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Radiotherapy cancer biomarkers

Meriem Slaoui, Fatima Zahra Mouh, Imane Ghanname, Rachid Razine, Mohammed El Mzibri, Mariam Amrani
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer in young women is quite uncommon and shows more aggressive characteristics with major disparities between worldwide populations. Prognosis and outcome of breast cancer in young patients are widely studied, but still no consensus is available. METHODS: We retrospectively included 716 cases of breast cancer women diagnosed in 2009 at the National Institute of Oncology of Rabat. Patients were divided into two groups according to their age: women aged ≤40 years (Group 1) and women aged >40 years (Group 2)...
2016: PloS One
Hao Xing, Cunling Yan, Liming Cheng, Nianyue Wang, Shuyang Dai, Jianyong Yuan, Wenfeng Lu, Zhouchong Wang, Jun Han, Yijie Zheng, Tian Yang
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Early diagnosis improves the prognosis. Protein induced by vitamin K antagonist-II (PIVKA-II) is an effective serum biomarker for HCC diagnosis and prognosis. Combined with another serum biomarker α-fetoprotein (AFP), the sensitivity and specificity of HCC diagnosis can be improved to a maximum of 94 and 98.5 %, respectively. PIVKA-II alone or in combination with AFP and/or AFP-L3 was effective in predicting the treatment response and clinical outcome of curative hepatic resection, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, radiotherapy, and liver transplantation...
October 13, 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Kazuto Harada, Dilsa Mizrak Kaya, Yusuke Shimodaira, Shumei Song, Hideo Baba, Jaffer A Ajani
The prognosis for patients with upper gastrointestinal cancers remains dismal despite the development of multimodality therapies that incorporate surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. Early diagnosis and personalized treatment should lead to better prognosis. Given the advances in proteomic technologies over the past decades, proteomics promises to be the most effective technique to identify novel diagnostics and therapeutic targets. Areas covered: For this review, keywords were searched in combination with "proteomics" and "gastric cancer" or "esophageal cancer" in PubMed...
October 10, 2016: Expert Review of Proteomics
Imran Petkar, Keith Rooney, Justin W G Roe, Joanne M Patterson, David Bernstein, Justine M Tyler, Marie A Emson, James P Morden, Kathrin Mertens, Elizabeth Miles, Matthew Beasley, Tom Roques, Shreerang A Bhide, Kate L Newbold, Kevin J Harrington, Emma Hall, Christopher M Nutting
BACKGROUND: Persistent dysphagia following primary chemoradiation (CRT) for head and neck cancers can have a devastating impact on patients' quality of life. Single arm studies have shown that the dosimetric sparing of critical swallowing structures such as the pharyngeal constrictor muscle and supraglottic larynx can translate to better functional outcomes. However, there are no current randomised studies to confirm the benefits of such swallow sparing strategies. The aim of Dysphagia/Aspiration at risk structures (DARS) trial is to determine whether reducing the dose to the pharyngeal constrictors with dysphagia-optimised intensity- modulated radiotherapy (Do-IMRT) will lead to an improvement in long- term swallowing function without having any detrimental impact on disease-specific survival outcomes...
October 6, 2016: BMC Cancer
Zeng-Fu Shang, Qiang Wei, Lan Yu, Fang Huang, Bei-Bei Xiao, Hongtao Wang, Man Song, Li Wang, Jianguang Zhou, Jian Wang, Shanhu Li
Radiotherapy is promising and effective for treating prostate cancer but the addition of a tumor cell radiosensitizer would improve therapeutic outcomes. PC-1/PrLZ, a TPD52 protein family member is frequently upregulated in advanced prostate cancer cells and may be a biomarker of aggressive prostate cancer. Therefore, we investigated the potential role of PC-1/PrLZ for increasing radioresistance in human prostate cancer cell lines. Growth curves and survival assays after g-ray irradiation confirmed that depletion of endogenous PC-1/PrLZ significantly increased prostate cancer cell radiosensitivity...
September 20, 2016: Oncotarget
Claudio Agostinelli, Andrea Gallamini, Luisa Stracqualursi, Patrizia Agati, Claudio Tripodo, Fabio Fuligni, Maria Teresa Sista, Stefano Fanti, Alberto Biggi, Umberto Vitolo, Luigi Rigacci, Francesco Merli, Caterina Patti, Alessandra Romano, Alessandro Levis, Livio Trentin, Caterina Stelitano, Anna Borra, Pier Paolo Piccaluga, Stephen Hamilton-Dutoit, Peter Kamper, Jan Maciej Zaucha, Bogdan Małkowski, Waldemar Kulikowski, Joanna Tajer, Edyta Subocz, Justyna Rybka, Christian Steidl, Alessandro Broccoli, Lisa Argnani, Randy D Gascoyne, Francesco d'Amore, Pier Luigi Zinzani, Stefano A Pileri
BACKGROUND: Early-interim fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET scan after two ABVD (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine) chemotherapy courses (PET-2) represents the most effective predictor of treatment outcome in classical Hodgkin's lymphoma. We aimed to assess the predictive value of PET-2 combined with tissue biomarkers in neoplastic and microenvironmental cells for this disease. METHODS: We enrolled 208 patients with classical Hodgkin's lymphoma and treated with ABVD (training set), from Jan 1, 2002, to Dec 31, 2009, and validated the results in a fully matched independent cohort of 102 patients with classical Hodgkin's lymphoma (validation set), enrolled from Jan 1, 2008, to Dec 31, 2012...
October 2016: Lancet Haematology
Pei Liu, Jacson K Shen, Jianzhong Xu, Carol A Trahan, Francis J Hornicek, Zhenfeng Duan
Chondrosarcoma (CS) is the second most common primary malignant bone tumor. Unlike other bone tumors, CS is highly resistant to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy, thus resulting in poor patient outcomes. There is an urgent need to establish alternative therapies for CS. However, the etiology and pathogenesis of CS still remain elusive. Recently, DNA methylation-associated epigenetic changes have been found to play a pivotal role in the initiation and development of human cancers, including CS, by regulating target gene expression in different cellular pathways...
September 30, 2016: Epigenomics
Etienne Croteau, Jennifer M Renaud, Marie Anne Richard, Terrence D Ruddy, François Bénard, Robert A deKemp
The body's main fuel sources are fats, carbohydrates (glucose), proteins, and ketone bodies. It is well known that an important hallmark of cancer cells is the overconsumption of glucose. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging using the glucose analog (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) has been a powerful cancer diagnostic tool for many decades. Apart from surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy represent the two main domains for cancer therapy, targeting tumor proliferation, cell division, and DNA replication-all processes that require a large amount of energy...
2016: Biomarkers in Cancer
Samaneh Masoumi, Aditya Harisankar, Aileen Gracias, Fabian Bachinger, Temesgen Fufa, Gayathri Chandrasekar, Frank Gaunitz, Julian Walfridsson, Satish S Kitambi
The cellular cytoskeleton forms the primary basis through which a cell governs the changes in size, shape, migration, proliferation, and forms the primary means through which the cells respond to their environment. Indeed, cell and tissue morphologies are used routinely not only to grade tumors but also in various high-content screening methods with an aim to identify new small molecules with therapeutic potential. This study examines the expression of various cytoskeleton regulators in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM)...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Claudia Bolognesi, Siegfried Knasmueller, Armen Nersesyan, Paola Roggieri, Marcello Ceppi, Marco Bruzzone, Ewa Blaszczyk, Danuta Mielzynska-Svach, Mirta Milic, Stefano Bonassi, Danieli Benedetti, Juliana Da Silva, Raphael Toledo, Daisy Maria Fávero Salvadori, Helena Groot de Restrepo, Metka Filipic, Klara Hercog, Ayça Aktaş, Sema Burgaz, Michael Kundi, Tamara Grummt, Philip Thomas, Maryam Hor, Maria Escudero-Fung, Nina Holland, Michael Fenech
The buccal micronucleus cytome (BMNcyt) assay in uncultured exfoliated epithelial cells from oral mucosa is widely applied in biomonitoring human exposures to genotoxic agents and is also proposed as a suitable test for prescreening and follow-up of precancerous oral lesions. The main limitation of the assay is the large variability observed in the baseline values of micronuclei (MNi) and other nuclear anomalies mainly related to different scoring criteria. The aim of this international collaborative study, involving laboratories with different level of experience, was to evaluate the inter- and intra-laboratory variations in the BMNcyt parameters, using recently implemented guidelines, in scoring cells from the same pooled samples obtained from healthy subjects (control group) and from cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy (treated group)...
September 26, 2016: Mutagenesis
Sung-Jae Baek, Katsutoshi Sato, Naohiro Nishida, Jun Koseki, Rikako Azuma, Koichi Kawamoto, Masamitsu Konno, Kazuhiko Hayashi, Taroh Satoh, Yuichiro Doki, Masaki Mori, Hideshi Ishii, Kazuhiko Ogawa
In this study, we compared the microRNA (miRNA) profiles of a control and X-ray- and carbon ion beam-resistant cells to identify miRNAs that can be used as radiosensitizers and biomarkers. Mouse squamous cell carcinoma line NR-S1, its X-ray-resistant derivative X60, and its carbon ion beam‑resistant derivative C30 were subjected to miRNA microarray analysis. Expression of miRNAs shown to be upregulated or downregulated in the microarray analysis was confirmed by qRT-PCR. Downregulated miRNAs were overexpressed in human pancreatic cancer cell lines PANC1 and MIA PaCa-2, and the resulting cells were tested for radiosensitivity using colony-forming and sphere-forming assays...
September 22, 2016: Oncology Reports
Youngtae Jeong, Ngoc T Hoang, Alexander Lovejoy, Henning Stehr, Aaron M Newman, Andrew J Gentles, William Kong, Diana Truong, Shanique Martin, Aadel Chaudhuri, Diane Heiser, Li Zhou, Carmen Say, Justin N Carter, Susan M Hiniker, Billy W Loo, Robert B West, Philip Beachy, Ash A Alizadeh, Maximilian Diehn
Lung squamous cell carcinomas (LSCC) pathogenesis remains incompletely understood and biomarkers predicting treatment response remain lacking. Here we describe novel murine LSCC models driven by loss of Trp53 and Keap1, both of which are frequently mutated in human LSCCs. Homozygous inactivation of Keap1 or Trp53 promoted airway basal stem cell (ABSC) self-renewal, suggesting that mutations in these genes lead to expansion of mutant stem cell clones. Deletion of Trp53 and Keap1 in ABSCs, but not more differentiated tracheal cells, produced tumors recapitulating histological and molecular features of human LSCCs, indicating that they represent the likely cell of origin in this model...
September 23, 2016: Cancer Discovery
Gregory S Alexander, Joshua D Palmer, Madalina Tuluc, Jianqing Lin, Adam P Dicker, Voichita Bar-Ad, Larry A Harshyne, Jennifer Louie, Colette M Shaw, D Craig Hooper, Bo Lu
BACKGROUND: Pembrolizumab is a monoclonal antibody that is designed against programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1). Pembrolizumab and other immunocheckpoint-blocking monoclonal antibodies work by modulating a patient's own immune system to increase anti-tumor activity. While immunocheckpoint blockade has shown promising results, only 20-40 % of patients experience objective clinical benefit. Differences in individual tumor biology and the presence multiple immune checkpoints present a challenge for treatment...
2016: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
Ayman Oweida, Shilpa Bhatia, Kellen Hirsch, Dylan Calame, Anastacia Griego, Steve Keysar, Todd Pitts, Jaspreet Sharma, Gail Eckhardt, Antonio Jimeno, Xiao Jing Wang, Gill Parkash, Joseph Califano, Sana Karam
Ephrin B2 is variably expressed on tumor cells and its blockade has been shown to inhibit angiogenesis in animal models of pancreatic, colorectal, lung and head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. However, the implications of ephrinB2 expression in cancer patients have remained elusive. In this study, we analyzed the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) for ephrinB2 expression. We report significant correlations between EFNB2 expression, overall survival and disease-free survival in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC, n = 519), pancreatic adenocarcinoma (n = 186) and bladder urothelial carcinoma (n = 410)...
September 20, 2016: Molecular Carcinogenesis
Emmanouil Fokas, Claus Rödel
Approximately 50% of all patients with cancer receive radiotherapy (RT) at some point during their treatment. Despite the advent of modern imaging and advances in planning and delivering highly-conformal and precise RT, further dose escalation to improve clinical outcome is often limited by the potential side-effects to adjacent tissues. Addition of chemotherapy to radiotherapy (CRT) has led to significant clinical improvements in many gastrointestinal malignancies but at the expense of increased toxicity as most chemotherapy drugs lack specificity...
August 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
Alan D Smith, Mathew Truong, Rob Bristow, Paul Yip, Michael F Milosevic, Anthony M Joshua
BACKGROUND/AIM: Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9) catalyses the interconversion of carbon dioxide to carbonic acid and bicarbonate and is considered a putative biomarker of tumour hypoxia. We set out to evaluate the prognostic significance of CA9 in prostate cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Plasma samples were assessed from 68 men with high-risk localised prostate cancer treated with radical prostatectomy (RP) or radiotherapy (RT), and 20 men with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) treated with docetaxel chemotherapy between 2010 and 2012 at the Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Canada...
September 2016: Anticancer Research
Angelo B A Laranjeira, Sherry X Yang
Cancer stem cells (CSCs), also known as tumor initialing cells, have self-renewal capacity and are believed to play an important role in residual disease or tumor relapse. CSCs exhibit characteristic slow growth rate and are resistant to conventional chemotherapy/radiotherapy in experimental models. The type of cells commonly employs aberrant activity of the embryonic signal transduction pathways - Notch, Hedgehog (Hh), and Wnt - for uncontrolled proliferation and survival. Areas covered: The following article discusses key genetic and molecular alterations in Notch, Hh and Wnt pathways and drugs targeting the alterations for the treatment of leukemia and lymphoma...
November 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
Phu Hung Nguyen, Julie Giraud, Lucie Chambonnier, Pierre Dubus, Linda Wittkop, Genevieve Belleannée, Denis Collet, Isabelle Soubeyran, Serge Evrard, Benoit Rousseau, Nathalie Dugot-Senant, Francis Mégraud, Frédéric Mazurier, Christine Varon
PURPOSE: Gastric carcinomas (GC) are heterogeneous, and the current therapy remains essentially based on surgery with conventional chemo- and radiotherapy. This study aimed to characterize biomarkers allowing the detection of cancer stem cells (CSC) in human GC of different histological types. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The primary tumors from thirty-seven patients with intestinal or diffuse type non-cardia GC were studied, and patient's derived tumor xenograft (PDX) models in immunodeficient mice were developed...
September 12, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Eva Dreussi, Erika Cecchin, Jerry Polesel, Vincenzo Canzonieri, Marco Agostini, Caterina Boso, Claudio Belluco, Angela Buonadonna, Sara Lonardi, Francesca Bergamo, Sara Gagno, Elena De Mattia, Salvatore Pucciarelli, Antonino De Paoli, Giuseppe Toffoli
BACKGROUND: Pathological complete response (pCR) to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) is still ascribed to a minority of patients. A pathway based-approach could highlight the predictive role of germline single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The primary aim of this study was to define new predictive biomarkers considering treatment specificities. Secondary aim was to determine new potential predictive biomarkers independent from radiotherapy (RT) dosage and cotreatment with oxaliplatin...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Johnny Kao, Jonathan Timmins, Junko Ozao-Choy, Stuart Packer
There is considerable interest in deploying stereotactic body radiotherapy in combination with immune therapy for patients with extracranial oligometastases. In addition to angiogenesis inhibition, sunitinib appears to mediate antitumor immunity through effects on circulating monocytic cells. The current study investigated the effects of combined sunitinib and stereotactic radiotherapy on hematopoiesis. As part of a phase I/II clinical trial utilizing concurrent sunitinib (25-50 mg on days 1-28) and image-guided radiation therapy (40-50 Gy in 10 fractions starting on days 8-19) for patients with metastatic cancer, the complete blood count, platelet count and automatic differential were performed pretreatment and on days 8 and 19...
September 2016: Oncology Letters
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