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Mahmoud H Ayesh Haj Yousef, Ayham Shatnawi, Mai Khdeir, Diala Khaldoon Alawneh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 18, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
Dick C Chan, P Hugh R Barrett, Gerald F Watts
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dysregulated lipoprotein metabolism leads to increased plasma concentrations of atherogenic lipoproteins. We highlight the findings from recent studies of the effect of lipid-regulating therapies on apolipoprotein metabolism in humans employing endogenous labelling with stable isotopically labelled isotopomers. RECENT FINDINGS: Fish oil supplementation and niacin treatment both reduce fasting and postprandial triglyceride levels by decreasing the hepatic secretion of VLDL-apoB-100 (apoB) and apoB-48-containing chylomicron particles in obese and/or type 2 diabetes...
October 5, 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Nasreen Al Sayed, Khalid Al Waili, Fatheya Alawadi, Saeed Al-Ghamdi, Wael Al Mahmeed, Fahad Al-Nouri, Mona Al Rukhaimi, Khalid Al-Rasadi, Zuhier Awan, Mohamed Farghaly, Mohamed Hassanein, Hani Sabbour, Mohammad Zubaid, Philip Barter
BACKGROUND: Plasma lipid disorders are key risk factors for the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and are prevalent in the Middle East, with rates increasing in recent decades. Despite this, no region-specific guidelines for managing plasma lipids exist and there is a lack of use of guidelines developed in other regions. METHODS: A multidisciplinary panel of regional experts was convened to develop consensus clinical recommendations for the management of plasma lipids in the Middle East...
September 28, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
J C Cohen
Genetic variation arises through multiple different alleles that vary in frequency and severity of effect. Mutations that give rise to Mendelian disorders, such as the LDL receptor (LDLR) mutations that result in familial hypercholesterolaemia, are efficiently winnowed from the population by purifying selection and are almost inevitably rare. Conversely, alleles that are common in the population (such that homozygotes for the minor allele are present even in modest sample sizes) typically have very modest phenotypic effects...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Internal Medicine
Miklos Rohla, Heinz Haberfeld, Helmut Sinzinger, Harald Kritz, Maximilian Tscharre, Matthias K Freynhofer, Kurt Huber, Thomas W Weiss
BACKGROUND: Early identification and treatment of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) is essential to prevent excess morbidity, mortality and healthcare-related costs. We sought to investigate whether an active screening programme at pharmacies could identify a significant proportion of patients with previously undetected CVRFs. METHODS AND RESULTS: Between April and July 2013, 184 pharmacies in Lower Austria enrolled a total of 6800 participants, in whom body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), total cholesterol and blood glucose were measured...
2016: Open Heart
Mai Yamashita, Motofumi Kumazoe, Yuki Nakamura, Yeong Seon Won, Jaehoon Bae, Shuya Yamashita, Hirofumi Tachibana
Western diets induce obesity associated with an increased risk of hypercholesterolaemia. Indeed, obesity-induced hypercholesterolaemia is correlated with increased coronary cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal diet, high-fat and high-sucrose diet (HF/HS), HF/HS with green tea extract powder diet (HF/HS+GT), HF/HS with eriodictyol diet (HF/HS+Eri), or HF/HS with green tea extract powder and eriodictyol diet (HF/HS+GT+Eri) for 8 wk. Body weight was lower in the HF/HS+GT+Eri group than in the HF/HS group (-8...
2016: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Alistair W Vickery, Gerald F Watts
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Heart, Lung & Circulation
E C Laurence, J Volmink, T M Esterhuizen, S Dalal, M D Holmes
BACKGROUND: The accelerating epidemic of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and other non-communicable diseases (NCDs) highlights the need to establish long-term cohort studies in Africa. OBJECTIVE: The Partnership for Cohort Research and Training (PaCT) seeks to study NCDs in South Africa (SA), Uganda, Tanzania and Nigeria on a long-term basis. Pilot studies at each site have tested feasibility. The SA site additionally studied the prevalence of CVD risk factors and categorised participants' 10-year predicted risk of a cardiovascular event...
September 23, 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Mengsi Hu, Minghua Fan, Junhui Zhen, Jiangong Lin, Qun Wang, Zhimei Lv, Rong Wang
Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that regulates cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. In the present study, a rat model of high fat diet-induced hypercholesterolaemia was established to investigate the involvement of FAK in lipid disorder-related kidney diseases. We showed focal fusion of podocyte foot process that occurred at as early as 4 weeks in rats consuming high fat diet, preceding the onset of proteinuria when aberrant phosphorylation of FAK was found...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Samuel Kingue, Solofonirina Rakotoarimanana, Nirina Rabearivony, Francois Lepira Bompera
AIM: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a global challenge but the burden in sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries is less well documented than elsewhere. We aimed to describe the key cardiometabolic risk factors in four SSA countries. METHODS: A cross-sectional, multi-national, hospital-based study was carried out among adults (> 35 years) across four SSA countries from 12 December 2011 to 7 February 2013. Risk factors were defined using the World Health Organisation and International Diabetes Federation guidelines...
August 22, 2016: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
Titus W P van den Heuvel, Adam F Cohen, Robert Rissmann
In this article, we consider the new drugs approved for the European market in 2015. We present a summary of the new mechanisms of action introduced and highlight three new mechanisms of action with a potentially high future impact: PCSK9 inhibition (alirocumab (Praluent®) and evolocumab (Repatha®)) for hypercholesterolaemia, neprilysin inhibition (sacubitril in combination with valsartan (Entresto®)) for heart failure, and interleukin-5 inhibition (mepolizumab (Nucala®)) for asthma.
October 2016: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
Rafael Escate, Teresa Padro, Maria Borrell-Pages, Rosa Suades, Rosa Aledo, Pedro Mata, Lina Badimon
Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is a major risk for premature coronary heart disease due to severe long-life exposure to high LDL levels. Accumulation of LDL in the vascular wall triggers atherosclerosis with activation of the innate immunity system. Here, we have investigated (i) gene expression of LDLR and LRPs in peripheral blood cells (PBLs) and in differentiated macrophages of young FH-patients; and (ii) whether macrophage from FH patients have a differential response when exposed to high levels of atherogenic LDL...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Rosalind Martin, Mark Latten, Padraig Hart, Helena Murray, Deborah A Bailie, Martin Crockard, John Lamont, Peter Fitzgerald, Colin A Graham
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) leads to a lifelong increase in plasma LDL levels with subsequent increase in premature vascular disease. Early diagnosis and treatment is the key to effective management of this condition. This research aims to produce a simple and cost effective genetic test which could identify the majority (71%) of mutations causing FH in the UK and Ireland. METHODS: The Randox Biochip Array Technology was used to detect 40 point mutations in LDLR, APOB and PCSK9 genes, over two 5 × 5 arrays...
September 17, 2016: Atherosclerosis
T Flaig, A Douros, E Bronder, A Klimpel, R Kreutz, E Garbe
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Tocilizumab (TCZ) is a humanized monoclonal antibody acting against the IL-6 receptor. It is a drug used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and can be either given intravenously every 4 weeks or subcutaneously once a week. Known adverse events (AE) associated with TCZ include: infections of the upper respiratory tract, arterial hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia and hypertriglyceridaemia. Here, we present the first well-documented case of TCZ-induced acute pancreatitis (AP) and a systematic review of the literature including data from the Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) database...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
Nicolás Roberto Robles, Ramón Peces, Álvaro Gómez-Ferrer, Felipe Villacampa, Jose Luis Álvarez-Ossorio, Pedro Pérez-Segura, Juan Morote, Bernardo Herrera-Imbroda, Javier Nieto, Joaquín Carballido, Urbano Anido, Marian Valero, Cristina Meseguer, Roser Torra
BACKGROUND: Renal angiomyolipomas (AML) are usual manifestations of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) that may cause aneurism-related haemorrhages and renal impairment. Everolimus has emerged as an alternative to surgery/embolization. We provide further insight into everolimus safety and efficacy for TSC-related AML. METHODS: This was a Spanish expanded access trial including patients aged ≥18 years with TSC-related AML. They received 10 mg everolimus once daily until AML progression, unacceptable toxicity, death/withdrawal, commercialisation for TSC-related AML, or 1 year after first patient enrolment...
September 26, 2016: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
María de Los Ángeles Ríos-Rodríguez, María Rosa García-Cerdán, Ana Rosa Calonge-Vallejo, Laia Tobella-Andreu, José Miguel Baena-Díez, Helmut Schröder
OBJECTIVE: To study the feasibility and results of the self-reported short diet quality screener (sDQS) in Primary Care. The variables associated with difficulty and inadequate diet are also determined. METHOD: Cross-sectional descriptive study conducted with 196 participants aged >18 years with diabetes mellitus, hypertension, or hypercholesterolaemia, consecutively included from 4 Primary Health Care Centres in Barcelona. The main variables collected were, age, sex, educational level, cardiovascular risk factors, body mass index, time to complete the sDQS, degree of difficulty, and diet score: inadequate diet ≤18, adequate in some aspects 19-27, adequate >27...
September 17, 2016: Enfermería Clínica
Sven O Dahms, Marcelino Arciniega, Torsten Steinmetzer, Robert Huber, Manuel E Than
Proprotein convertases (PCs) are highly specific proteases required for the proteolytic modification of many secreted proteins. An unbalanced activity of these enzymes is connected to pathologies like cancer, atherosclerosis, hypercholesterolaemia, and infectious diseases. Novel protein crystallographic structures of the prototypical PC family member furin in different functional states were determined to 1.8-2.0 Å. These, together with biochemical data and modeling by molecular dynamics calculations, suggest essential elements underlying its unusually high substrate specificity...
October 4, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Gregory B Lim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
V V Valeev, A P Trashkov, A L Kovalenko, A G Vasil'ev
Presented herein is a review of scientific publications dedicated to studying the pharmacodynamics of L-arginine and possibilities of its clinical application. Interest to L-arginine is associated, first of all, with its role as a precursor in endogenous synthesis of nitric oxide (NO), playing an important role in regulation of the functional state of the vascular wall. According to numerous studies, oral and parenteral administration of L-arginine restores endothelial production of NO in such diseases as atherosclerosis, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obliterating diseases of arteries of lower extremities...
2016: Angiologii︠a︡ i Sosudistai︠a︡ Khirurgii︠a︡, Angiology and Vascular Surgery
D C Chan, J Pang, P H R Barrett, D R Sullivan, T A Mori, J R Burnett, F M van Bockxmeer, G F Watts
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Increased arterial stiffness is closely linked with raised blood pressure that contributes substantially to enhanced risk of coronary heart disease in high risk individuals with familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH). Omega-3 fatty acid (ω3-FA) supplementation has been demonstrated to lower blood pressure in subjects with a high cardiovascular disease risk. Whether ω3-FA supplementation improves arterial stiffness in FH subjects, on background statin therapy, has yet to be investigated...
August 3, 2016: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
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