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Radiotherapy cancer biomarkers

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109404/how-could-breast-cancer-molecular-features-contribute-to-locoregional-treatment-decision-making
#1
REVIEW
Pelagia G Tsoutsou, Marie-Catherine Vozenin, André-Dante Durham, Jean Bourhis
Systemic treatments are tailored to breast cancer (BC) heterogeneity, which is not yet taken into account for radiotherapy (RT) personalization. The primary objective of this review is to summarize existing data suggesting BC subtypes and genetic assays are prognostic and predictive biomarkers useful for RT decision-making and to provide implications for their incorporation into future translational and clinical research. The evidence suggesting that BC subtypes also exhibit distinct "locoregional recurrence (LRR)" patterns is retrospective but consistent and validated in over fifteen studies...
February 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108515/prostate-cancer-patients-with-late-radiation-toxicity-exhibit-reduced-expression-of-genes-involved-in-dna-double-strand-break-repair-and-homologous-recombination
#2
Bregje van Oorschot, Lon Uitterhoeve, Ilja Oomen, Rosemarie Ten Cate, Jan Paul Medema, Harry Vrieling, Lukas J A Stalpers, Perry D Moerland, Nicolaas A P Franken
Severe late damage to normal tissue is a major limitation of cancer radiotherapy in prostate cancer patients. In a recent retrospective study, late radiation toxicity was found to relate to a decreased decay of γ-H2AX foci and reduced induction of DNA double strand break repair genes. Here we report evidence of prognostic utility in prostate cancer for γ-H2AX foci decay ratios and gene expression profiles derived from ex vivo-irradiated patient lymphocytes. Patients were followed ≥2 years after radiotherapy...
January 20, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106545/the-alterations-of-serum-fgf-21-levels-metabolic-and-body-composition-in-early-breast-cancer-patients-receiving-adjuvant-endocrine-therapy
#3
Murat Akyol, Ahmet Alacacioglu, Leyla Demir, Yuksel Kucukzeybek, Yasar Yildiz, Zehra Gumus, Mete Kara, Tarik Salman, Umut Varol, Halil Taskaynatan, Utku Oflazoglu, Vedat Bayoglu, Mustafa Oktay Tarhan
BACKGROUND: In early breast cancer patients, the effects of hormonal therapy (tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors) on plasma fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF-21), lipid levels and body composition have not yet been investigated. Therefore, we aimed to analyze the relationship between FGF-21 and body composition as well as the effects of tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors on plasma lipid levels, FGF-21, and body composition. METHODS: A total of 72 patients were treated with either tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors due to their menopausal status after adjuvant radiotherapy...
January 13, 2017: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105205/microrna-320-regulates-the-radiosensitivity-of-cervical-cancer-cells-c33ar-by-targeting-%C3%AE-catenin
#4
Chun-Xu Yang, Shi-Min Zhang, Jie Li, Bo Yang, Wen Ouyang, Zi-Jie Mei, Jing Chen, Jing Dai, Su Ke, Fu-Xiang Zhou, Yun-Feng Zhou, Cong-Hua Xie
Cervical cancer is the second most common malignancy in women worldwide and always has recurrence owing to radioresistance. MicroRNA (miRNA or miR) has been identified to relate to the sensitivity of cancer radiotherapy. Here, we investigated the potential of miRNA-320 as a biomarker for radiosensitivity by targeting β-catenin in cervical cancer. A radioresistant cervical cancer cell line, C33AR, was established, and the radioresistance of C33AR cells was confirmed by a colony-formation assay. The expression of miRNA-320 was detected by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and compared between C33A and C33AR...
December 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103615/radiation-induced-lung-metastasis-development-is-mt1-mmp-dependent-in-a-triple-negative-breast-cancer-mouse-model
#5
Gina Bouchard, Hélène Therriault, Sameh Geha, Rachel Bujold, Caroline Saucier, Benoit Paquette
BACKGROUND: The prognosis of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is still difficult to establish. Some TNBC benefit from radiotherapy (RT) and are cured, while in other patients metastases appear during the first 3 years after treatment. In this study, an animal model of TNBC was used to determine whether the expression of the cell membrane protease MT1-MMP in cancer cells was associated with radiation-stimulated development of lung metastases. METHODS: Using invasion chambers, irradiated fibroblasts were used as chemoattractants to assess the invasiveness of TNBC D2A1 cell lines showing downregulated expression of MT1-MMP, which were compared with D2A1-wt (wild-type) and D2A1 shMT1-mock (empty vector) cell lines...
January 19, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048452/we-fg-202-07-an-mri-based-approach-to-quantify-radiation-induced-normal-tissue-injury-applied-to-trismus-after-head-and-neck-cancer-radiotherapy
#6
M Thor, N Tyagi, V Hazoglou, Z Saleh, N Riaz, N Lee, J Deasy
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate if quantitative MRI-derived metrics from four masticatory muscles could explain mouth-opening limitation/trismus following intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for head and neck cancer (HNC). METHODS: Fifteen intensity-based MRI metrics were derived from the masseter, lateral and medial pterygoid, and temporalis in T1-weighted scans acquired pre- and post gadolinium injection (T1Pre, T1Post) of 16, of in total 20, patients (8 symptomatic; 8 asymptomatic age/sex/tumor location-matched) treated with IMRT to 70 Gy (median) for HNC in 2005-2009...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048420/su-f-r-27-use-local-shape-descriptor-based-on-geodesic-distance-to-predict-survival-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-after-radiotherapy
#7
H Zhang, L Yan, K Huang, F Kong, J Jin
PURPOSE: The shape of the Positron Emission Tomography (PET) image represents the heterogeneity of tumor growth in various directions, and thus could be associated with tumor malignancy. We have proposed a median geodesic distance (MGD) to represent the local complexity of the shape and use a normalized MGD (NMGD) to quantify the shape, and found a potential correlation of NMGD to survival in a 20-patient pilot study. This study was to verify the finding in a larger patient cohort. METHODS: Geodesic distance of two vertices on a surface is defined as the shortest path on the surface connecting the two vertices...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047655/su-f-r-24-identifying-prognostic-imaging-biomarkers-in-early-stage-lung-cancer-using-radiomics
#8
X Zeng, J Wu, Y Cui, H Gao, R Li
PURPOSE: Patients diagnosed with early stage lung cancer have favorable outcomes when treated with surgery or stereotactic radiotherapy. However, a significant proportion (∼20%) of patients will develop metastatic disease and eventually die of the disease. The purpose of this work is to identify quantitative imaging biomarkers from CT for predicting overall survival in early stage lung cancer. METHODS: In this institutional review board-approved HIPPA-compliant retrospective study, we retrospectively analyzed the diagnostic CT scans of 110 patients with early stage lung cancer...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046431/we-ab-202-11-radiobiological-modeling-of-tumor-response-during-radiotherapy-based-on-pre-treatment-dynamic-pet-imaging-data
#9
M Crispin-Ortuzar, M Grkovski, B Beattie, N Lee, N Riaz, J Humm, J Jeong, A Fontanella, J Deasy
PURPOSE: To evaluate the ability of a multiscale radiobiological model of tumor response to predict mid-treatment hypoxia images, based on pretreatment imaging of perfusion and hypoxia with [18-F]FMISO dynamic PET and glucose metabolism with [18-F]FDG PET. METHODS: A mechanistic tumor control probability (TCP) radiobiological model describing the interplay between tumor cell proliferation and hypoxia (Jeong et al., PMB 2013) was extended to account for intra-tumor nutrient heterogeneity, dynamic cell migration due to nutrient gradients, and stromal cells...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046308/su-d-207b-05-robust-intra-tumor-partitioning-to-identify-high-risk-subregions-for-prognosis-in-lung-cancer
#10
J Wu, M Gensheimer, X Dong, D Rubin, S Napel, M Diehn, B Loo, R Li
PURPOSE: To develop an intra-tumor partitioning framework for identifying high-risk subregions from 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and CT imaging, and to test whether tumor burden associated with the high-risk subregions is prognostic of outcomes in lung cancer. METHODS: In this institutional review board-approved retrospective study, we analyzed the pre-treatment FDG-PET and CT scans of 44 lung cancer patients treated with radiotherapy...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030849/combined-and-individual-tumor-specific-expression-of-insulin-like-growth-factor-i-receptor-insulin-receptor-and-phospho-insulin-like-growth-factor-i-receptor-insulin-receptor-in-primary-breast-cancer-implications-for-prognosis-in-different-treatment-groups
#11
Sofie Björner, Ann H Rosendahl, Maria Simonsson, Andrea Markkula, Karin Jirström, Signe Borgquist, Carsten Rose, Christian Ingvar, Helena Jernström
Clinical trials examining insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF1R)-targeting strategies have emphasized that better predictive biomarkers are required to improve patient selection.Immunohistochemical tumor-specific protein expression of IGF1R, insulin receptor (InsR), and phosphorylated IGF1R/InsR (pIGF1R/InsR) individually and combined in relation to breast cancer prognosis was evaluated in a population-based cohort of 1,026 primary invasive breast cancer patients without preoperative treatment diagnosed in Sweden...
December 21, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030447/neurocognitive-impact-of-cranial-radiation-in-adults-with-cancer-an-update-of-recent-findings
#12
Kim Edelstein, Nadine M Richard, Lori J Bernstein
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Radiation to the brain is associated with adverse effects on cognition in cancer patients. Advances in technology have improved treatment efficacy, while new or adjuvant approaches continue to be developed. The long-term impact of both established and newer treatments on cognition is an active area of research. RECENT FINDINGS: The article reviews the 15 studies published between January 2015 and October 2016 that include data on neurocognitive functions following radiation to the brain in adults with brain metastases, primary brain tumors, or other cancers...
December 26, 2016: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027103/neoadjuvant-approach-for-nonsmall-cell-lung-cancer-overview-of-the-current-issues
#13
Giulio Francolini, Katia Ferrari, Vieri Scotti
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite the large numbers of studies, role of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy is debated. This approach would increase resectability in locally advanced patients, and improve surgical outcome in resectable patients. Thus, an overview of recent literature is relevant to highlight the current issues. RECENT FINDINGS: Literature in the previous year mainly focused on overall treatment strategy, radiotherapy technique, role of radiological response and metabolic imaging, and biological agents in this setting...
December 23, 2016: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024835/leukocytosis-and-neutrophilia-predicts-outcome-in-anal-cancer
#14
Antoine Schernberg, Alexandre Escande, Eleonor Rivin Del Campo, Michel Ducreux, France Nguyen, Diane Goere, Cyrus Chargari, Eric Deutsch
OBJECTIVE: Leukocytosis and neutrophilia could be the tip of the iceberg in the inflammatory tumor microenvironment. We aimed to validate their prognostic significance in a cohort of patients treated with definitive chemoradiation for anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). MATERIALS & METHODS: Clinical records from all consecutive patients treated in a single institution between 2006 and 2016 with curative-intent radiotherapy were retrospectively analyzed. Leukocytosis and neutrophilia, defined as leukocyte or neutrophil count over 10,000 and 7500/mm(3), respectively, were studied in terms of overall survival (OS), progression (PFS), locoregional (LFS) and distant (DFS)-free survival...
December 23, 2016: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009327/sparc-as-a-prognostic-biomarker-in-rectal-cancer-patients-treated-with-chemo-radiotherapy
#15
Neslihan Kurtul, Erdem Arzu Taşdemir, Dilek Ünal, Mustafa İzmirli, Celalettin Eroglu
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to search the prognostic value of SPARC expression in rectum cancer cases receiving postoperative radiotherapy. METHODS: Forty three rectal cancer patients are recruited to this retrospective study. All patients received postoperative radiotherapy which the median dose was 5040 cGy and concomitant chemotherapy. Samples taken from their paraffin blocks were examined with immunohistochemical procedures. RESULTS: When the association between SPARC expression and the clinicopathological feature was examined, there was a significant association between age and expression levels...
December 16, 2016: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008773/radiotherapy-response-evaluation-using-fdg-pet-ct-established-and-emerging-applications
#16
Helen Cliffe, Chirag Patel, Robin Prestwich, Andrew Scarsbrook
Radiation therapy is a common component of curative cancer treatment. However, there is a significant incidence of treatment failure. In these cases salvage surgical options are sometimes appropriate. Accurate assessment of response and early recognition of treatment success or failure is therefore critical to guide treatment decisions and impacts on survival and the morbidity of treatment. Traditionally, treatment response has depended upon anatomical measurement of disease. However, this may not correlate well with the presence of disease, especially after radiotherapy...
December 23, 2016: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006059/the-kras-variant-and-cetuximab-response-in-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-cancer-a-secondary-analysis-of-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#17
Joanne B Weidhaas, Jonathan Harris, Dörthe Schaue, Allen M Chen, Robert Chin, Rita Axelrod, Adel K El-Naggar, Anurag K Singh, Thomas J Galloway, David Raben, Dian Wang, Chance Matthiesen, Vilija N Avizonis, Rafael R Manon, Omar Yumen, Phuc Felix Nguyen-Tan, Andy Trotti, Heath Skinner, Qiang Zhang, Robert L Ferris, David Sidransky, Christine H Chung
Importance: There is a significant need to find biomarkers of response to radiotherapy and cetuximab in locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and biomarkers that predict altered immunity, thereby enabling personalized treatment. Objectives: To examine whether the Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS)-variant, a germline mutation in a microRNA-binding site in KRAS, is a predictive biomarker of cetuximab response and altered immunity in the setting of radiotherapy and cisplatin treatment and to evaluate the interaction of the KRAS-variant with p16 status and blood-based transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1)...
December 22, 2016: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999896/correlation-of-pretreatment-18-f-fdg-pet-tumor-textural-features-with-gene-expression-in-pharyngeal-cancer-and-implications-for-radiotherapy-based-treatment-outcomes
#18
Shang-Wen Chen, Wei-Chih Shen, Ying-Chun Lin, Rui-Yun Chen, Te-Chun Hsieh, Kuo-Yang Yen, Chia-Hung Kao
PURPOSE: This study investigated the correlation of the matrix heterogeneity of tumors on (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) with gene-expression profiling in patients with pharyngeal cancer and determined the prognostic factors for radiotherapy-based treatment outcomes. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 57 patients with stage III-IV oropharyngeal or hypopharyngeal cancer who had completed definitive therapy...
December 20, 2016: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993167/prognostic-value-of-cross-omics-screening-for-kidney-clear-cell-renal-cancer-survival
#19
Slavica Dimitrieva, Ralph Schlapbach, Hubert Rehrauer
BACKGROUND: Kidney renal clear cell carcinoma (KIRC) is a type of cancer that is resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy and has limited treatment possibilities. Large-scale molecular profiling of KIRC tumors offers a great potential to uncover the genetic and epigenetic changes underlying this disease and to improve the clinical management of KIRC patients. However, in practice the clinicians and researchers typically focus on single-platform molecular data or on a small set of genes...
December 20, 2016: Biology Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986207/biomarkers-of-outcome-in-patients-with-localized-prostate-cancer-treated-with-radiotherapy
#20
REVIEW
William A Hall, Colleen A Lawton, Ashesh B Jani, Alan Pollack, Felix Y Feng
Prostate cancer represents one of the most prevalent malignancies in the world. Although subsets of prostate cancer are aggressive and can metastasize, it is also evident that most patients harbor indolent disease. Although current risk-stratification approaches use both clinical and pathologic factors, it is clear that biomarkers can be used to improve on these approaches. In this article, we review the currently published literature on prostate cancer molecular biomarkers, primarily in the context of radiation therapy, focusing on those found in serum, plasma, urine, and within the tumor biopsy itself...
January 2017: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
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