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Radiotherapy cancer biomarkers

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054544/-abnormalities-of-dna-repair-and-gynecological-cancers
#1
REVIEW
Aurélie Auguste, Alexandra Leary
The demonstration of frequent defects in the DNA damage response in high grade ovarian cancer has paved the way for a new therapeutic approach aimed at exploiting this unique vulnerability. The efficacy of poly (ADP) ribose polymerase inhibitors (PARPi) in patients with homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair deficient ovarian cancer (OC) resulting from a BRCA1/2 mutation has provided the proof of concept for synthetic lethality. Thus, olaparib is now approved by the EMA as maintenance therapy after response to a platinum regimen for patients with recurrent, platinum-sensitive, high-grade serous, BRCA1/2-mutated ovarian cancer...
October 17, 2017: Bulletin du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042035/a-systematic-review-of-molecular-responses-to-cancer-therapy-in-normal-human-mucosa
#2
REVIEW
Mette Marcussen, Conni Skrubbeltrang, Julie Støve Bødker, Ilse Christiansen, Martin Bøgsted, Karen Dybkær, Olav Jonas Bergmann, Hans Erik Johnsen
OBJECTIVE: Cancer therapy-induced inflammation of oral and gastrointestinal mucosae affects patients nonuniformly. Preventive strategies are limited; no biomarker exists for pretreatment identification of patients likely to be severely affected. Animal models are preferred for studying molecular responses in mucosae during chemotherapy, but translation into clinical practice is difficult. We performed a systematic review to retrieve articles that described molecular changes in human mucosae during cancer therapy...
October 2017: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019178/second-harmonic-generation-for-collagen-i-characterization-in-rectal-cancer-patients-with-and-without-preoperative-radiotherapy
#3
Stéphanie Blockhuys, Nisha Rani Agarwal, Camilla Hildesjö, Ingvar Jarlsfelt, Pernilla Wittung-Stafshede, Xiao-Feng Sun
Rectal cancer is treated with preoperative radiotherapy (RT) to downstage the tumor, reduce local recurrence, and improve patient survival. Still, the treatment outcome varies significantly and new biomarkers are desired. Collagen I (Col-I) is a potential biomarker, which can be visualized label-free by second harmonic generation (SHG). Here, we used SHG to identify Col-I changes induced by RT in surgical tissue, with the aim to evaluate the clinical significance of RT-induced Col-I changes. First, we established a procedure for quantitative evaluation of Col-I by SHG in CDX2-stained tissue sections...
October 2017: Journal of Biomedical Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985716/selection-of-opioids-for-cancer-related-pain-using-a-biomarker-a-randomized-multi-institutional-open-label-trial-relief-study
#4
Hiromichi Matsuoka, Junji Tsurutani, Yasutaka Chiba, Yoshihiko Fujita, Masato Terashima, Takeshi Yoshida, Kiyohiro Sakai, Yoichi Otake, Atsuko Koyama, Kazuto Nishio, Kazuhiko Nakagawa
BACKGROUND: Cancer patients experience pain that has physiological, sensory, affective, cognitive, behavioral, and sociocultural dimensions. Opioids are used in treatment of pain in patients with various types of cancer. We previously showed that the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genotype is related to the plasma level of morphine and the required dose of morphine in an exploratory prospective study. The findings showed that a group of patients with a GG single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs4680 in COMT required a significantly higher dose of morphine than a non-GG group...
October 6, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982840/human-papillomavirus-and-potentially-relevant-biomarkers-in-tonsillar-and-base-of-tongue-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#5
REVIEW
Anders Näsman, Cinzia Bersani, David Lindquist, Juan Du, Torbjörn Ramqvist, Tina Dalianis
Human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive tonsillar- and base of tongue cancer is increasing epidemically and has much better outcome than corresponding HPV-negative cancer and most other head and neck cancers with around 80% 3-year disease free survival with conventional radiotherapy and surgery. Consequently, most HPV-positive cancer patients may not require the intensified chemoradiotherapy given to many head and neck cancer patients and would, with tapered treatment, avoid several severe side-effects. Moreover, intensified therapy has not improved survival and treatment alternatives are needed...
October 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977780/urinary-mirnas-as-biomarkers-for-noninvasive-evaluation-of-radiation-induced-renal-tubular-injury
#6
Sagar Bhayana, Feifei Song, Jidhin Jacob, Paolo Fadda, Nicholas C Denko, Meng Xu-Welliver, Arnab Chakravarti, Naduparambil K Jacob
Radiation nephropathy is one of the common late effects in cancer survivors who received radiotherapy as well as in victims of radiation accidents. The clinical manifestations of radiation nephropathy occur months after exposure. To date, there are no known early biomarkers to predict the future development of radiation nephropathy. This study focuses on the development of urinary biomarkers providing readout of acute responses in renal tubular epithelial cells. An amplification-free hybridization-based nCounter assay was used to detect changes in mouse urinary miRNAs after irradiation...
October 4, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963962/flexible-nanohybrid-microelectrode-based-on-carbon-fiber-wrapped-by-gold-nanoparticles-decorated-nitrogen-doped-carbon-nanotube-arrays-in-situ-electrochemical-detection-in-live-cancer-cells
#7
Yan Zhang, Jian Xiao, Yimin Sun, Lu Wang, Xulin Dong, Jinghua Ren, Wenshan He, Fei Xiao
The rapidly growing demand for in situ real-time monitoring of chemical information in vitro and in vivo has attracted tremendous research efforts into the design and construction of high-performance biosensor devices. Herein, we develop a new type of flexible nanohybrid microelectrode based on carbon fiber wrapped by gold nanoparticles decorated nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube arrays, and explore its practical application in in situ electrochemical detection of cancer biomarker H2O2 secreted from live cancer cells...
September 22, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957436/is-serum-level-of-cc-chemokine-ligand-18-a-biomarker-for-the-prediction-of-radiation-induced-lung-toxicity-rilt
#8
Eleni Gkika, Werner Vach, Sonja Adebahr, Tanja Schimeck-Jasch, Anton Brenner, Thomas Baptist Brunner, Klaus Kaier, Antje Prasse, Joachim Müller-Quernheim, Anca-Ligia Grosu, Gernot Zissel, Ursula Nestle
The CC chemokine ligand 18 (CCL18) is produced by alveolar macrophages in patients with fibrosing lung disease and its concentration is increased in various fibrotic lung diseases. Furthermore CCL18 is elevated in several malignancies as it is produced by tumor associated macrophages. In this study we aimed to analyze the role of CCL18 as a prognostic biomarker for the development of early radiation induced lung toxicity (RILT), i.e. radiation pneumonitis after thoracic irradiation and its significance in the course of the disease...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951007/-18-f-fdg-pet-image-biomarkers-improve-prediction-of-late-radiation-induced-xerostomia
#9
Lisanne V van Dijk, Walter Noordzij, Charlotte L Brouwer, Ronald Boellaard, Johannes G M Burgerhof, Johannes A Langendijk, Nanna M Sijtsema, Roel J H M Steenbakkers
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Current prediction of radiation-induced xerostomia 12months after radiotherapy (Xer12m) is based on mean parotid gland dose and baseline xerostomia (Xerbaseline) scores. The hypothesis of this study was that prediction of Xer12m is improved with patient-specific characteristics extracted from (18)F-FDG PET images, quantified in PET image biomarkers (PET-IBMs). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Intensity and textural PET-IBMs of the parotid gland were collected from pre-treatment (18)F-FDG PET images of 161 head and neck cancer patients...
September 23, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947971/dynamic-circulating-tumor-dna-quantificaton-for-the-individualization-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients-treatment
#10
Mariano Provencio, María Torrente, Virgina Calvo, Lourdes Gutiérrez, David Pérez-Callejo, Clara Pérez-Barrios, Miguel Barquín, Ana Royuela, Begoña Rodriguez-Alfonso, Miguel Sotelo, Juan Luis Cruz-Bermúdez, Miriam Mendez, Alberto Cruz-Bermúdez, Atocha Romero
BACKGROUND: Liquid biopsy has evolved from being a promising line to becoming a validated approach for biomarker testing. However, its utility for individualization of therapy has been scarcely reported. In this study, we show how monitoring levels of EGFR mutation in plasma can be useful for the individualization of treatment. RESULTS: Longitudinal EGFR mutation levels in plasma always correlated with tumor response ascertained by RECIST criteria. Moreover, decreasing EGFR mutation levels were detected in all patients benefiting from locoregional radiotherapy, whereas the opposite occurred when a patient progressed soon after radiotherapy treatment...
September 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945826/genomic-alterations-and-radioresistance-in-breast-cancer-an-analysis-of-the-profiler-protocol
#11
E Bernichon, A Vallard, Q Wang, V Attignon, D Pissaloux, T Bachelot, P E Heudel, I Ray-Coquard, E Bonnet, A de la Fouchardière, C Faure, N Chopin, F Beurrier, S Racadot, M P Sunyach, C Rancoule, D Perol, V Corset, V Agrapart, F Tinquaut, J Y Blay, N Magné, O Trédan
Background: Breast cancer (BC) patients with comparable prognostic features have heterogeneous outcomes, party related to a possible radiotherapy resistance leading to local-regional recurrences (LRR). The objective of the present study was to identify predictive molecular biomarkers of LRR of BC. Patients and Methods: Genetic profile of 146 BC patients' tumours included in the ProfiLER clinical trial (NC01774409) between 2013 and 2016 were analysed using Next-Generation-Sequencing and Comparative-Genomic-Hybridization tests...
September 1, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943310/asf1a-promotes-non-homologous-end-joining-repair-by-facilitating-phosphorylation-of-mdc1-by-atm-at-double-strand-breaks
#12
Kyung Yong Lee, Jun-Sub Im, Etsuko Shibata, Anindya Dutta
Double-strand breaks (DSBs) of DNA in eukaryotic cells are predominantly repaired by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). The histone chaperone anti-silencing factor 1a (ASF1a) interacts with MDC1 and is recruited to sites of DSBs to facilitate the interaction of phospho-ATM with MDC1 and phosphorylation of MDC1, which are required for the recruitment of RNF8/RNF168 histone ubiquitin ligases. Thus, ASF1a deficiency reduces histone ubiquitination at DSBs, decreasing the recruitment of 53BP1, and decreases NHEJ, rendering cells more sensitive to DSBs...
October 5, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933018/-18-f-fluoromisonidazole-pet-in-rectal-cancer
#13
Tanuj Puri, Tessa A Greenhalgh, James M Wilson, Jamie Franklin, Lia Mun Wang, Victoria Strauss, Chris Cunningham, Mike Partridge, Tim Maughan
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing interest in developing predictive biomarkers of tissue hypoxia using functional imaging for personalised radiotherapy in patients with rectal cancer that are considered for neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT). The study explores [(18)F]fluoromisonidazole ([(18)F]FMISO) positron emission tomography (PET) scans for predicting clinical response in rectal cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant CRT. METHODS: Patients with biopsy-proven rectal adenocarcinoma were imaged at 0-45 min, 2 and 4 h, at baseline and after 8-10 fractions of CRT (week 2)...
September 20, 2017: EJNMMI Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932643/clinical-relevance-of-tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes-pd-l1-expression-and-correlation-with-hpv-p16-in-head-and-neck-cancer-treated-with-bio-or-chemo-radiotherapy
#14
Dan Ou, Julien Adam, Ingrid Garberis, Pierre Blanchard, France Nguyen, Antonin Levy, Odile Casiraghi, Philippe Gorphe, Ingrid Breuskin, François Janot, Stephane Temam, Jean-Yves Scoazec, Eric Deutsch, Yungan Tao
To investigate the prognostic value of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs: CD8+ and FoxP3+), and PD-L1 expression in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) treated with radiotherapy combined with cisplatin (CRT) or cetuximab (BRT). Immunohistochemistry for CD8, FoxP3 was performed on pretreatment tissue samples of 77 HNSCC patients. PD-L1 results were evaluable in 38 patients. Cox regression analysis was used to analyze the correlations of these biomarkers expression with clinicopathological characteristics and treatment outcomes...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932636/cd103-tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes-are-tumor-reactive-intraepithelial-cd8-t-cells-associated-with-prognostic-benefit-and-therapy-response-in-cervical-cancer
#15
Fenne L Komdeur, Thalina M Prins, Stephanie van de Wall, Annechien Plat, G Bea A Wisman, Harry Hollema, Toos Daemen, David N Church, Marco de Bruyn, Hans W Nijman
Human papilloma virus (HPV)-induced cervical cancer constitutively expresses viral E6/E7 oncoproteins and is an excellent target for T cell-based immunotherapy. However, not all tumor-infiltrating T cells confer equal benefit to patients, with epithelial T cells being superior to stromal T cells. To assess whether the epithelial T cell biomarker CD103 could specifically discriminate the beneficial antitumor T cells, association of CD103 with clinicopathological variables and outcome was analyzed in the TCGA cervical cancer data set (n = 304) and by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in an independent cohort (n = 460)...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922791/targeting-hypoxia-to-improve-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-outcome
#16
REVIEW
Ahmed Salem, Marie-Claude Asselin, Bart Reymen, Alan Jackson, Philippe Lambin, Catharine M L West, James P B O'Connor, Corinne Faivre-Finn
Oxygen deprivation (hypoxia) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is an important factor in treatment resistance and poor survival. Hypoxia is an attractive therapeutic target, particularly in the context of radiotherapy, which is delivered to more than half of NSCLC patients. However, NSCLC hypoxia-targeted therapy trials have not yet translated into patient benefit. Recently, early termination of promising evofosfamide and tarloxotinib bromide studies due to futility highlighted the need for a paradigm shift in our approach to avoid disappointments in future trials...
January 1, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903353/direct-inhibition-of-stat-signaling-by-platinum-drugs-contributes-to-their-anti-cancer-activity
#17
Stanleyson V Hato, Carl G Figdor, Susumu Takahashi, Anja E Pen, Altuna Halilovic, Kalijn F Bol, Angela Vasaturo, Yukie Inoue, Nienke de Haas, Dagmar Verweij, Carla M L Van Herpen, Johannes H Kaanders, Johan H J M van Krieken, Hanneke W M Van Laarhoven, Gerrit K J Hooijer, Cornelis J A Punt, Akira Asai, I Jolanda M de Vries, W Joost Lesterhuis
Platinum-based chemotherapeutics are amongst the most powerful anti-cancer drugs. Although their exact mechanism of action is not well understood, it is thought to be mediated through covalent DNA binding. We investigated the effect of platinum-based chemotherapeutics on signaling through signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins, which are involved in many oncogenic signaling pathways. We performed in vitro experiments in various cancer cell lines, investigating the effects of platinum chemotherapeutics on STAT phosphorylation and nuclear translocation, the expression of STAT-modulating proteins and downstream signaling pathways...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902346/prediction-of-radiosensitive-patients-with-gastric-cancer-by-developing-gene-signature
#18
Jin Zhou, Xiaoyu Wu, Gang Li, Xin Gao, Min Zhai, Weichang Chen, Huagang Hu, Zaixiang Tang
Adjuvant radiotherapy is an important clinical treatment for the majority of gastric cancer, a common cancer. However, radiotherapy is a double-edged sword. It is necessary to develop a method to predict radiosensitive patients who are most likely to benefit from radiotherapy. Using the publicly available data of gastric cancer from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), we developed a gene signature that predicts radiosensitive patients through estimating a new index, nominal HR (nHR) (HR product of sensitive genes), for each patient...
October 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900507/targeting-micrornas-in-prostate-cancer-radiotherapy
#19
REVIEW
Jie Ni, Joseph Bucci, Lei Chang, David Malouf, Peter Graham, Yong Li
Radiotherapy is one of the most important treatment options for localized early-stage or advanced-stage prostate cancer (CaP). Radioresistance (relapse after radiotherapy) is a major challenge for the current radiotherapy. There is great interest in investigating mechanisms of radioresistance and developing novel treatment strategies to overcome radioresistance. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level, participating in numerous physiological and pathological processes including cancer invasion, progression, metastasis and therapeutic resistance...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883406/mir-338-5p-enhances-the-radiosensitivity-of-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-by-inducing-apoptosis-through-targeting-survivin
#20
Misun Park, Hyeon-Joon Yoon, Moon Chul Kang, Junhye Kwon, Hae Won Lee
Radioresistance is a challenge in the treatment of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to play an important role in the functional modification of cancer cells and recent studies have reported miRNA-mediated radiotherapy resistance. However, further research is necessary to reveal the regulation mechanisms, and treatment strategies using miRNA are yet to be established for ESCC. We compared the miRNA expression profiles of ESCC parental (TE-4) and acquired radioresistance (TE-4R) cell lines using a miRNA microarray and qRT-PCR...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
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