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Hypercholesterolaemia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772570/undertreatment-of-vascular-risk-factors-in-patients-with-monocular-ischaemic-visual-loss
#1
Angeliki Zarkali, Suk Fun Cheng, Agnes Dados, Robert Simister, Arvind Chandratheva
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Ischaemic visual loss is often considered a lower risk factor than other transient ischaemic attacks (TIA). We aimed to determine the recurrence risk, prevalence and management of vascular risk factors in these patients. METHODS: The study took place in the University College Hospital London daily TIA clinic, main referral centre for North-Central London and Moorfields Eye Hospital. Consecutive records for patients with transient (< 24 h) or permanent (> 24 h) ischaemic visual loss were reviewed during the period January 2014-October 2016...
May 17, 2018: Cerebrovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759104/delayed-postprandial-tag-peak-after-intake-of-sfa-compared-with-pufa-in-subjects-with-and-without-familial-hypercholesterolaemia-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#2
Linn K L Øyri, Patrik Hansson, Martin P Bogsrud, Ingunn Narverud, Geir Florholmen, Lena Leder, Marte G Byfuglien, Marit B Veierød, Stine M Ulven, Kirsten B Holven
Postprandial hypertriacylglycerolaemia is associated with an increased risk of developing CVD. How fat quality influences postprandial lipid response is scarcely explored in subjects with familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH). The aim of this study was to investigate the postprandial response of TAG and lipid sub-classes after consumption of high-fat meals with different fat quality in subjects with FH compared with normolipidaemic controls. A randomised controlled double-blind cross-over study with two meals and two groups was performed...
May 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759006/interplay-between-hypercholesterolaemia-and-inflammation-in-atherosclerosis-translating-experimental-targets-into-clinical-practice
#3
José Tuñón, Magnus Bäck, Lina Badimón, Marie-Luce Bochaton-Piallat, Bertrand Cariou, Mat J Daemen, Jesus Egido, Paul C Evans, Sheila E Francis, Daniel Fj Ketelhuth, Esther Lutgens, Christian M Matter, Claudia Monaco, Sabine Steffens, Erik Stroes, Cécile Vindis, Christian Weber, Imo E Hoefer
Dyslipidaemia and inflammation are closely interconnected in their contribution to atherosclerosis. In fact, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-lowering drugs have anti-inflammatory effects. The Canakinumab Antiinflammatory Thrombosis Outcome Study (CANTOS) has shown that interleukin (IL)-1β blockade reduces the incidence of cardiovascular events in patients with previous myocardial infarction and C-reactive protein levels >2 mg/L. These data confirm the connection between lipids and inflammation, as lipids activate the Nod-like receptor protein 3 inflammasome that leads to IL-1β activation...
January 1, 2018: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751285/improving-identification-and-management-of-familial-hypercholesterolaemia-in-primary-care-pre-and-post-intervention-study
#4
Stephen Weng, Joe Kai, Jennifer Tranter, Jo Leonardi-Bee, Nadeem Qureshi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is a major cause of premature heart disease but remains unrecognised in most patients. This study investigated if a systematic primary care-based approach to identify and manage possible FH improves recommended best clinical practice. METHODS: Pre- and post-intervention study in six UK general practices (population 45,033), which invited patients with total cholesterol >7.5 mmol/L to be assessed for possible FH...
April 30, 2018: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751283/coronary-heart-disease-mortality-in-treated-familial-hypercholesterolaemia-update-of-the-uk-simon-broome-fh-register
#5
S E Humphries, J A Cooper, M Seed, N Capps, P N Durrington, B Jones, I F W McDowell, H Soran, H A W Neil
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) have an elevated risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Here we compare changes in CHD mortality in patients with heterozygous (FH) pre 1992, before lipid-lowering therapy with statins was used routinely, and in the periods 1992-2008 and 2008-2016. METHODS: 1903 Definite (DFH) and 1650 Possible (PFH) patients (51% women) aged 20-79 years, recruited from 21 lipid clinics in the United Kingdom and followed prospectively between 1980 and 2016 for 67,060 person-years...
May 1, 2018: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737499/vaccines-targeting-pcsk9-a-promising-alternative-to-passive-immunization-with-monoclonal-antibodies-in-the-management-of-hyperlipidaemia
#6
Stefan Weisshaar, Markus Zeitlinger
Hypercholesterolaemia is frequently observed in patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and is associated with increased mortality. Statin treatment has been the standard of care for reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) to improve cardiovascular outcomes. However, statins have limited effects in some patients and may be discontinued due to adverse effects resulting in LDL-C above target levels. The proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a pivotal regulator in the LDL-C metabolism by degrading the LDL-C receptor on hepatocytes...
May 8, 2018: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725824/a-low-fat-spread-with-added-plant-sterols-and-fish-omega-3-fatty-acids-lowers-serum-triglyceride-and-ldl-cholesterol-concentrations-in-individuals-with-modest-hypercholesterolaemia-and-hypertriglyceridaemia
#7
Wendy A M Blom, Wieneke P Koppenol, Harry Hiemstra, Tatjana Stojakovic, Hubert Scharnagl, Elke A Trautwein
PURPOSE: The primary and secondary objectives were to investigate the triglyceride (TG) and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering effects of a spread with added plant sterols (PS) and fish oil as compared to a placebo spread. METHODS: This study had a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group design with two intervention arms. Following a 2-week placebo run-in period, 260 healthy individuals with modestly elevated blood TG (≥ 1.4 mmol/L) and LDL-C (≥ 3...
May 3, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699500/in-flight-angina-pectoris-an-unusual-presentation
#8
Firas Al-Janabi, Regina Mammen, Grigoris Karamasis, John Davies, Thomas Keeble
BACKGROUND: An unusual case of typical angina which occurred on a long haul flight is presented. This case is notable as this was the index presentation, with no previous symptoms prior to this. Physiological changes at altitude can be marked, and include hypoxia, tachycardia and an increase in cardiac output. These changes were enough to expose underlying angina in our patient. CASE PRESENTATION: A 68 year old man presented with typical cardiac chest pain on a long haul flight...
April 5, 2018: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685715/a-small-change-can-make-a-big-difference-a-lesson-from-evolocumab
#9
Sam Mirzaee, Paul M Thein, Dennis Wong, Arthur Nasis
BACKGROUND: Evolocumab is an expensive proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor which has been shown to significantly improve cardiovascular outcomes in high risk patients. METHODS: This is a case study describing a stepwise approach to "PCSK9 inhibitor non-response" in a patient with familial hypercholesterolaemia. There are a few described pathophysiological mechanisms for "PCSK9 inhibitor non-response" including homozygous LDL-C receptor-negative mutations and alteration in the binding site of PCSK9 inhibitors...
March 20, 2018: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683854/increased-cholesterol-absorption-rather-than-synthesis-is-involved-in-boosted-protease-inhibitor-associated-hypercholesterolaemia
#10
Pere Leyes, Montserrat Cofan, Ana González-Cordón, Elisa de Lazzari, Joan Trabal, Pere Domingo, Eugenia Negredo, Francesc Vidal, Maria T Forga, Jose M Gatell, Emili Ros, Esteban Martínez
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the differential effects of first-line efavirenz (EFV)-based vs. boosted lopinavir-based antiretroviral regimens on cholesterol metabolism. DESIGN: Multicentre, open-label, randomized clinical trial. METHODS: Forty-nine naïve HIV-infected patients were randomized (1 : 1) to receive either ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r) or EFV both in combination with tenofovir and emtricitabine (ClinicalTrials...
April 19, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626384/parent-child-genetic-testing-for-familial-hypercholesterolaemia-in-an-australian-context
#11
Jing Pang, Andrew C Martin, Timothy R Bates, Amanda J Hooper, Damon A Bell, John R Burnett, Richard Norman, Gerald F Watts
AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of parent-child testing for familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) employing genetic testing and the likely additional cost of treating each child. METHODS: Parent-child testing for gene variants causative of FH was carried out according to Australian guidelines. The number of new cases detected, the low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol that best predicted a mutation and the proportional reduction in LDL-cholesterol following statin treatment was evaluated...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622598/impact-of-age-on-excess-risk-of-coronary-heart-disease-in-patients-with-familial-hypercholesterolaemia
#12
Liv J Mundal, Jannicke Igland, Marit B Veierød, Kirsten Bjørklund Holven, Leiv Ose, Randi Marie Selmer, Torbjorn Wisloff, Ivar S Kristiansen, Grethe S Tell, Trond P Leren, Kjetil Retterstøl
OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to study the risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and coronary heart disease (CHD) in patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) and compare with the risk in the general population. METHODS: Patients with an FH mutation but without prior AMI (n=3071) and without prior CHD (n=2795) were included in the study sample during 2001-2009. We obtained data on all AMI and CHD hospitalisations in Norway. We defined incident cases as first time hospitalisation or out-of-hospital death due to AMI or CHD...
April 5, 2018: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621178/assessment-of-the-pro12ala-polymorphism-in-the-ppar-%C3%AE-2-gene-among-type-2-diabetes-patients-in-a-nigerian-population
#13
Godwill Azeh Engwa, Friday Nweke Nwalo, Venatus Osita Chiezey, Marian N Unachukwu, Opeolu Oyejide Ojo, Benjamin Ewa Ubi
The association between the Pro12Ala polymorphism of the PPARγ2 gene, type 2 diabetes (T2D), and obesity in certain ethnic populations has been reported. However, this relationship has not yet been described among diabetes patients in Nigeria. This study investigated the relationship between the Pro12Ala polymorphism in the PPARγ2 gene, obesity, and lipid abnormalities characterizing T2D among patients in Nigeria. This case-control study recruited 73 T2D and 75 non-diabetic (ND) patients. Demographic and clinical data were collected and blood glucose levels together with serum lipid profile for patients were measured...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602595/lipid-and-lipoprotein-parameters-for-detection-of-familial-hypercholesterolemia-in-childhood-the-decopin-project
#14
Núria Plana, Cèlia Rodríguez-Borjabad, Daiana Ibarretxe, Raimon Ferré, Albert Feliu, Alejandra Caselles, Luis Masana
BACKGROUND: Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) in children is under-detected and is difficult to diagnose in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical, biochemical and vascular imaging variables in order to detect children and adolescents with FH. METHODS: A total of 222 children aged 4-18 years old were recruited to participate in a project for the early detection of FH (The DECOPIN Project). They were distributed into 3groups: FH, if genetic study or clinical criteria were positive (n=91); Polygenic hypercholesterolaemia (PH) if LDL-Cholesterol >135mg/dL without FH criteria (n=23), and Control group (CG) if LDL-C <135mg/dL (n=108)...
March 27, 2018: Clínica e Investigación en Arteriosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549311/wheat-derived-arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides-with-bifidogenic-properties-abolishes-metabolic-disorders-induced-by-western-diet-in-mice
#15
Audrey M Neyrinck, Sophie Hiel, Caroline Bouzin, Vicenta Garcia Campayo, Patrice D Cani, Laure B Bindels, Nathalie M Delzenne
BACKGROUND: Non-digestible carbohydrates present in cereals such as fructans and arabinoxylans represent promising prebiotic nutrients to prevent the development of obesity and related metabolic disorders. OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN:  The aim of this study was to determine the corrective effects of wheat bran-derived arabinoxylan oligosaccharides in obese mice fed a western diet (WD). WD was given for 4 weeks before wheat bran extract (WBE) supplementation (5%) for an additional 4 weeks, whereas a control group received the standard diet...
March 7, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501047/simvastatin-reduces-circulating-oxysterol-levels-in-men-with-hypercholesterolaemia
#16
Irundika H K Dias, Ivana Milic, Gregory Y H Lip, Andrew Devitt, M Cristina Polidori, Helen R Griffiths
Oxysterols (OHC) are biologically active cholesterol metabolites circulating in plasma that may be formed enzymatically (e.g. 24S-OHC, 25-OHC and 27-OHC) or by autoxidative mechanisms (e.g. 7-ketocholesterol, 7β-OHC and 25-OHC). Oxysterols are more soluble than cholesterol and are reported to exert inflammatory, cytoprotective and apoptotic effects according to concentration and species. Esterified oxysterols have been analysed in people with dementia and cardiovascular diseases although there is no consistent relationship between oxysterol esters and disease...
June 2018: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500790/predictors-of-severe-stenosis-at-invasive-coronary-angiography-in-patients-with-normal-myocardial-perfusion-imaging
#17
S Yokota, J P Ottervanger, M Mouden, M J de Boer, P L Jager, J R Timmer
PURPOSE: Normal myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is associated with excellent prognosis. However, in patients with persisting symptoms, it may be difficult to determine the patients in whom invasive angiography is justified to rule out false negative MPI. We evaluated predictors for severe stenosis at invasive angiography in patients with persisting symptoms after normal MPI. METHODS: 229 consecutive patients with normal MPI, without previous bypass surgery, underwent invasive angiography within 6 months...
April 2018: Netherlands Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472712/direct-effects-of-thyroid-hormones-on-hepatic-lipid-metabolism
#18
REVIEW
Rohit A Sinha, Brijesh K Singh, Paul M Yen
It has been known for a long time that thyroid hormones have prominent effects on hepatic fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis and metabolism. Indeed, hypothyroidism has been associated with increased serum levels of triglycerides and cholesterol as well as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Advances in areas such as cell imaging, autophagy and metabolomics have generated a more detailed and comprehensive picture of thyroid-hormone-mediated regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism at the molecular level...
May 2018: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439066/effect-of-an-increased-dosage-of-statins-on-spinal-degenerative-joint-disease-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#19
Yuan-Yang Cheng, Chung-Lan Kao, Shih-Yi Lin, Shin-Tsu Chang, Tz-Shiang Wei, Shih-Ni Chang, Ching-Heng Lin
OBJECTIVES: It has been proven that statin can protect synovial joints from developing osteoarthritis through its anti-inflammatory effects. However, studies on the effect of statins on spinal degenerative joint diseases are few and limited to in vitro studies. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between the statin dosage and the development of spinal degenerative joint diseases. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Patients registered in Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database...
February 8, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437865/associations-of-dyslipidaemia-and-lipid-lowering-treatment-with-risk-of-postoperative-cognitive-dysfunction-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
REVIEW
Insa Feinkohl, Georg Winterer, Tobias Pischon
BACKGROUND: Lipid imbalance is linked to age-related cognitive impairment, but its role in postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is unknown. Here, we present a systematic review and meta-analysis on dyslipidaemia, lipid-lowering treatment and POCD risk. METHODS: PubMed, Ovid SP and Cochrane databases were searched for longitudinal studies that reported on associations of any measure of dyslipidaemia and/or lipid-lowering treatment with POCD as relative risks (RRs) or ORs...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
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