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Radiotherapy cancer biomarkers

Maria Kfoury, Valentine Disdero, Cécilé Vicier, Olivia Le Saux, Paul Gougis, Christophe Sajous, Stéphane Vignot
Immune checkpoint inhibitors anti-PD-1, anti-PD-L1 and anti-CTLA-4 have been in development in several indications and have changed the face of cancer patients' management. Cancer immunotherapy was central in ASCO's meeting 2017. The identification of patients who could benefit most from immune checkpoint inhibitors is essential. The predictive value of PD-L1 status remains insufficient to select patients who could respond to immunotherapy. An extended search for new biomarkers predictive of response (INF-γ, mutational load) is ongoing, in order to better select responders...
June 19, 2018: Bulletin du Cancer
Ivy Weishan Ng, Yu Yang Soon, Desiree Chen, Jeremy Chee Seong Tey
PURPOSE: To determine the benefit of adding radiotherapy (RT) to chemotherapy for patients with locally advanced unresectable pancreatic cancer (LAUPC). METHODS: We searched MEDLINE for comparative studies comparing chemoradiotherapy with chemotherapy for patients with LAUPC. We performed the meta-analysis with random effects model. The primary outcome was overall survival (OS); secondary outcomes include progression-free survival (PFS) and adverse events (AE). RESULTS: We found five randomized (RCT) and three observational studies (OBS) including 830 patients...
June 22, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology
Anna Wilkins, Christine Stuttle, Shama Hassan, Claire Blanchard, Clare Cruickshank, Clare Griffin, Jake Probert, Catherine M Corbishley, Chris Parker, David Dearnaley, Emma Hall
Background: This article presents the methodology for tissue sample collection in Trans-CHHiP, the main translational study within the CHHiP (Conventional or Hypofractionated High dose intensity modulated radiotherapy in Prostate cancer, ISRCTN 97182923) trial. The CHHiP trial randomised 3216 men with localised prostate cancer to 3 different radiotherapy fractionation schedules. Trans-CHHiP aims to identify biomarkers of fraction sensitivity. Methods: We outline the process of tissue collection, including central review by a study-specific specialist uropathologist and comparison of the centrally-assigned Gleason grade group with that assigned by the recruiting-centre pathologist...
March 2018: Clinical and Translational Radiation Oncology
Lichao Huang, Zihao Zhang, Baolin Qu, Zhiqiang Cui, Yao Wang, Jiwei Li, Jinyuan Wang, Zhentao Zuo, Yan Zhuo, Xinguang Yu, Zhipei Lin, Longsheng Pan
Herein we describe the case of an elderly patient who presented with a recent history of impaired vision of the right eye around three months due to brain lesions. He was diagnosed with liver cancer and underwent surgery three months prior. The pathological result is hepatocellular carcinoma. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed the diagnosis of brain to be metastatic. The patient selected CyberKnife (Accuray Incorporated, Sunnyvale, USA) radiosurgery for the brain lesion since his physical conditions are not suitable for craniotomy...
April 18, 2018: Curēus
Kazue Yoneda, Naoko Imanishi, Yoshinobu Ichiki, Fumihiro Tanaka
Cancer immunotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has become a "game changer" in the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Its most clinically important advantage over traditional chemotherapy using cytotoxic agents are its long-term survival benefits, and some advanced NSCLC patients treated with an antibody against programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) have survived for 5 years or longer. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are also potentially useful for earlier-stage NSCLC when used in combination with surgery or radiotherapy...
2018: Journal of UOEH
Yi Cui, Bailiang Li, Erqi Liu Pollom, Kathleen Horst, Ruijiang Li
PURPOSE: Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease and not all patients respond equally to adjuvant radiotherapy. Predictive biomarkers are needed to select patients who will benefit from the treatment and spare others the toxicity and burden of radiation. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We first trained and tested an intrinsic radiosensitivity gene signature to predict local recurrence after radiotherapy in three cohorts of 948 patients. Next, we developed an antigen processing and presentation-based immune signature by maximizing the treatment interaction effect in 129 patients...
June 19, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
K J Jerzak, J G Cockburn, S K Dhesy-Thind, G R Pond, K I Pritchard, S Nofech-Mozes, P Sun, S A Narod, A Bane
PURPOSE: Preliminary data suggest that high expression of the TRβ1 tumor suppressor is associated with longer survival among women with early breast cancer. We undertook this study to validate these findings. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, we analyzed the prognostic significance of TRβ1 protein expression in the breast tumors of 796 women who had undergone breast surgery in the Henrietta Banting Breast Cancer database. All women were recruited after undergoing primary surgical therapy at Women's College Hospital (Toronto, ON, Canada) between January 1987 and December 2000...
June 18, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Cinzia Bersani, Michael Mints, Nikolaos Tertipis, Linnea Haeggblom, Anders Näsman, Mircea Romanitan, Tina Dalianis, Torbjörn Ramqvist
OBJECTIVE: Three-year disease-free survival (DFS) is 80% for human papillomavirus (HPV) positive tonsillar and base of tongue cancer (TSCC/BOTSCC) treated with radiotherapy alone, and today's intensified therapy does not improve prognosis. More markers are therefore needed to more accurately identify patients with good prognosis or in need of alternative therapy. Here, microRNAs (miRs) 155, 185 and 193b were examined as potential prognostic markers in TSCC/BOTSCC. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 168 TSCC/BOTSCC patients diagnosed 2000-2013, with known data on HPV-status, CD8+ tumour infiltrating lymphocytes, tumour staging and survival were examined for expression of miR-155, -185 and -193b using Real-Time PCR...
July 2018: Oral Oncology
Ioannis Psallidas, Nikolaos I Kanellakis, Stephen Gerry, Marie Laëtitia Thézénas, Philip D Charles, Anastasia Samsonova, Herbert B Schiller, Roman Fischer, Rachelle Asciak, Robert J Hallifax, Rachel Mercer, Melissa Dobson, Tao Dong, Ian D Pavord, Gary S Collins, Benedikt M Kessler, Harvey I Pass, Nick Maskell, Georgios T Stathopoulos, Najib M Rahman
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of malignant pleural effusion is increasing worldwide, but prognostic biomarkers to plan treatment and to understand the underlying mechanisms of disease progression remain unidentified. The PROMISE study was designed with the objectives to discover, validate, and prospectively assess biomarkers of survival and pleurodesis response in malignant pleural effusion and build a score that predicts survival. METHODS: In this multicohort study, we used five separate and independent datasets from randomised controlled trials to investigate potential biomarkers of survival and pleurodesis...
June 13, 2018: Lancet Oncology
Catarina Veiga, David Landau, Anand Devaraj, Tom Doel, Jared White, Yenting Ngai, David J Hawkes, Jamie R McClelland
BACKGROUND: and Purpose: Recent improvements in lung cancer survival have spurred an interest in understanding and minimizing long term radiation-induced lung damage (RILD). However, there is still no objective criteria to quantify RILD leading to variable reporting across centres and trials. We propose a set of objective imaging biomarkers to quantify common radiological findings observed 12-months after lung cancer radiotherapy (RT). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Baseline and 12-month CT scans of 27 patients from a phase I/II clinical trial of isotoxic chemoradiation were included in this study...
June 14, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Yan Zhou, Ping He, Xuhua Xie, Changyu Sun
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common types of malignant tumors with high recurrence and metastasis rates. Radiotherapy represents a major therapeutic option for HCC patients. However, the efficacy of radiotherapy has been limited due to the development of intrinsic radioresistance of the tumor cells. Small ubiquitin-like modifier 1 pseudogene 3 (SUMO1P3), one member of SUMO pseudogene family, is a novel identified lncRNA that was originally identified to be upregulated in gastric cancer...
June 15, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Francesca Graziano, C Caruso Bavisotto, A Marino Gammazza, Francesca Rappa, Everly Conway de Macario, Albert J L Macario, Francesco Cappello, Claudia Campanella, Rosario Maugeri, Domenico Gerardo Iacopino
The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/National Cancer Institute of Canada Phase III trial has validated as a current regimen for high-grade gliomas (HGG) a maximal safe surgical resection followed by radiotherapy with concurrent temozolamide. However, it is essential to balance maximal tumor resection with preservation of the patient’s neurological functions. Important developments in the fields of pre-operative and intra-operative neuro-imaging and neuro-monitoring have ameliorated the survival rate and the quality of life for patients affected by HGG...
June 14, 2018: Brain Sciences
Yue-Hua Zhang, Yuquan Lu, Hong Lu, Meng-Wei Zhang, Yue-Min Zhou, Xiang-Lei Li, Pin Lv, Xiao-Yan Zhao
To date, few studies have reported the prognostic value of pre-treatment hemoglobin levels in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In the present study, 416 patients with NSCLC were retrospectively reviewed. Univariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis demonstrated that patients with normal pre-treatment hemoglobin (NPHb) levels had a greater chance of surviving for longer period, than did patients with low pre-treatment hemoglobin (LPHb) levels (HR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.63-2.57; P<0.001)...
July 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Federica Franchino, Roberta Rudà, Riccardo Soffietti
Advances in chemotherapy and targeted therapies have improved survival in cancer patients with an increase of the incidence of newly diagnosed brain metastases (BMs). Intracranial metastases are symptomatic in 60-70% of patients. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with gadolinium is more sensitive than computed tomography and advanced neuroimaging techniques have been increasingly used in the detection, treatment planning, and follow-up of BM. Apart from the morphological analysis, the most effective tool for characterizing BM is immunohistochemistry...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Junya Peng, Wenqian Wang, Surong Hua, Lulu Liu
Cells can secrete extracellular vesicles (EVs) to communicate with neighboring or distant cells by EVs which are composed of a lipid bilayer containing transmembrane proteins and enclosing cytosolic proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. Breast Cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy with more than 1 million new cases each year and ranks the leading cause of cancer mortality in women worldwide. In this review, we will discuss recent progresses of the roles and mechanisms of cancer-derived EVs in metastatic breast cancer, with a special attention on tumor microenvironment construction, progression, and chemo/radiotherapy responses...
2018: Breast Cancer: Basic and Clinical Research
Wade P Smith, Patrick J Richard, Jing Zeng, Smith Apisarnthanarax, Ramesh Rengan, Mark H Phillips
Background: Although proton radiation treatments are more costly than photon/X-ray therapy, they may lower overall treatment costs through reducing rates of severe toxicities and the costly management of those toxicities. To study this issue, we created a decision-model comparing proton vs. X-ray radiotherapy for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients. Methods: An influence diagram was created to model for radiation delivery, associated 6-month pneumonitis/esophagitis rates, and overall costs (radiation plus toxicity costs)...
April 2018: Translational Lung Cancer Research
R Mlak, T Powrózek, A Brzozowska, I Homa-Mlak, M Mazurek, T Małecka-Massalsk
BACKGROUND: Intensified treatment of head and neck cancers (HNC): by radiotherapy (RTH) commonly combined with cytotoxic drugs is associated with oral mucositis (OM). Changes in the functioning of nucleotide synthesis pathway (RNR1, coded by RRM1 gene) can modulate the efficiency of cellular DNA repair mechanisms and influence the risk of occurrence and severity of OM in HNC patients after RTH. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation between expression of RRM1 gene measured in free circulating RNA (cfRNA) and the risk of more severe OM and disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients undergoing RTH for HNC...
May 19, 2018: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
P Ahmad, M Slavík, J Šána, M Hermanová, P Šlampa, P Smilek, T Kazda, O Slabý
BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy plays a key role in the treatment of squamous cell head and neck cancers (HNSCC). The effectivity of radiation therapy is often limited by radioresistance of these tumours. microRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous, evolutionary conserved, small non-coding RNAs involved in regulation of cellular processes associated with radioresistance. The objective of this study was to identify miRNA profile enabling to predict the radiation treatment outcomes in HNSCC patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The retrospective study included HNSCC patients who underwent a definitive radiotherapy...
2018: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
Tomasz Powrózek, Radosław Mlak, Anna Brzozowska, Marcin Mazurek, Paweł Gołębiowski, Teresa Małecka-Massalska
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition and cachexia are frequent among head and neck cancer (HNC) patients and these syndromes are associated with both poor quality of life and unfavorable disease prognosis. Unfortunately, there are still no established biomarkers that could predict the development of cachexia. Among potential molecular alterations related to cancer cachexia, there are single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within genes encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α. THE AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate TNF-α -1031T/C SNP as a risk factor of cachexia in 62 HNC patients subjected to radiotherapy...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
Lourdes Cruz-Garcia, Grainne O'Brien, Ellen Donovan, Lone Gothard, Sue Boyle, Antoine Laval, Isabelle Testard, Lucyna Ponge, Grzegorz Woźniak, Leszek Miszczyk, Serge M Candéias, Elizabeth Ainsbury, Piotr Widlak, Navita Somaiah, Christophe Badie
For triage purposes following a nuclear accident, blood-based gene expression biomarkers can provide rapid dose estimates for a large number of individuals. Ionizing-radiation-responsive genes are regulated through the DNA damage-response pathway, which includes activation of multiple transcription factors. Modulators of this pathway could potentially affect the response of these biomarkers and consequently compromise accurate dose estimation calculations. In the present study, four potential confounding factors were selected: cancer condition, sex, simulated bacterial infection (lipopolysaccharide), and curcumin, an anti-inflammatory/antioxidant agent...
July 2018: Health Physics
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