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Radiotherapy cancer biomarkers

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464828/the-significance-of-tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes-before-and-after-neoadjuvant-therapy-for-rectal-cancer
#1
Shinji Matsutani, Masatsune Shibutani, Kiyoshi Maeda, Hisashi Nagahara, Tatsunari Fukuoka, Shigetomi Nakao, Kosei Hirakawa, Masaichi Ohira
Recently, neoadjuvant therapy for locally advanced rectal cancer has been generally performed. However, biomarkers predicting the response to neoadjuvant therapy have not been established. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) have a crucial effect on tumor progression and the survival outcome as the primary host immune response, and an antitumor immune effect has been reported to contribute to the response to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. We investigated the significance of TILs before and after neoadjuvant treatment and the change in the density of those TILs...
February 21, 2018: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463374/nano-vesicles-are-a-potential-tool-to-monitor-therapeutic-efficacy-of-carbon-ion-radiotherapy-in-prostate-cancer
#2
Qi Yu, Ping Li, Meilin Weng, Shuang Wu, Yafang Zhang, Xue Chen, Qing Zhang, Guangxia Shen, Xianting Ding, Shen Fu
Exosomes are nano-vesicles that contribute to the effectiveness of many treatments. The aim of this study was to identify profiles of microRNA (miRNA) contained in serum exosomes that are differentially regulated in patients with prostate cancer undergoing carbon ion radiotherapy (CIRT). RNA was extracted from serum exosomes of eight patients with localized prostate cancer before and after CIRT, and miRNA was analyzed by the next generation sequencing. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis showed that the major signaling pathways associated with the proliferation of prostate cancer cells, such as MAPK, PI3K-AKT, mTOR, and AMPK may be implicated in the mechanism of CIRT action...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441695/protein-phosphatase-2a-pp2a-inhibitor-cip2a-indicates-resistance-to-radiotherapy-in-rectal-cancer
#3
Eva-Maria Birkman, Adam Elzagheid, Terhi Jokilehto, Tuulia Avoranta, Eija Korkeila, Jarmo Kulmala, Kari Syrjänen, Jukka Westermarck, Jari Sundström
Preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy, (C)RT, is an essential part of the treatment of rectal cancer patients, but tumor response to this therapy among patients is variable. Thus far, there are no clinical biomarkers that could be used to predict response to (C)RT or to stratify patients into different preoperative treatment groups according to their prognosis. Overexpression of cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A) has been demonstrated in several cancers and is frequently associated with reduced survival...
February 14, 2018: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431889/coagulation-and-inflammation-in-long-term-cancer-survivors-results-from-the-adult-population
#4
Marina Panova-Noeva, Andreas Schulz, Natalie Arnold, Iris M Hermanns, Jürgen H Prochaska, Dagmar Laubert-Reh, Henri M Spronk, Maria Blettner, Manfred Beutel, Norbert Pfeiffer, Thomas Münzel, Karl J Lackner, Hugo Ten Cate, Philipp S Wild
BACKGROUND: The advancements in cancer treatment and detection of early cancer have resulted in steady increase of cancer survivors over the years. However, due to long term toxic effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy, the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increasing in survivors. OBJECTIVES: This study investigates traditional cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs), inflammation and coagulation profile in long-term cancer survivors (cancer diagnosis ≥ five years) from a large adult population-based study sample...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428191/-the-biological-rationale-for-immunotherapy-in-cancer
#5
REVIEW
J Benzaquen, C-H Marquette, N Glaichenhaus, S Leroy, P Hofman, M Ilié
INTRODUCTION: Immunotherapy aims to promote the immune system's activity against malignant cells by stimulating the response to several tumor antigens. STATE OF THE ART: Immunosurveillance may adjust the immunogenicity of tumors. To be effective, immunity must induce the specific activation of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, as well as activation of innate immunity. Activator and inhibitory costimulatory molecules regulate T lymphocyte activation at immunity checkpoints such as PD-1/PD-L1 and CTLA-4...
February 7, 2018: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426364/rhbdd1-promotes-colorectal-cancer-metastasis-through-the-wnt-signaling-pathway-and-its-downstream-target-zeb1
#6
Mengmeng Zhang, Fei Miao, Rong Huang, Wenjie Liu, Yuechao Zhao, Tao Jiao, Yalan Lu, Fan Wu, Xiaojuan Wang, Han Wang, Hong Zhao, Hongge Ju, Shiying Miao, Linfang Wang, Wei Song
BACKGROUND: 40-50% of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients develop metastatic disease; the presence of metastasis hinders the effective treatment of cancer through surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, which makes 5-year survival rate extremely low; therefore, studying CRC metastasis is crucial for disease therapy. In the present study, we investigated the role of rhomboid domain containing 1 (RHBDD1) in tumor metastasis of CRC. METHODS: The expression of RHBDD1 was analyzed in 539 colorectal tumor tissues for its correlation with lymphatic metastasis and distal metastasis...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416873/biomarker-discovery-for-renal-cancer-stem-cells
#7
REVIEW
Claudia Corrò, Holger Moch
Characterised by high intra- and inter-tumor heterogeneity, metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is resistant to chemo- and radiotherapy. Therefore, the development of new prognostic and diagnostic markers for RCC patients is needed. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a small population of neoplastic cells within a tumor which present characteristics reminiscent of normal stem cells. CSCs are characterised by unlimited cell division, maintenance of the stem cell pool (self-renewal), and capability to give rise to all cell types within a tumor; and contribute to metastasis in vivo (tumourigenicity), treatment resistance and recurrence...
January 2018: Journal of Pathology. Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412104/radiation-induced-pulmonary-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-a-review-of-targeting-molecular-pathways-and-mediators
#8
S N Sunilgowda, Devipriya Nagarajan, Devipriya Nagarajan
Radiotherapy is the most widely used treatment method for average and advanced lung cancer patients. Moreover, the clinical toxicities caused by radiotherapy are categorized into acute radiation pneumonitis and late pulmonary fibrosis. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a complex physiological process involves many signaling molecules and proteins like adaptor proteins, and transcriptional factors. It was identified as a significant mechanism for fibrosis, wound healing and also cancer. A variety of biomarkers have appeared in radiation-induced lung EMT, some of which are acquired (N-cadherin, vimentin and fibronectin, etc...
February 6, 2018: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409457/the-potential-predictive-value-of-dek-expression-for-neoadjuvant-chemoradiotherapy-response-in-locally-advanced-rectal-cancer
#9
J Martinez-Useros, I Moreno, M J Fernandez-Aceñero, M Rodriguez-Remirez, A Borrero-Palacios, A Cebrian, T Gomez Del Pulgar, L Del Puerto-Nevado, W Li, A Puime-Otin, N Perez, M S Soengas, J Garcia-Foncillas
BACKGROUND: Limited data are available regarding the ability of biomarkers to predict complete pathological response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer. Complete response translates to better patient survival. DEK is a transcription factor involved not only in development and progression of different types of cancer, but is also associated with treatment response. This study aims to analyze the role of DEK in complete pathological response following chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced rectal cancer...
February 6, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399698/microrna-125-modulates-radioresistance-through-targeting-p21-in-cervical-cancer
#10
Abraham Pedroza-Torres, Alma D Campos-Parra, Oliver Millan-Catalan, Yahir A Loissell-Baltazar, Horacio Zamudio-Meza, David Cantú de León, Gonzalo Montalvo-Esquivel, David Isla-Ortiz, Luis A Herrera, Óscar Ángeles-Zaragoza, Guadalupe Robelo-Romero, Ángel Herrera-Gómez, Carlos Pérez-Plasencia
Cervical cancer (CC) is one of the most common cancers diagnosed in women worldwide, and it is estimated that ~500,000 new patients are diagnosed with cervical cancer annually and that ~270,000 deaths occur each year. Patients with cervical cancer are treated with different radiotherapy schedules, either alone or with adjuvant chemotherapy. Unfortunately, nearly 50% of all patients with cervical cancer do not respond to standard treatment due to tumor radioresistance. In this scenario, several microRNAs (miRNAs) have been associated with the acquisition of the radioresistance phenotype...
January 18, 2018: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398577/cell-death-inflammation-tumor-burden-and-proliferation-blood-biomarkers-predict-lung-cancer-radiotherapy-response-and-correlate-with-tumor-volume-and-proliferation-imaging
#11
Ahmed Salem, Hitesh Mistry, Alison Backen, Clare Hodgson, Pek Koh, Emma Dean, Lynsey Priest, Kate Haslett, Ioannis Trigonis, Alan Jackson, Marie-Claude Asselin, Caroline Dive, Andrew Renehan, Corinne Faivre-Finn, Fiona Blackhall
INTRODUCTION: There is an unmet need to develop noninvasive biomarkers to stratify patients in drug-radiotherapy trials. In this pilot study we investigated lung cancer radiotherapy response and toxicity blood biomarkers and correlated findings with tumor volume and proliferation imaging. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Blood samples were collected before and during (day 21) radiotherapy. Twenty-six cell-death, hypoxia, angiogenesis, inflammation, proliferation, invasion, and tumor-burden biomarkers were evaluated...
December 11, 2017: Clinical Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384959/pembrolizumab-for-recurrent-metastatic-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma-in-an-asian-population
#12
Wen-Chun Chen, Pen-Yuan Chu, Yu-Ting Lee, Wen-Bin Lu, Chun-Yu Liu, Peter Mu-Hsin Chang, Muh-Hwa Yang
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has a high prevalence and is a major cause of cancer deaths in Taiwan. However, there is still no effective salvage therapy that prolongs the life expectancy of patients with recurrent/metastatic (R/M) HNSCC. Immune checkpoint therapy that targets the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) may provide clinical benefit for these patients. We analyzed 22 R/M HNSCC patients who received pembrolizumab, a monoclonal antibody against PD-1, as salvage therapy. Intravenous pembrolizumab was given at a fixed dosage of 100 or 200 mg every 3 weeks...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371965/a-link-between-relb-expression-and-tumor-progression-in-laryngeal-cancer
#13
Ioanna Giopanou, Ioannis Lilis, Helen Papadaki, Theodoros Papadas, Georgios T Stathopoulos
Laryngeal cancer is a frequent malignancy originating from the squamous vocal epithelium in a multi-stage fashion in response to environmental carcinogens. Although most cases can be cured by surgery and/or radiotherapy, advanced and relapsing disease is common, and biomarkers of such dismal cases are urgently needed. The cancer genome of laryngeal cancers was recently shown to feature a signature of aberrant nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation, but this finding has not been clinically exploited. We analyzed primary tumor samples of 96 well-documented and longitudinally followed patients covering the whole spectrum of laryngeal neoplasia, including 21 patients with benign laryngeal diseases, 15 patients with dysplasia, 43 patients with early-stage carcinoma, and 17 patients with locally advanced carcinoma, for immunoreactivity of RelA, RelB, P50, and P52/P100, the main NF-κB subunits that activate transcription...
December 26, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371919/sensitizing-ewing-sarcoma-to-chemo-and-radiotherapy-by-inhibition-of-the-dna-repair-enzymes-dna-protein-kinase-dna-pk-and-poly-adp-ribose-polymerase-parp-1-2
#14
Britta Vormoor, Yvonne T Schlosser, Helen Blair, Abhishek Sharma, Sarah Wilkinson, David R Newell, Nicola Curtin
Background: DNA-PK and PARP inhibitors sensitize cancer cells to chemo- and radiotherapy. ETS transcription factors (EWS-FLI1) have been described as biomarkers for PARP-inhibitor sensitivity. Sensitivity to single agent PARP inhibitors has so far been limited to homologous recombination repair (HRR) deficient tumors, exploiting synthetic lethality. Results: In clonogenic assays, single agent rucaparib LD50 values for continuously exposed cells were similar to those observed in HRR-defective cells (CAPAN-1 cell line, BRCA2 defective); however, both ES cell lines (TC-71, CADO-ES1) had functional HRR...
December 26, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368212/the-dna-methylome-of-ddr-genes-and-benefit-from-rt-or-tmz-in-idh-mutant-low-grade-glioma-treated-in-eortc-22033
#15
Pierre Bady, Sebastian Kurscheid, Mauro Delorenzi, Thierry Gorlia, Martin J van den Bent, Khê Hoang-Xuan, Élodie Vauléon, Anja Gijtenbeek, Roelien Enting, Brian Thiessen, Olivier Chinot, Frédéric Dhermain, Alba A Brandes, Jaap C Reijneveld, Christine Marosi, Martin J B Taphoorn, Wolfgang Wick, Andreas von Deimling, Pim French, Roger Stupp, Brigitta G Baumert, Monika E Hegi
The optimal treatment for patients with low-grade glioma (LGG) WHO grade II remains controversial. Overall survival ranges from 2 to over 15 years depending on molecular and clinical factors. Hence, risk-adjusted treatments are required for optimizing outcome and quality of life. We aim at identifying mechanisms and associated molecular markers predictive for benefit from radiotherapy (RT) or temozolomide (TMZ) in LGG patients treated in the randomized phase III trial EORTC 22033. As candidate biomarkers for these genotoxic treatments, we considered the DNA methylome of 410 DNA damage response (DDR) genes...
January 24, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367653/investigation-of-radiomic-signatures-for-local-recurrence-using-primary-tumor-texture-analysis-in-oropharyngeal-head-and-neck-cancer-patients
#16
(no author information available yet)
Radiomics is one such "big data" approach that applies advanced image refining/data characterization algorithms to generate imaging features that can quantitatively classify tumor phenotypes in a non-invasive manner. We hypothesize that certain textural features of oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) primary tumors will have statistically significant correlations to patient outcomes such as local control. Patients from an IRB-approved database dispositioned to (chemo)radiotherapy for locally advanced OPC were included in this retrospective series...
January 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362358/therapeutic-potential-of-targeting-s100a11-in-malignant-pleural-mesothelioma
#17
Hiroki Sato, Masakiyo Sakaguchi, Hiromasa Yamamoto, Shuta Tomida, Keisuke Aoe, Kazuhiko Shien, Takahiro Yoshioka, Kei Namba, Hidejiro Torigoe, Junichi Soh, Kazunori Tsukuda, Hiroyuki Tao, Kazunori Okabe, Shinichiro Miyoshi, Harvey I Pass, Shinichi Toyooka
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive tumor with an unfavorable prognosis. The standard therapeutic approaches are limited to surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. Because the consequent clinical outcome is often unsatisfactory, a different approach in MPM treatment is required. S100A11, a Ca2+-binding small protein with two EF-hands, is frequently upregulated in various human cancers. Interestingly, it has been found that intracellular and extracellular S100A11 have different functions in cell viability...
January 24, 2018: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355614/head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma-genomics-and-emerging-biomarkers-for-immunomodulatory-cancer-treatments
#18
REVIEW
Benjamin Solomon, Richard J Young, Danny Rischin
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) comprises a heterogeneous group of tumors that arise from the squamous epithelium of the oral cavity, oropharynx, larynx and hypopharynx. While many HNSCCs are related to classical etiologic factors of smoking and alcohol, a clinically, genomically, and immunologically distinct subgroup of tumors arise from the epithelium of the tonsil and the base of tongue as a result of infection with Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). In this review we describe the genomic and immunologic landscape of HNSCC, highlighting differences between HPV-positive and HPV-negative HNSCC...
January 17, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354496/the-current-status-and-clinical-value-of-circulating-tumor-cells-and-circulating-cell-free-tumor-dna-in-bladder-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Sabine Riethdorf, Armin Soave, Michael Rink
Urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) is a complex disease, which is associated with highly aggressive tumor biologic behavior, especially in patients with muscle-invasive and advanced tumors. Despite multimodal therapy options including surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, UCB patients frequently suffer from poor clinical outcome. Indeed, the potential of diverse opportunities for modern targeted therapies is not sufficiently elucidated in UCB yet. To improve the suboptimal treatment situation in UCB, biomarkers are urgently needed that help detecting minimal residual disease (MRD), predicting therapy response and subsequently prognosis as well as enabling patient stratification for further therapies and therapy monitoring, respectively...
December 2017: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331262/can-interrogation-of-tumour-characteristics-lead-us-to-safely-omit-adjuvant-radiotherapy-in-patients-with-early-breast-cancer
#20
I S Bhattacharya, A M Kirby, J M Bliss, C E Coles
Adjuvant radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery has been an important component of the standard of care for early breast cancer. Improvements in breast cancer care have resulted in a substantial reduction in local relapse rates over recent decades. Although the proportional benefits of adjuvant radiotherapy are similar for different prognostic risk groups of patients, the absolute benefits depend on the risk of relapse and therefore vary considerably between prognostic groups. Radiotherapy is not without risk and for some patients at very low risk of relapse the risks of radiotherapy may outweigh the benefit, leading to potential overtreatment...
January 10, 2018: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
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