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Hypercholesterolaemia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915786/nutrition-in-primary-and-secondary-prevention-of-cardiovascular-risk-in-the-continental-and-mediterranean-regions-of-croatia
#1
Jozica Sikic, Mira Stipcevic, Hrvoje Vrazic, Jasna Cerkez Habek, Eduard Margetic, Dario Gulin
BACKGROUND: The aim of this observational study was to evaluate the effect of Mediterranean and continental nutrition on cardiovascular risk in patients with acute and chronic coronary heart disease in Croatia. METHODS: The study included 1284 patients who were hospitalized in a 28-month period due to acute or chronic ischaemic heart disease in hospitals across Croatia. An individual questionnaire was prepared which enabled recording of various cardiovascular risk factors...
September 16, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889780/prevalence-of-hearing-loss-and-associated-factors-in-subjects-with-normal-otoscopy-a-national-cross-sectional-study
#2
Hong Ju Park, Myung Hoon Yoo, Sook-Young Woo, Seon Woo Kim, Yang-Sun Cho
OBJECTIVE: To report the prevalence of hearing loss (HL) and associated factors in a nationwide study. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. STUDY SAMPLE: We investigated the prevalence of HL in 10,845 participants ≥12 years of age and analysed the associated factors with HL from 7434 participants ≥40 years of age. RESULTS: The prevalence of worse ear HL was 21.9% (1.2% in youngest and 81.9% in oldest) and that of better ear was 12...
September 11, 2017: International Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882495/prevalence-of-zinc-deficiency-in-cardiac-surgery-patients
#3
Lesley A Braun, Ruchong Ou, Christina Kure, Adriana Trang, Franklin Rosenfeldt
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to define the status of preoperative zinc levels in patients with heart disease presenting for cardiac surgery and to identify any predictors for and any clinical consequences of low zinc levels. METHODS: Adult patients presenting for elective surgery, either coronary artery bypass graft surgery and/or valve replacement, provided a fasting blood sample on the day of admission for surgery. Plasma and erythrocyte zinc levels were analysed and the levels correlated with the patient's characteristics and clinical outcomes...
August 14, 2017: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872163/italian-survey-on-benign-paroxysmal-positional-vertigo
#4
A Messina, A P Casani, M Manfrin, G Guidetti
Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is the most common type of peripheral vertigo. BPPV often relapses after the first episode, with a recurrence rate between 15% and 50%. To date both the aetiopathogenetic processes that lead to otoconia detachment and the factors that make BPPV a relapsing disease are still unclear, but recent epidemiological studies have shown a possible association with cardiovascular risk factors. The aim of the present study (Sesto Senso Survey) was to evaluate in the Italian population through an observational survey, the main demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with BPPV (first episode or recurrent) with particular focus on the potential cardiovascular risk factors...
August 2017: Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866629/strategies-to-reduce-line-infections-in-a-small-child-with-homozygous-familial-hypercholesterolaemia-who-cannot-yet-receive-ldl-apheresis
#5
Misan Lee, Janet Barr, Stewart Kribs, Guido Filler
Patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia are optimally treated with low-density lipoprotein apheresis. Young patients who do not meet a weight threshold (25 kg) receive regular plasmapheresis. This approach may remove excessive immunoglobulins and vascular access set-up can be challenging. We report the case of a 4 year-old child who exhibited repeated septic infections (5 in 6 months) and had recurrent access issues before two interventions were implemented: (1) the percutaneous central venous line was modified to two implanted paediatric ports, and (2) the patient started receiving two bags of Octaplasma at the end of each plasmapheresis treatment to account for the excessive loss of immunoglobulins...
September 1, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864697/estimating-the-prevalence-of-heterozygous-familial-hypercholesterolaemia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Leo E Akioyamen, Jacques Genest, Shubham D Shan, Rachel L Reel, Jordan M Albaum, Anna Chu, Jack V Tu
OBJECTIVES: Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) confers a significant risk for premature cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the estimated prevalence of FH varies substantially among studies. We aimed to provide a summary estimate of FH prevalence in the general population and assess variations in frequency across different sociodemographic characteristics. SETTING, PARTICIPANTS AND OUTCOME MEASURES: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Global Health, the Cochrane Library, PsycINFO and PubMed for peer-reviewed literature using validated strategies...
September 1, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860961/case-report-a-toddler-with-anasarca-caused-by-congenital-nephrotic-syndrome
#7
Tumelo M Satekge, Olivia Kiabilua, Gertruida van Biljon, Komala Pillay, Tahir S Pillay
Congenital nephrotic syndrome is a rare inherited disorder arising from defects in the proteins of the cells in the glomerular basement membrane and develops either in utero or at birth. The clinical presentation is the result of massive protein loss in the urine with associated compensatory mechanisms. Here we present a clinical case of a female toddler with a history of anasarca (severe generalised edema) from birth and who presents with the classical biochemical laboratory findings of nephrotic syndrome, together with the more pronounced features that arise from protein loss including abnormal thyroid function testing and a marked hypercholesterolaemia...
May 2017: EJIFCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851715/oesophageal-mastocytosis-eosinophilic-oesophagitis-without-eosinophils
#8
Donevan Westerveld, Jian Li, Sarah Glover
A 59-year-old male with a history of lifelong asthma, allergic rhinitis and hypercholesterolaemia presented to the emergency department for management of severe substernal chest pain with radiating pain to his left arm, nausea and diaphoresis. Physical examination was unrevealing and a cardiac workup including cardiac enzymes, ECG, chest radiographs were negative for an underlying ischaemic event. A subsequent gastrointestinal workup including oesophageal manometry and oesophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed elevated lower oesophageal pressures and histopathology suggestive of mast cell proliferation, respectively...
August 28, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811385/circulating-mir-200c-is-up-regulated-in-paediatric-patients-with-familial-hypercholesterolaemia-and-correlates-with-mir-33a-b-levels-implication-of-a-zeb1-dependent-mechanism
#9
Marco D'Agostino, Francesco Martino, Sara Sileno, Francesco Barilla, Sara Beji, Lorenza Marchetti, Fabio Maria Gangi, Luca Persico, Mario Picozza, Anna Montali, Eliana Martino, Cristina Zanoni, Daniele Avitabile, Sandro Parrotto, Maurizio C Capogrossi, Alessandra Magenta
Hypercholesterolaemia provokes reactive oxygen species (ROS) increase and is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) development. We previously showed that circulating microRNA(miR)-33a/b expression levels were up-regulated in children with familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH). miR-33a/b control cholesterol homoeostasis and recently miR-33b has been demonstrated to directly target the transcription factor ZEB1. The latter acts in a negative feedback-loop with miR-200 family. Our previous studies showed that the ROS-dependent miR-200c up-regulation induces endothelial dysfunction and provokes a ZEB1-dependent apoptosis and senescence...
August 15, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809621/cardiovascular-risk-factors-and-mortality-in-children-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#10
Abdullahi Mudi, Caroline Dickens, Cecil Levy, Daynia Ballot
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) begins early in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and its progression is determined by the presence of single or multiple cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs). OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of CVRFs in children with CKD and their association with mortality in children on chronic dialysis. METHODS: This comparative cross-sectional study recruited children aged 5 - 18 years with all stages of CKD...
July 28, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799203/efficacy-and-safety-of-alirocumab-in-people-with-prediabetes-vs-those-with-normoglycaemia-at-baseline-a-pooled-analysis-of-10-phase-iii-odyssey-clinical-trials
#11
L A Leiter, D Müller-Wieland, M T Baccara-Dinet, A Letierce, R Samuel, B Cariou
AIM: To assess the lipid-lowering efficacy and safety of alirocumab, a proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor, in people with hypercholesterolaemia and prediabetes at baseline vs people with normoglycaemia at baseline in a pooled analysis of 10 ODYSSEY phase III trials. METHODS: People classified as having prediabetes had baseline HbA1c ≥39 mmol/mol (5.7%) and <48 mmol/mol (6.5%), or two baseline fasting plasma glucose values ≥5.6 mmol/l (100 mg/dl) but no more than one fasting plasma glucose value ≥7...
August 11, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791591/age-related-differences-in-non-persistence-with-statin-treatment-in-patients-after-a-transient-ischaemic-attack
#12
Martin Wawruch, Dusan Zatko, Gejza Wimmer, Jan Luha, Sona Wimmerova, Petra Matalova, Peter Kukumberg, Jan Murin, Tomas Tesar, Beata Havelkova, Rashmi Shah
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Non-persistence with secondary preventive measures, including medications such as statins, adversely affects the prospects of successful outcomes. This study was aimed at evaluating non-persistence with statin therapy in cohorts of young and elderly patients after a transient ischaemic attack (TIA) and identifying patient-associated characteristics that influence the risk for non-persistence. METHODS: The study cohorts included 797 adult patients who were initiated on statin therapy following a TIA diagnosis between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2010...
August 8, 2017: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762762/gdf-15-and-trail-r2-are-powerful-predictors-of-long-term-mortality-in-patients-with-acute-myocardial-infarction
#13
Emma Skau, Egil Henriksen, Philippe Wagner, Pär Hedberg, Agneta Siegbahn, Jerzy Leppert
Background The Proximity Extension Assay proteomics chip provides a large-scale analysis of 92 biomarkers linked to cardiovascular disease or inflammation. We aimed to identify the biomarkers that best predicted long-term all-cause mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Methods In this prospective cohort study, 92 biomarkers were analysed in 847 consecutive patients from the Västmanland Myocardial Infarction Study with a median follow-up of 6.9 years. Results The mean (± standard deviation) age of the patients was 70 (11...
January 1, 2017: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761685/two-year-clinical-outcomes-of-patients-treated-with-the-dual-therapy-stent-in-a-1000-patient-all-comers-registry
#14
Deborah N Kalkman, Pier Woudstra, Ian B A Menown, Peter den Heijer, Arnoud Wj Van't Hof, Andrejs Erglis, Harry Suryapranata, Karin E Arkenbout, Andrés Iñiguez, Philippe Muller, Jan G Tijssen, Marcel A M Beijk, Robbert J de Winter
OBJECTIVE: The dual-therapy stent combines an abluminal biodegradable drug-eluting coating, with a 'pro-healing' luminal layer. This bioengineered layer attracts circulating endothelial progenitor cells that can differentiate into normal endothelium. Rapid endothelialisation of the stent might allow safe short dual antiplatelet therapy. We aim to assess clinical outcomes in patients treated with this novel device at 2-year follow-up. METHODS: A total of 1000 patients were included in the REMEDEE Registry to evaluate clinical outcomes after treatment with the dual-therapy stent...
2017: Open Heart
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758710/multimodality-assessment-of-left-ventricular-dysfunction-in-takayasu-arteritis-and-familial-hypercholesterolaemia
#15
Atsushi Okada, Hiroyuki Takahama, Masatsune Ogura, Yoshiaki Morita, Junichi Konma, Shuzo Yoshida, Shigeki Makino, Seiji Takashio, Makoto Amaki, Takahiro Ohara, Takuya Hasegawa, Yasuo Sugano, Hideaki Kanzaki, Mariko Harada-Shiba, Hatsue Ishibashi-Ueda, Satoshi Yasuda, Toshiaki Hanafusa, Toshihisa Anzai
Although left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction in patients suffering from Takayasu arteritis (TA) has been reported, little is known regarding the development of heart failure in these patients. We report a novel finding of active TA and familial hypercholesterolaemia presenting with severe LV dysfunction through multimodality assessments of LV systolic dysfunction.
July 31, 2017: ESC Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758024/serum-lipid-and-glucose-profiles-in-hiv-positive-nigerian-children
#16
EDITORIAL
Olukemi O Ige, Christopher S Yilgwan, Augustine O Ebonyi, Ruth Adah, Idris Adedeji, Esther S Yiltok, Stephen Oguche, Fidelia Bode-Thomas
OBJECTIVES: To describe the fasting serum lipid and glucose profiles of HIV-positive Nigerian children and determine the prevalence and risk factors for dyslipidaemia and hyperglycaemia, which are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. METHODS: This was a comparative cross-sectional study carried out at the Paediatric Infectious Disease Clinic (PIDC) of the Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH) for HIV-positive children and at two primary schools in Jos for HIV-negative children as controls...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751835/anmco-scientific-statement-clinical-management-of-hypercholesterolaemia-in-patients-with-acute-coronary-syndromes
#17
Furio Colivicchi, Michele Massimo Gulizia, Marcello Arca, Maurizio Giuseppe Abrignani, Gian Piero Perna, Gian Francesco Mureddu, Federico Nardi, Carmine Riccio
LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) reduction after Acute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) is associated with a significant decrease in subsequent atherosclerotic cardiovascular events. Accordingly, international guidelines recommend a reduction of LDL-C below 70 mg/dL in ACS patients. Such a result can be effectively accomplished in most cases by using high intensity statins. In selected cases, the association with ezetimibe may be necessary in order to achieve recommended LDL-C targets. This document outlines management strategies that can be consistently implemented in clinical practice in order to achieve and maintain guidelines recommended therapeutic goals...
May 2017: European Heart Journal Supplements: Journal of the European Society of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751834/anmco-position-paper-diagnostic-therapeutic-pathway-in-patients-with-hypercholesterolaemia-and-statin-intolerance
#18
Michele Massimo Gulizia, Furio Colivicchi, Marcello Arca, Maurizio Giuseppe Abrignani, Gian Piero Perna, Gian Francesco Mureddu, Federico Nardi, Carmine Riccio
Statins are a class of drugs used to lower total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol. Clinical trials performed over the last 25 years have shown that these agents are effective in improving cardiovascular outcomes in several different clinical settings. However, in some cases statin treatment may be associated with significant side effects and adverse reactions. The occurrence of these adverse events during statin therapy may cause discontinuation of treatment, and hence the impossibility of achieving recommended lipid goals...
May 2017: European Heart Journal Supplements: Journal of the European Society of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751833/anmco-iss-amd-ance-arca-fadoi-gicr-iacpr-sici-gise-sibioc-sic-sicoa-sid-sif-simeu-simg-simi-sisa-joint-consensus-document-on-cholesterol-and-cardiovascular-risk-diagnostic-therapeutic-pathway-in-italy
#19
Michele Massimo Gulizia, Furio Colivicchi, Gualtiero Ricciardi, Simona Giampaoli, Aldo Pietro Maggioni, Maurizio Averna, Maria Stella Graziani, Ferruccio Ceriotti, Alessandro Mugelli, Francesco Rossi, Gerardo Medea, Damiano Parretti, Maurizio Giuseppe Abrignani, Marcello Arca, Pasquale Perrone Filardi, Francesco Perticone, Alberico Catapano, Raffaele Griffo, Federico Nardi, Carmine Riccio, Andrea Di Lenarda, Marino Scherillo, Nicoletta Musacchio, Antonio Vittorio Panno, Giovanni Battista Zito, Mauro Campanini, Leonardo Bolognese, Pompilio Massimo Faggiano, Giuseppe Musumeci, Enrico Pusineri, Marcello Ciaccio, Enzo Bonora, Giorgio Cantelli Forti, Maria Pia Ruggieri, Claudio Cricelli, Francesco Romeo, Roberto Ferrari, Attilio Maseri
Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease still represents the leading cause of death in Western countries. A wealth of scientific evidence demonstrates that increased blood cholesterol levels have a major impact on the outbreak and progression of atherosclerotic plaques. Moreover, several cholesterol-lowering pharmacological agents, including statins and ezetimibe, have proved effective in improving clinical outcomes. This document focuses on the clinical management of hypercholesterolaemia and has been conceived by 16 Italian medical associations with the support of the Italian National Institute of Health...
May 2017: European Heart Journal Supplements: Journal of the European Society of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750477/anti-pcsk9-antibodies-for-hypercholesterolaemia-overview-of-clinical-data-and-implications-for-primary-care
#20
REVIEW
Olivier S Descamps, Uwe Fraass, Ricardo Dent, Winfried März, Ioanna Gouni-Berthold
OBJECTIVES: To put data from our recent systematic review of phase 3 studies of anti-proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) antibodies into the context of clinical practice. METHODS: Data from studies previously identified by a systematic review of phase 3 studies of alirocumab and evolocumab and additional references from non-systematic literature searches were used. We evaluated the hypothetical cardiovascular (CV) benefit in cases of typical patients in whom anti-PCSK9 antibodies may be recommended, using preliminary major CV event (CVE) rates from long-term clinical trials of anti-PCSK9 antibodies and from extrapolations derived from correlation between low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) reduction and CV benefit with other lipid-lowering therapies (LLTs)...
July 27, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Practice
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