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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650896/-the-combination-of-molecular-targeted-agents-with-radiotherapy-in-head-and-neck-cancer
#1
Mitsuhiro Furuta, Tomoya Yokota
Concurrent cisplatin based chemoradiotherapy(CRT)is the standard of care for patients with locoregionally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck(LA-SCCHN). Based on the Bonner trial showing the superiority of cetuximab plus radiotherapy to radiotherapy alone, cetuximab based bioradiotherapy(BRT)is considered as an alternative for patients with LA-SCCHN. However, the non-inferiority of BRT compared to CRT has not yet been demonstrated. Furthermore, severe mucositis and dermatitis induced by BRT cannot be neglected...
March 2018: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644491/update-on-parp-inhibitors-in-breast-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Alexandra S Zimmer, Mitchell Gillard, Stanley Lipkowitz, Jung-Min Lee
The single agent activity of PARP inhibitors (PARPi) in germline BRCA mutated (gBRCAm) breast and ovarian cancer suggests untapped potential for this new class of drug in breast cancer. The US Food and Drug Administration has approved three PARPi (olaparib, rucaparib, and niraparib) so far to treat certain ovarian cancers, including those with gBRCAm and olaparib for treatment of gBRCAm breast cancers. Several PARPi are now under clinical development for breast cancer in the various treatment settings. Recently, two phase III trials of olaparib (OlympiaD) and talazoparib (EMBRACA) demonstrated 3-month progression-free survival improvement with PARPi compared to physician's choice single agent chemotherapy in metastatic gBRCAm breast cancer...
April 11, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643471/current-state-of-immunotherapy-for-glioblastoma
#3
REVIEW
Michael Lim, Yuanxuan Xia, Chetan Bettegowda, Michael Weller
Glioma is the most common primary cancer of the central nervous system, and around 50% of patients present with the most aggressive form of the disease, glioblastoma. Conventional therapies, including surgery, radiotherapy, and pharmacotherapy (typically chemotherapy with temozolomide), have not resulted in major improvements in the survival outcomes of patients with glioblastoma. Reasons for this lack of progress include invasive tumour growth in an essential organ, which limits the utility of local therapy, as well as the protection of tumour cells by the blood-brain barrier, their intrinsic resistance to the induction of cell death, and lack of dependence on single, targetable oncogenic pathways, all of which impose challenges for systemic therapy...
April 11, 2018: Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615840/biomarker-expression-in-rectal-cancer-tissue-before-and-after-neoadjuvant-therapy
#4
Leonora Sf Boogerd, Maxime Jm van der Valk, Martin C Boonstra, Hendrica Ajm Prevoo, Denise E Hilling, Cornelis Jh van de Velde, Cornelis Fm Sier, Arantza Fariña Sarasqueta, Alexander L Vahrmeijer
Purpose: Intraoperative identification of rectal cancer (RC) can be challenging, especially because of fibrosis after treatment with preoperative chemo- and radiotherapy (CRT). Tumor-targeted fluorescence imaging can enhance the contrast between tumor and normal tissue during surgery. Promising targets for RC imaging are carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) and the tyrosine-kinase receptor Met (c-Met). The effect of CRT on their expression determines their applicability for imaging...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611048/use-of-speckle-tracking-in-the-evaluation-of-late-subclinical-myocardial-damage-in-survivors-of-childhood-acute-leukaemia
#5
Elena Guadalupe Corella Aznar, Ariadna Ayerza Casas, Lorenzo Jiménez Montañés, Maria Ángeles Carlota Calvo Escribano, José Ignacio Labarta Aizpún, Pilar Samper Villagrasa
Heart disease is the leading cause of non-cancer death in childhood cancer survivors. to determine the prevalence of subclinical cardiac dysfunction using speckle tracking and compare its results with those obtained by classical methods of assessing left ventricular function and its relationship with different factors to identify the population at higher risk. Echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular function included ejection fraction, tissue Doppler, longitudinal/circumferential strains and biochemical parameters (troponin-T and Pro-BNP) in a cohort of 57 survivors of childhood acute leukaemia with at least 10 years since diagnosis...
April 2, 2018: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607565/prognostic-implications-of-cd44-nanog-oct4-and-bmi1-expression-in-tongue-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#6
Maria Fernanda Setúbal Destro Rodrigues, Flávia Caló de Aquino Xavier, Nathália Paiva Andrade, Camila Lopes, Lucyene Miguita Luiz, Bruno Tavares Sedassari, Ana Melissa Ccopa Ibarra, Rossana Verónica Mendoza López, Claudia Kliemann Schmerling, Raquel Ajub Moyses, Eloiza Elena Tajara da Silva, Fabio Daumas Nunes
BACKGROUND: Tongue squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) contains a cell subpopulation referred to as cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are responsible for tumor growth, metastasis, and resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The CSC markers have been used to isolate these cells and as biomarkers to predict overall survival. METHODS: The CSC markers CD44, NANOG, OCT4, and BMI1 were investigated using reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and immunohistochemistry and correlated with clinicopathological parameters...
April 1, 2018: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597090/lobaplatin-promotes-radiosensitivity-induces-apoptosis-attenuates-cancer-stemness-and-inhibits-proliferation-through-pi3k-akt-pathway-in-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#7
Shupei Pan, Yuchen Sun, Donghu Sui, Tian Yang, Shenbo Fu, Jizhao Wang, Beina Hui, Ruxing Xi, Chenchen He, Xiaozhi Zhang
Radiotherapy is one of the common treatments for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Yet, local recurrence led by radioresistance is still not solved. Lobaplatin (LBP) is known to have powerful clinical anti-tumor activities in various tumors, but its effect in radiotherapy is rarely studied. Here we report that LBP is a promising radiosensitizer for ESCC. We treated ESCC cells with LBP and radiation, both separately and in combination. Untreated cells were set as control groups. We found that LBP inhibited ESCC cell growth and enhanced their radiosensitivity...
March 26, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594445/the-prognostic-implications-of-primary-tumor-location-on-recurrence-in-early-stage-colorectal-cancer-with-no-associated-risk-factors
#8
Sung Il Kang, Duck-Woo Kim, Yoonjin Kwak, Hye-Seung Lee, Min Hyun Kim, Myung Jo Kim, Heung-Kwon Oh, Sung-Bum Kang
PURPOSE: Recently, several reports have suggested that tumor location serves as a prognostic biomarker in advanced colorectal cancer. However, the prognostic implication of tumor location in patients with early-stage colorectal cancer remains unclear. This study was aimed to examine the prognostic implication of tumor location in patients with early-stage colorectal cancer. METHODS: Patients with stage I and low-risk stage II colorectal cancer, treated with radical surgery in a hospital setting between May 2003 and September 2014, were retrospectively reviewed...
March 28, 2018: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594251/the-embrace-ii-study-the-outcome-and-prospect-of-two-decades-of-evolution-within-the-gec-estro-gyn-working-group-and-the-embrace-studies
#9
REVIEW
Richard Pötter, Kari Tanderup, Christian Kirisits, Astrid de Leeuw, Kathrin Kirchheiner, Remi Nout, Li Tee Tan, Christine Haie-Meder, Umesh Mahantshetty, Barbara Segedin, Peter Hoskin, Kjersti Bruheim, Bhavana Rai, Fleur Huang, Erik Van Limbergen, Max Schmid, Nicole Nesvacil, Alina Sturdza, Lars Fokdal, Nina Boje Kibsgaard Jensen, Dietmar Georg, Marianne Assenholt, Yvette Seppenwoolde, Christel Nomden, Israel Fortin, Supriya Chopra, Uulke van der Heide, Tamara Rumpold, Jacob Christian Lindegaard, Ina Jürgenliemk-Schulz
The publication of the GEC-ESTRO recommendations one decade ago was a significant step forward for reaching international consensus on adaptive target definition and dose reporting in image guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT) in locally advanced cervical cancer. Since then, IGABT has been spreading, particularly in Europe, North America and Asia, and the guidelines have proved their broad acceptance and applicability in clinical practice. However, a unified approach to volume contouring and reporting does not imply a unified administration of treatment, and currently both external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and IGABT are delivered using a large variety of techniques and prescription/fractionation schedules...
February 2018: Clinical and Translational Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594214/sdf-1-cxcr4-expression-in-head-and-neck-cancer-and-outcome-after-postoperative-radiochemotherapy
#10
Chiara De-Colle, David Mönnich, Stefan Welz, Simon Boeke, Bence Sipos, Falko Fend, Paul-Stefan Mauz, Inge Tinhofer, Volker Budach, Jehad Abu Jawad, Martin Stuschke, Panagiotis Balermpas, Claus Rödel, Anca-Ligia Grosu, Amir Abdollahi, Jürgen Debus, Christine Bayer, Claus Belka, Steffi Pigorsch, Stephanie E Combs, Fabian Lohaus, Annett Linge, Mechthild Krause, Michael Baumann, Daniel Zips, Apostolos Menegakis
Introduction: Outcome after postoperative radiochemotherapy (RT-CT) for patients with advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) remains unsatisfactory, especially among those with HPV negative tumours. Therefore, new biomarkers are needed to further define subgroups for individualised therapeutic approaches. Preclinical and first clinical observations showed that the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and its ligand SDF-1 (CXCL12) play an important role in tumour cell proliferation, survival, cancer progression, metastasis and treatment resistance...
August 2017: Clinical and Translational Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593061/biomarkers-of-chondrosarcoma
#11
REVIEW
Wonju Jeong, Ha-Jeong Kim
Clinical outcome prediction is major concern to patients with cancer. Various molecular markers in various carcinomas have been identified in the past few decades. However, accurate predictors in chondrosarcoma have not been developed, even though chondrosarcoma is the second most common primary bone tumour. Chondrosarcoma is the cartilage-forming malignancy and shows a wide spectrum of clinicopathological behaviours. The majority of chondrosarcoma grows slowly and rarely metastasises, and adequate surgery leads to a good prognosis...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589142/prognostic-values-of-hematological-biomarkers-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-patients-treated-with-intensity-modulated-radiotherapy
#12
Lulu Ye, Ronald Wihal Oei, Fangfang Kong, Tingting Xu, Chunying Shen, Xiaoshen Wang, Xiayun He, Lin Kong, Chaosu Hu, Hongmei Ying
PURPOSE: In this study, we evaluated the prognostic values of hematological biomarkers in primary nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients receiving definitive intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). METHODS: There were 427 NPC patients enrolled between January 2010 and March 2013 at Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center. Pre-treatment absolute neutrophil count (ANC), platelet count (APC), lymphocyte count (ALC), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) were collected as prognostic biomarkers...
March 27, 2018: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587959/cup-syndrome-metastatic-malignancy-with-unknown-primary-tumor
#13
Gregor Zaun, Martin Schuler, Ken Herrmann, Andrea Tannapfel
BACKGROUND: 2-4% of newly diagnosed cases of malignant disease involve cancer of unknown primary (CUP). This mixed entity is one of the 6 most common types of malignant disease in Germany. Highly refined treatment strategies can now be offered to patients with CUP. METHODS: This review is based on pertinent publications retrieved by a selective search in PubMed with an emphasis on articles from the past decade. The current guidelines and recommendations of specialty societies were also considered in the evaluation...
March 9, 2018: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572254/parp1-targeted-radiotherapy-in-mouse-models-of-glioblastoma
#14
Stephen A Jannetti, Giuseppe Carlucci, Brandon Carney, Susanne Kossatz, Larissa Shenker, Lukas M Carter, Beatriz Salinas, Christian Brand, Ahmad Sadique, Patrick L Donabedian, Kristen M Cunanan, Mithat Gönen, Vladimir Ponomarev, Brian M Zeglis, Mark M Souweidane, Jason S Lewis, Wolfgang A Weber, John L Humm, Thomas Reiner
The DNA repair enzyme PARP1 is over-expressed in glioblastoma, with overall low expression in healthy brain tissue. Paired with the availability of specific molecularly targeted small molecules for this biomarker, PARP1 is a near-ideal target for novel radiotherapeutics. A successful PARP1-targeted radiotherapeutic would induce DNA damage and apoptosis in cancer cells, while sparing healthy brain tissue. We synthesized a131 I-labeled poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) therapeutic and investigated its pharmacology using in vitro and in vivo methodologies...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565489/high-expression-of-lncrna-gacat3-inhibits-invasion-and-metastasis-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-to-enhance-the-effect-of-radiotherapy
#15
X Yang, W Zhang, S-Q Cheng, R-L Yang
OBJECTIVE: To clarify the role of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) GACAT3 in invasion and metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and its effect on radiotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The expression of GACAT3 and TIMP2 in cells and tissues of NSCLC were detected by quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The influence of GACAT3 on cell proliferation and the capacity of colony formation were estimated by MTT test and colony forming experiment respectively. Luciferase reporting assay was used to confirm the correlation between GACAT3 and TIMP2...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557103/chemotherapy-and-radiotherapy-for-advanced-pancreatic-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Venessa Chin, Adnan Nagrial, Katrin Sjoquist, Chelsie A O'Connor, Lorraine Chantrill, Andrew V Biankin, Rob Jpm Scholten, Desmond Yip
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a highly lethal disease with few effective treatment options. Over the past few decades, many anti-cancer therapies have been tested in the locally advanced and metastatic setting, with mixed results. This review attempts to synthesise all the randomised data available to help better inform patient and clinician decision-making when dealing with this difficult disease. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of chemotherapy, radiotherapy or both for first-line treatment of advanced pancreatic cancer...
March 20, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552952/analysis-of-haemostasis-biomarkers-in-patients-with-advanced-stage-lung-cancer-during-hypofractionated-radiotherapy-treatment
#17
Edyta Wolny-Rokicka, Katarzyna Brzeźniakiewicz-Janus, Jerzy Wydmański, Andrzej Tukiendorf, Agnieszka Zembroń-Łacny
Objective To investigate the relationship between changes in inflammatory and coagulatory biomarkers before and after short palliative radiotherapy in patients with advanced stage lung cancer. Methods This prospective observational single-centre study enrolled patients with histologically- or cytologically-confirmed lung cancer who were eligible for palliative radiotherapy. Inflammatory and coagulatory biomarkers including complete blood count, D-dimer and fibrinogen levels were evaluated before and after short hypofractionated radiotherapy...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551903/icotinib-hydrochloride-enhances-chemo-and-radiosensitivity-by-inhibiting-egfr-signaling-and-attenuating-rad51-expression-and-function-in-hela-s3-cells
#18
Xuanxuan Wang, Yanjun Gu, Hai Liu, Liming Shi, Xiaonan Sun
Background: Radiotherapy and cisplatin-based chemotherapy are currently considered as standard treatments employed for advanced cervical cancer (CC). However, patients with local recurrence or distant metastasis continue to have poor outcomes. EGFR overexpression correlated with chemo/radioresistance, and disease failure has been well proved in the previous studies. Hence, the aim of this study was to explore the therapeutic efficacy and underlying mechanism of the sensitization to radiation or cisplatin of icotinib hydrochloride (IH), a high-selective EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), in the Hela S3 human CC cell line...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545890/microrna-148b-inhibits-proliferation-and-the-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-and-increases-radiosensitivity-in-non-small-cell-lung-carcinomas-by-regulating-rock1
#19
Haitao Luo, Caixia Liang
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for ~80% of all types of lung cancer, which has the highest morbidity and mortality of all types of cancer worldwide. It is important to identify novel biomarkers and the molecular mechanism of NSCLC to improve current treatments of NSCLC. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of miR-148b expression on the proliferation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and radiosensitivity of NSCLC cells. It was demonstrated that miR-148b expression was significantly decreased in NSCLC tissues and cell lines...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541183/linc00152-is-a-potential-biomarker-involved-in-the-modulation-of-biological-characteristics-of-residual-colorectal-cancer-cells-following-chemoradiotherapy
#20
Zhengting Chen, Xinyi Cai, Li Chang, Yaoxiong Xia, Li Wang, Yu Hou, Lan Li, Dingguo Pan, Furong Li, Shan Liu, Wei Xiong, Wenhui Li
Concurrent radiotherapy and chemotherapy is a widely used, comprehensive treatment for rectal cancer. By studying the impact of concurrent chemoradiotherapy on the invasion and migration of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells and researching the associated molecular mechanisms, the present study aimed to provide a novel method to improve the therapeutic effect of this treatment against CRC. Human HCT116 and HT29 CRC cells were simultaneously treated with 4 Gy of 6 MV X-rays and 10 µmol/l 5-fluorouracil to establish a residual cell model...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
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