet for metabolic substrates and the gastrointestinal tract, which is influenced by enteral nutrients and microbial activity. Winter fasting in hibernators shifts the microbiota to favor taxa with the capacity to degrade and utilize host-derived substrates and disfavor taxa that prefer complex plant polysaccharides...
July 17, 2017: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714911/nutrition-and-allergic-diseases
#9
EDITORIAL
R J J van Neerven, Huub Savelkoul
The development of IgE-mediated allergic diseases is influenced by many factors, including genetic and environmental factors such as pollution and farming, but also by nutrition. In the last decade, substantial progress has been made in our understanding of the impact that nutrition can have on allergic diseases. Many studies have addressed the effect of breastfeeding, pre-, pro- and synbiotics, vitamins and minerals, fiber, fruit and vegetables, cow's milk, and n-3 fatty acids, on the development of allergies...
July 17, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694488/outer-membrane-vesicles-secreted-by-pathogenic-and-nonpathogenic-bacteroides-fragilis-represent-different-metabolic-activities
#10
Natalya B Zakharzhevskaya, Anna A Vanyushkina, Ilya A Altukhov, Aleksey L Shavarda, Ivan O Butenko, Daria V Rakitina, Anastasia S Nikitina, Aleksandr I Manolov, Alina N Egorova, Eugene E Kulikov, Innokentii E Vishnyakov, Gleb Y Fisunov, Vadim M Govorun
Numerous studies are devoted to the intestinal microbiota and intercellular communication maintaining homeostasis. In this regard, vesicles secreted by bacteria represent one of the most popular topics for research. For example, the outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) of Bacteroides fragilis play an important nutritional role with respect to other microorganisms and promote anti-inflammatory effects on immune cells. However, toxigenic B. fragilis (ETBF) contributes to bowel disease, even causing colon cancer. If nontoxigenic B...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684750/molecular-ecological-network-analysis-reveals-the-effects-of-probiotics-and-florfenicol-on-intestinal-microbiota-homeostasis-an-example-of-sea-cucumber
#11
Gang Yang, Mo Peng, Xiangli Tian, Shuanglin Dong
Animal gut harbors diverse microbes that play crucial roles in the nutrition uptake, metabolism, and the regulation of host immune responses. The intestinal microbiota homeostasis is critical for health but poorly understood. Probiotics Paracoccus marcusii DB11 and Bacillus cereus G19, and antibiotics florfenicol did not significantly impact species richness and the diversity of intestinal microbiota of sea cucumber, in comparison with those in the control group by high-throughput sequencing. Molecular ecological network analysis indicated that P...
July 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684695/secretory-leukoprotease-inhibitor-slpi-expression-is-required-for-educating-murine-dendritic-cells-inflammatory-response-following-quercetin-exposure
#12
Stefania De Santis, Vanessa Galleggiante, Letizia Scandiffio, Marina Liso, Eduardo Sommella, Anastasia Sobolewski, Vito Spilotro, Aldo Pinto, Pietro Campiglia, Grazia Serino, Angelo Santino, Maria Notarnicola, Marcello Chieppa
Dendritic cells' (DCs) ability to present antigens and initiate the adaptive immune response confers them a pivotal role in immunological defense against hostile infection and, at the same time, immunological tolerance towards harmless components of the microbiota. Food products can modulate the inflammatory status of intestinal DCs. Among nutritionally-derived products, we investigated the ability of quercetin to suppress inflammatory cytokines secretion, antigen presentation, and DCs migration towards the draining lymph nodes...
July 6, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684691/administration-of-inulin-supplemented-gluten-free-diet-modified-calcium-absorption-and-caecal-microbiota-in-rats-in-a-calcium-dependent-manner
#13
Urszula Krupa-Kozak, Lidia H Markiewicz, Grzegorz Lamparski, Jerzy Juśkiewicz
In coeliac disease (CD), the risk of adverse calcium balance and reduced bone density is induced mainly by the disease, but also by a gluten-free diet (GFD), the only accepted CD therapy. Prebiotics through the beneficial impact on intestinal microbiota may stimulate calcium (Ca) absorption. In the present study, we hypothesised that the dietary inulin in GFD would influence positively the intestinal microbiota, and by that will stimulate the absorption of calcium (Ca), especially in the conditions of Ca malnutrition...
July 6, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681454/human-monocytes-downregulate-innate-response-receptors-following-exposure-to-the-microbial-metabolite-n-butyrate
#14
Felix Lasitschka, Thomas Giese, Marco Paparella, Stefan R Kurzhals, Guido Wabnitz, Katrin Jacob, Judith Gras, Konrad A Bode, Anne-Kristin Heninger, Timea Sziskzai, Yvonne Samstag, Cornelia Leszinski, Bettina Jocher, Mohammed Al-Saeedi, Stefan C Meuer, Jutta Schröder-Braunstein
INTRODUCTION: Hyporesponsiveness of human lamina propria immune cells to microbial and nutritional antigens represents one important feature of intestinal homeostasis. It is at least partially mediated by low expression of the innate response receptors CD11b, CD14, CD16 as well as the cystine-glutamate transporter xCT on these cells. Milieu-specific mechanisms leading to the down-regulation of these receptors on circulating monocytes, the precursor cells of resident macrophages, are mostly unknown...
July 6, 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676459/shaping-functional-gut-microbiota-using-dietary-bioactives-to-reduce-colon-cancer-risk
#15
REVIEW
Derek V Seidel, M Andrea Azcárate-Peril, Robert S Chapkin, Nancy D Turner
Colon cancer is a multifactorial disease associated with a variety of lifestyle factors. Alterations in the gut microbiota and the intestinal metabolome are noted during colon carcinogenesis, implicating them as critical contributors or results of the disease process. Diet is a known determinant of health, and as a modifier of the gut microbiota and its metabolism, a critical element in maintenance of intestinal health. This review summarizes recent evidence demonstrating the role and responses of the intestinal microbiota during colon tumorigenesis and the ability of dietary bioactive compounds and probiotics to impact colon health from the intestinal lumen to the epithelium and systemically...
July 1, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659297/nutritional-strategies-and-gut-microbiota-composition-as-risk-factors-for-necrotizing-enterocolitis-in-very-preterm-infants
#16
Jean-Christophe Rozé, Pierre-Yves Ancel, Patricia Lepage, Laetitia Martin-Marchand, Ziad Al Nabhani, Johanne Delannoy, Jean-Charles Picaud, Alexandre Lapillonne, Julio Aires, Mélanie Durox, Dominique Darmaun, Josef Neu, Marie-José Butel
Background: The pathophysiology of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains poorly understood.Objective: We assessed the relation between feeding strategies, intestinal microbiota composition, and the development of NEC.Design: We performed a prospective nationwide population-based study, EPIPAGE 2 (Etude Epidémiologique sur les Petits Ages Gestationnels), including preterm infants born at <32 wk of gestation in France in 2011. From individual characteristics observed during the first week of life, we calculated a propensity score for the risk of NEC (Bell's stage 2 or 3) after day 7 of life...
June 28, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655159/two-distinct-metacommunities-characterize-the-gut-microbiota-in-crohn-s-disease-patients
#17
Qing He, Yuan Gao, Zhuye Jie, Xinlei Yu, Janne Marie Laursen, Liang Xiao, Ying Li, Lingling Li, Faming Zhang, Qiang Feng, Xiaoping Li, Jinghong Yu, Chuan Liu, Ping Lan, Ting Yan, Xin Liu, Xun Xu, Huanming Yang, Jian Wang, Lise Madsen, Susanne Brix, Jianping Wang, Karsten Kristiansen, Huijue Jia
Background: The inflammatory intestinal disorder Crohn's disease (CD) has become a health challenge worldwide. The gut microbiota closely interacts with the host immune system, but its functional impact in CD is unclear. Except for studies on a small number of CD patients, analyses of the gut microbiota in CD have used 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing. Here we employed metagenomic shotgun sequencing to provide a detailed characterization of the compositional and functional features of the CD microbiota, comprising also unannotated bacteria, and investigated its modulation by exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN)...
June 26, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622070/loop-ileostomy-mediated-fecal-stream-diversion-is-associated-with-microbial-dysbiosis
#18
Emma L Beamish, Judith Johnson, Elisabeth J Shaw, Nigel A Scott, Arnab Bhowmick, Rachael J Rigby
Loop ileostomy is an effective procedure to protect downstream intestinal anastomoses. Ileostomy reversal surgery is often performed within 12 months of formation but is associated with substantial morbidity due to severe post-surgical complications. Distal ileum is deprived of enteral nutrition and rendered inactive, often becoming atrophied and fibrotic. This study aimed to investigate the microbial and morphological changes that occur in the defunctioned ileum following loop ileostomy-mediated fecal stream diversion...
June 16, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604736/how-nutrition-and-the-maternal-microbiota-shape-the-neonatal-immune-system
#19
REVIEW
Andrew J Macpherson, Mercedes Gomez de Agüero, Stephanie C Ganal-Vonarburg
The mucosal surfaces of mammals are densely colonized with microorganisms that are commonly referred to as the commensal microbiota. It is believed that the fetus in utero is sterile and that colonization with microorganisms starts only after birth. Nevertheless, the unborn fetus is exposed to a multitude of metabolites that originate from the commensal microbiota of the mother that reach systemic sites of the maternal body. The intestinal microbiota is strongly personalized and influenced by environmental factors, including nutrition...
August 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589947/gut-microbiota-composition-in-relation-to-the-metabolic-response-to-12-week-combined-polyphenol-supplementation-in-overweight-men-and-women
#20
J Most, J Penders, M Lucchesi, G H Goossens, E E Blaak
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The intestinal microbiota may have a profound impact on host metabolism. As evidence suggests that polyphenols affect substrate utilization, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of polyphenol supplementation on intestinal microbiota composition in humans. Furthermore, we examined whether (changes in) gut microbiota composition may determine the metabolic response to polyphenol supplementation. SUBJECTS/METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo (PLA)-controlled trial, 37 overweight and obese men and women (18 males/19 females, 37...
June 7, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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