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Intestinal microbiota nutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789323/the-emerging-connections-between-igf1-the-intestinal-microbiome-lactobacillus-strains-and-bone-growth
#1
REVIEW
Pierre Poinsot, Martin Schwarzer, Noël Peretti, François Leulier
In most animal species, postnatal growth is controlled by conserved insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling. In mammals, juvenile growth is characterized by a longitudinal bone growth resulting from the ossification of the growth plate. This ossification is under IGF1 influence through endocrine and paracrine mechanisms. Moreover, the nutritional status has been largely described as an important factor influencing the insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling. It is now well established that the gut microbiota modulates the nutrient availability of its host...
July 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782463/gut-microbiota-probiotics-and-sport-from-clinical-evidence-to-agonistic-performance
#2
Marco Pane, Angela Amoruso, Francesca Deidda, Teresa Graziano, Serena Allesina, Luca Mogna
Human beings harbor clusters of bacteria in different parts of the body, such as the surface or the deep layers of the skin, the mouth, the lungs, the intestine, the vagina, and all the surfaces exposed to the outer world. The majority of microbes resides in the gut, have a weighty influence on human physiology and nutrition and are vital for human life. There is growing evidence showing that the gut microbiota plays important roles in the maturation of the immune system and the protection against some infectious agents...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769378/food-starch-structure-impacts-gut-microbiome-composition
#3
Frederick J Warren, Naoki M Fukuma, Deirdre Mikkelsen, Bernadine M Flanagan, Barbara A Williams, Allan T Lisle, Páraic Ó Cuív, Mark Morrison, Michael J Gidley
Starch is a major source of energy in the human diet and is consumed in diverse forms. Resistant starch (RS) escapes small intestinal digestion and is fermented in the colon by the resident microbiota, with beneficial impacts on colonic function and host health, but the impacts of the micro- and nanoscale structure of different physical forms of food starch on the broader microbial community have not been described previously. Here, we use a porcine in vitro fermentation model to establish that starch structure dramatically impacts microbiome composition, including the key amylolytic species, and markedly alters both digestion kinetics and fermentation outcomes...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762384/microbial-metabolism-in-the-mammalian-gut-molecular-mechanisms-and-clinical-implications
#4
Anne Hall, James Versalovic
Human intestinal microbes participate actively at the interface of diet, nutrition, and overall health status. These biodiverse communities of microorganisms have a broader metabolic repertoire compared with their host, and they are able to synthesize and degrade substrates that would be otherwise unavailable. In recent years, we have recognized that healthy microbial communities are important for energy harvest and the regulation of body systems outside the digestive tract. Microbial dysbiosis, however, has been implicated in a number of human disorders, including obesity and inflammation...
June 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762383/starch-tolerance-and-the-short-bowel
#5
Jan de Laffolie, Hassan Y Naim, Silvia Rudloff, Klaus-Peter Zimmer
Short bowel syndrome with intestinal failure is a rare disease with a massive impairment in quality of life, requiring a multidisciplinary team approach to medical, surgical, and nutritional therapy. Current pharmacological and surgical therapeutic options are limited; an important cornerstone is enteral and parenteral nutrition. The changed physiology of carbohydrate digestion plays a major role in the adaptation process and can be a target for specific enteral nutrition interventions. An important prognostic factor is the preservation of at least portions of the colon in continuity with small bowel...
June 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754190/allergic-and-immunologic-perspectives-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#6
REVIEW
Kofi Clarke, Jayakrishna Chintanaboina
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic immune-mediated inflammatory condition primarily involving the gastrointestinal tract. It includes Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), and a less common phenotype-indeterminate colitis. It is thought to result from a complex interplay of environmental, microbial, and host factors including genetic factors, although the exact mechanism is not known. Dietary factors have been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of IBD and can potentially alter the intestinal microbiota as well as disrupt the immune function in the gut...
May 12, 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722014/il-23-promotes-intestinal-th17-immunity-and-ameliorates-obesity-associated-metabolic-syndrome-in-a-murine-high-fat-diet-model
#7
Larissa M S Martins, Malena M Perez, Camila A Pereira, Frederico R C Costa, Murilo S Dias, Rita C Tostes, Simone G Ramos, Marcel R de Zoete, Bernhard Ryffel, João S Silva, Daniela Carlos
We addressed the role of IL-23 in driving the intestinal Th17 response during obesity and metabolic syndrome progression induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). Diet-induced obese (DIO) and lean mice received HFD or control diet (CTD), respectively, for 20 weeks. The nutritional, metabolic and immune parameters were examined at weeks 9 and 20. Gene and protein IL-23p19 and IL-23R expression was increased in the ileum of obese wild-type mice (WT) fed the HFD for nine weeks. Mice lacking IL-23 and fed the HFD exhibited greater weight gain, higher fat accumulation, adipocyte hypertrophy and hepatic steatosis...
May 2, 2018: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718511/relationship-between-diet-the-gut-microbiota-and-brain-function
#8
Anouk C Tengeler, Tamas Kozicz, Amanda J Kiliaan
The human intestinal microbiota, comprising trillions of microorganisms, exerts a substantial effect on the host. The microbiota plays essential roles in the function and development of several physiological processes, including those in the brain. A disruption in the microbial composition of the gut has been associated with many metabolic, inflammatory, neurodevelopmental, and neurodegenerative disorders. Nutrition is one of several key factors that shape the microbial composition during infancy and throughout life, thereby affecting brain structure and function...
April 28, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705028/food-microbiome-and-colorectal-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Lukas Niederreiter, Timon E Adolph, Herbert Tilg
You are what you eat. This adage has been confirmed by many studies demonstrating the high impact of nutrition on risk of cardiovascular diseases, many malignancies and other diseases. Dietary factors are of major relevance in the evolution of colorectal carcinoma. Various aspects are involved in colorectal carcinoma pathogenesis including genetics, lifestyle, age, chronic inflammation and others. It has only recently been recognized that the gut microbiota might reflect an important missing link in the interaction between diet and subsequent colorectal carcinoma development...
April 3, 2018: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702489/what-s-new-in-short-bowel-syndrome
#10
Lore Billiauws, Olivier Corcos, Francisca Joly
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a rare disease but with many complications due to intestinal failure, parenteral nutrition and underlying disease. A better prevention, comprehension and treatment could improve the outcome of these patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have been published on acute intestinal failure, first cause of SBS, and gives us strategy to avoid extended intestinal resection and thus SBS. There has been progress in the comprehension of intestinal adaptation, characterized by improvements in intestinal absorption, changes on hormonal secretion, development of a hyperphagia and dysbiosis of the gut microbiota...
April 26, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702299/diets-that-promote-colon-inflammation-associate-with-risk-of-colorectal-carcinomas-that-contain-fusobacterium-nucleatum
#11
Li Liu, Fred K Tabung, Xuehong Zhang, Jonathan A Nowak, Zhi Rong Qian, Tsuyoshi Hamada, Daniel Nevo, Susan Bullman, Kosuke Mima, Keisuke Kosumi, Annacarolina da Silva, Mingyang Song, Yin Cao, Tyler S Twombly, Yan Shi, Hongli Liu, Mancang Gu, Hideo Koh, Wanwan Li, Chunxia Du, Yang Chen, Chenxi Li, Wenbin Li, Raaj S Mehta, Kana Wu, Molin Wang, Aleksander D Kostic, Marios Giannakis, Wendy S Garrett, Curtis Hutthenhower, Andrew T Chan, Charles S Fuchs, Reiko Nishihara, Shuji Ogino, Edward L Giovannucci
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Specific nutritional components are likely to induce intestinal inflammation, which is characterized by increased levels of interleukin 6 (IL6), C-reactive protein (CRP), and TNF receptor superfamily member 1B (TNFRSF1B) in the circulation and promotes colorectal carcinogenesis. The inflammatory effects of a diet can be estimated based on empirical dietary inflammatory pattern (EDIP) score, calculated based on intake of 18 foods associated with plasma levels of IL6, CRP, and TNFRSF1B...
April 24, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701912/gut-microbiota-as-a-modulator-of-paneth-cells-during-parenteral-nutrition-in-mice
#12
Jiwei Wang, Feng Tian, Peng Wang, Huijun Zheng, Ying Zhang, Hao Tian, Li Zhang, Xuejin Gao, Xinying Wang
BACKGROUND: Parenteral nutrition (PN) leads to decreased production of Paneth cell-derived antimicrobial peptides and is accompanied by dysbiosis of the gut. The role of gut microbiota in regulating Paneth cell function during PN is unknown. METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice received either an antibiotic cocktail (Abx) or nothing (Normal) in their drinking water for 2 weeks before being fed either standard laboratory chow (Abx-Chow and Normal-Chow) or a continuous infusion of PN solution (Abx-PN and Normal-PN) for 7 days...
April 27, 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693729/inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-immunonutrition-novel-therapeutic-approaches-through-modulation-of-diet-and-the-gut-microbiome
#13
REVIEW
Larissa S Celiberto, Franziska A Graef, Genelle R Healey, Else S Bosman, Kevan Jacobson, Laura M Sly, Bruce A Vallance
Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract, thought to at least in part reflect an aberrant immune response to gut bacteria. IBD is increasing in incidence, particularly in populations that have recently immigrated to Western countries. This suggests that environmental factors are involved in its pathogenesis. We hypothesize that the increase in IBD rates might reflect the consumption of an unhealthy Western diet, containing excess calories and lacking in key nutritional factors, such as fiber and vitamin D...
April 25, 2018: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653359/the-role-of-the-gut-microbiota-in-the-pathology-and-prevention-of-liver-disease
#14
REVIEW
Alejandra Altamirano-Barrera, Misael Uribe, Norberto C Chávez-Tapia, Natalia Nuño-Lámbarri
Several microorganisms belonging to the intestinal microbiota act in an ecosystem responsible for maintaining the homeostasis and vital functions of human beings. From birth to old age the diversity of the intestinal microbiota may change due to environmental factors such as nutrition, immunity, diseases or the use of antibiotics leading to dysbiosis. Improvement in microbiota diversity can be achieved by modifying related risk factors through changes in lifestyle and a healthy diet. Besides, the addition of probiotics, prebiotics or the combination of both (symbiotics), can result in the improvement of the intestinal permeability, inflammatory pathways and the immune system...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652797/the-role-of-gut-microbiota-and-diet-on-uremic-retention-solutes-production-in-the-context-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#15
REVIEW
Laetitia Koppe, Denis Fouque, Christophe O Soulage
Uremic retention solutes (URS) are associated with cardiovascular complications and poor survival in chronic kidney disease. The better understanding of the origin of a certain number of these toxins enabled the development of new strategies to reduce their production. URS can be classified according to their origins (i.e., host, microbial, or exogenous). The discovery of the fundamental role that the intestinal microbiota plays in the production of many URS has reinstated nutrition at the heart of therapeutics to prevent the accumulation of URS and their deleterious effects...
April 13, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649123/phytochemical-properties-and-nutrigenomic-implications-of-yacon-as-a-potential-source-of-prebiotic-current-evidence-and-future-directions
#16
REVIEW
Yang Cao, Zheng Feei Ma, Hongxia Zhang, Yifan Jin, Yihe Zhang, Frank Hayford
The human gut is densely populated with diverse microbial communities that are essential to health. Prebiotics and fiber have been shown to possess the ability to modulate the gut microbiota. One of the plants being considered as a potential source of prebiotic is yacon. Yacon is an underutilized plant consumed as a traditional root-based fruit in South America. Yacon mainly contains fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and inulin. Therefore, it has bifidogenic benefits for gut health, because FOS are not easily broken down by digestive enzymes...
April 12, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643283/analysis-of-microbial-abundance-and-community-composition-in-esophagus-and-intestinal-tract-of-wild-veined-rapa-whelk-rapana-venosa-by-16s-rrna-gene-sequencing
#17
Hao Song, Zheng-Lin Yu, Mei-Jie Yang, Tao Zhang, Hai-Yan Wang
The rapa whelk Rapana venosa is a commercially important gastropod in China, but a major invader worldwide. There is little information on the bacterial community composition in the digestive system of this species, despite the microflora has important roles in digestion, nutrition, disease resistance, and immune response. The present study investigated the bacterial flora community in the esophagus and intestinal tract of wild R. venosa by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The esophagus and intestine had 1175 and 526 unique operational taxonomic units, respectively, with 616 common to both tissues...
April 11, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643029/-a-machine-learning-model-based-on-initial-gut-microbiome-data-for-predicting-changes-of-bifidobacterium-after-prebiotics-consumption
#18
Yue-Mei Luo, Fei-Tong Liu, Mu-Xuan Chen, Wen-Li Tang, Yue-Lian Yang, Xi-Lan Tan, Hong-Wei Zhou
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of prebiotics supplementation for 9 days on gut microbiota structure and function and establish a machine learning model based on the initial gut microbiota data for predicting the variation of Bifidobacterium after prebiotic intake. METHODS: With a randomized double-blind self-controlled design, 35 healthy volunteers were asked to consume fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) or galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) for 9 days (16 g per day)...
March 20, 2018: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619822/drosophila-melanogaster-as-a-versatile-model-organism-in-food-and-nutrition-research
#19
Stefanie Staats, Kai Lüersen, Anika E Wagner, Gerald Rimbach
Drosophila melanogaster has been widely used in the biological sciences as a model organism. Drosophila has a relatively short life span of 60-80 days, which makes it attractive for life span studies. Moreover, approximately 60% of the fruit fly genes are orthologs to mammals. Thus, metabolic and signal transduction pathways are highly conserved. Maintenance and reproduction of Drosophila do not require sophisticated equipment and are rather cheap. Furthermore, there are fewer ethical issues involved in experimental Drosophila research compared with studies in laboratory rodents, such as rats and mice...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619131/maintenance-of-intestinal-homeostasis-by-mucosal-barriers
#20
REVIEW
Ryu Okumura, Kiyoshi Takeda
Background: The intestine is inhabited by a tremendous number of microorganisms, which provide many benefits to nutrition, metabolism and immunity. Mucosal barriers by intestinal epithelial cells make it possible to maintain the symbiotic relationship between the gut microbiota and the host by separating them. Recent evidence indicates that mucosal barrier dysfunction contributes to the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In this review, we focus on the mechanisms by which mucosal barriers maintain gut homeostasis...
2018: Inflammation and Regeneration
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