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Adeleye Solomon Bakarey, Oluwaseun Deborah Olaniyan
INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection is one of the most infectious diseases worldwide and a major public health concern. In spite of efforts at controlling the scourge globally, HBV continues to thrive in developing countries, such as Nigeria due to ignorance on its mode of transmission and its asymptomatic nature in the populace. Therefore, this community-based study was carried out in Yemetu community in Ibadan, Nigeria to determine the burden of HBV infection among asymptomatic residents of this community...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Immunoassay & Immunochemistry
Sherry Shiqian Gao, Kitty Jieyi Chen, Duangporn Duangthip, Edward Chin Man Lo, Chun Hung Chu
Hong Kong, as a special administrative region of the People’s Republic of China, is a metropolitan city in Asia with a population of approximately 7.4 million. This paper reflects the oral health care situation in Hong Kong. Water fluoridation was introduced in 1961 as the primary strategy for the prevention of dental caries. The fluoride level is currently 0.5 parts per million. Dental care is mainly provided by private dentists. The government’s dentists primarily serve civil servants and their dependents, with limited emergency dental service for pain relief offered to the general public...
May 11, 2018: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
Valéria Maria de Azeredo Passos, Roberto Marini Ladeira, Cláudia Caciquinho Vieira de Souza, Itamar de Souza Santos, Sandhi Maria Barreto
INTRODUCTION: The aging of the population may lead to an increased prevalence of dementia and chronic kidney disease (CKD) and their overlap. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between CKD and cognitive performance among Brazilian adults (35-74 years). METHODS: Baseline data analysis of the Longitudinal Study of Adults (ELSA-Brasil), a multicenter cohort comprising 15,105 civil servants, was performed. Kidney function was defined by the CKD-Epi-estimated GRF and albumin creatinin ratio (ACR)...
April 26, 2018: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
Worawan Chandoevwit, Phasith Phatchana
The Thai elderly are eligible for the Civil Servant Medical Benefit Scheme (CS) or Universal Coverage Scheme (UCS) depending on their pre-retirement or their children work status. This study aimed to investigate the disparity in inpatient care expenditures in the last year of life among Thai elderly individuals who used the two public health insurance schemes. Using death registration and inpatient administrative data from 2007 to 2011, our subpopulation group included the elderly with four chronic disease groups: diabetes mellitus, hypertension and cardiovascular disease, heart disease, and cancer...
April 28, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Margot Ollivier, Francoise Paris, Pascal Philibert, Sarah Garnier, Amandine Coffy, Nadège Fauconnet-Servant, Mirna Haddad, Jean Michel Guys, Rachel Reynaud, Alice Faure, Thierry Merrot, Kathy Wagner, Jean Bréaud, Jean Stéphane Valla, Eric Dobremez, Laura Gaspari, Jean-Pierre Daures, Charles Sultan, Nicolas Kalfa
Whereas familial forms of complex disorders/differences of sex development have been widely reported, data regarding isolated hypospadias are sparse and a family history is thought to be less frequent. We aimed 1-to determine the frequency of hypospadias in families of hypospadiac boys 2-to determine if theses familial forms exhibit a particular phenotype 3-to evaluate the prevalence of genetic defects of the main candidate genes. A prospective inclusion of 395 hypospadiac boys screened for family history with a standardized questionnaire, extensive clinical description, family tree and sequencing of AR, SF1, SRD5A2 and MAMLD1 was performed...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Urology
Philippe Besnard, Jeffrey E Christensen, Hélène Brignot, Arnaud Bernard, Patricia Passilly-Degrace, Sophie Nicklaus, Jean-Paul Pais de Barros, Xavier Collet, Benjamin Lelouvier, Florence Servant, Vincent Blasco, Bruno Verges, Laurent Lagrost, Gilles Feron, Rémy Burcelin
Some obese subjects overeat lipid-rich foods. The origin of this eating behavior is unknown. We have here tested the hypothesis that these subjects could be characterized by an impaired fatty taste sensitivity linked to a change in the gustatory papillae microbial and salivary environment. The composition of microbiota and saliva surrounding the circumvallate papillae was analyzed in combination with the orosensory lipid detection threshold in normal weight (NW) and obese (O) adults. Microbial architecture was similar to what was known in feces, but with an increased frequency of Proteobacteria...
April 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
Deniz Kuscuoglu, Sabina Janciauskiene, Karim Hamesch, Johannes Haybaeck, Christian Trautwein, Pavel Strnad
In the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), hepatocytes synthesize the majority of serum proteins and this production is adjusted by complex local and systemic regulatory mechanisms. Accordingly, serum levels of hepatocyte-made proteins constitute important biomarkers that reflect both systemic processes and the status of the liver. For example, C-reactive protein is an established marker of inflammatory reaction, whereas transferrin emerges as a liver stress marker and an attractive mortality predictor. The high protein flow through the ER poses a continuous challenge that is handled by a complex proteostatic network consisting of ER folding machinery, ER stress response, ER-associated degradation and autophagy...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
Maria Del Carmen Bisi Molina, Taísa Sabrina Silva Pereira, Aline Silva Porto, Raiane Pereira Silva, Nathália Miguel Teixeira Santana, Nágela Valadão Cade, José Geraldo Mill
BACKGROUND: Evaluation of sodium and potassium intake can be carried out using different methods. Biological markers are able to capture intra and inter-individual variability and are used as separate measurements of consumption. The aim of this study was to test the validity of a single measurement of urinary sodium and potassium excretion as representative of habitual intake. DESIGN AND SETTING: Longitudinal study, federal university. METHODS: Food consumption data from a sample of adult university students and public servants (25 to 74 years old) were collected through 24-hour records and 12-hour urinary sodium and potassium excretion at five different times over a one-year period...
April 23, 2018: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
Laura Meyer, Geneviève Coste, Suzanne Sommer, Jacques Oberto, Fabrice Confalonieri, Pascale Servant, Cécile Pasternak
The <u>D</u>NA <u>d</u>amage <u>r</u>esponse gene ddrI encodes a transcription regulator belonging to the CRP (cAMP Receptor Protein) family. Cells devoid of the DdrI protein exhibit a pleiotropic phenotype, including growth defects, sensitivity to DNA damaging agents and to oxidative stress. Here, we show that the absence of DdrI protein also confers sensitivity to heat shock treatment and several genes involved in heat shock response were shown to be up-regulated in a DdrI dependent manner...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Fran Baum, Adam Graycar, Toni Delany-Crowe, Evelyne de Leeuw, Carol Bacchi, Jennie Popay, Lionel Orchard, Hal Colebatch, Sharon Friel, Colin MacDougall, Elizabeth Harris, Angela Lawless, Dennis McDermott, Matthew Fisher, Patrick Harris, Clare Phillips, Jane Fitzgerald
There is strong, and growing, evidence documenting health inequities across the world. However, most governments do not prioritize policies to encourage action on the social determinants of health and health equity. Furthermore, despite evidence concerning the benefits of joined-up, intersectoral policy to promote health and health equity, it is rare for such policy approaches to be applied systematically. To examine the usefulness of political and social science theory in understanding the reasons for this disjuncture between evidence and practice, researchers and public servants gathered in Adelaide for an Academy of the Social Sciences in Australia (ASSA) Workshop...
April 19, 2018: Health Promotion International
Thomas R Reppert, Mathieu Servant, Richard P Heitz, Jeffrey D Schall
Balancing the speed-accuracy tradeoff (SAT) is necessary for successful behavior. Using a visual search task with interleaved cues emphasizing speed or accuracy, we recently reported diverse contributions of frontal eye field (FEF) neurons instantiating salience evidence and response preparation. Here we report replication of visual search SAT performance in two macaque monkeys, new information about variation of saccade dynamics with SAT, extension of the neurophysiological investigation to describe processes in the superior colliculus, and description of the origin of search errors in this task...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Zhenxing Gong, Xinmeng Wang, Na Zhang, Miaomiao Li
Background: In order to improve subjective wellbeing of government servants engaged in environmental protection who work in high power distance in China, it is important to understand the impact mechanism of feedback. This study aims to analyze how feedback environment influences subjective wellbeing through basic psychological needs satisfaction and analyzing the moderating role of power distance. Method: The study was designed as a cross-sectional study of 492 government servants engaged in environment protection in Shandong, China...
2018: BioMed Research International
Fernanda Marcelina Silva, Luana Giatti, Roberta Carvalho de Figueiredo, Maria Del Carmen Bisi Molina, Letícia de Oliveira Cardoso, Bruce Bartholow Duncan, Sandhi Maria Barreto
OBJECTIVE: To verify if the intake of ultra-processed foods is associated with higher BMI and waist circumference (WC) among participants of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) cohort. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of the ELSA-Brasil baseline (2008-2010). Dietary information obtained through an FFQ was classified according to characteristics of food processing (NOVA) and used to estimate the percentage energy contribution from ultra-processed foods (i...
April 12, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
Jana Wäldchen, Michael Rzanny, Marco Seeland, Patrick Mäder
Current rates of species loss triggered numerous attempts to protect and conserve biodiversity. Species conservation, however, requires species identification skills, a competence obtained through intensive training and experience. Field researchers, land managers, educators, civil servants, and the interested public would greatly benefit from accessible, up-to-date tools automating the process of species identification. Currently, relevant technologies, such as digital cameras, mobile devices, and remote access to databases, are ubiquitously available, accompanied by significant advances in image processing and pattern recognition...
April 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Aline Silva-Costa, Joanna Guimarães, Dora Chor, Maria de Jesus Mendes da Fonseca, Isabela Bensenor, Itamar Santos, Sandhi Barreto, Rosane Härter Griep
PURPOSE: The study of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) associated with night work is difficult due to the long period required for conditions to manifest and the healthy-worker effect. Analyzing asymptomatic pre-clinical changes in the atherosclerotic process is a way to assess the pathways between exposure to night work and CVD. AIM: To evaluate the associations between night work and subclinical atherosclerosis measured by carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) using baseline data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)...
April 2, 2018: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
Walaiporn Patcharanarumol, Warisa Panichkriangkrai, Angkana Sommanuttaweechai, Kara Hanson, Yaowaluk Wanwong, Viroj Tangcharoensathien
Strategic purchasing is an essential health financing function. This paper compares the strategic purchasing practices of Thailand's two tax-financed health insurance schemes, the Universal Coverage Scheme (UCS) and the Civil Servant Medical Benefit Scheme (CSMBS), and identifies factors contributing to successful universal health coverage outcomes by analysing the relationships between the purchaser and government, providers and members. The study uses a cross-sectional mixed-methods design, including document review and interviews with 56 key informants...
2018: PloS One
Funmilola T Odunyemi, Chizoma M Ndikom, O Abimbola Oluwatosin
Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of nursing intervention on mothers' knowledge of cervical cancer and acceptance of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination for their adolescent daughters in Abuja, Nigeria. Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study that utilized two groups pre and post-test design. The study was carried out among civil servant mothers in Bwari (experimental group [EG]) and Kwali (control group[CG]) Area Councils of Abuja, Nigeria...
April 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Oncology Nursing
Imma Cortès-Franch, Vicenta Escribà-Agüir, Joan Benach, Lucía Artazcoz
BACKGROUND: The growing demand for labour flexibility has resulted in decreasing employment stability that could be associated with poor mental health status. Few studies have analysed the whole of the work force in considering this association since research on flexible forms of employment traditionally analyses employed and unemployed people separately. The gender division of work, and family characteristics related to employment situation, could modify its association with mental wellbeing...
April 2, 2018: BMC Public Health
Eduardo Henrique Sena Santos, Pedro José Dos Santos Neto, Itamar de Souza Santos
BACKGROUND: Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), as measured by ultrasound, has been used in large studies as a non-invasive marker for subclinical atherosclerosis. The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) is a cohort of 15,105 civil servants in six Brazilian cities that included CIMT evaluation in its baseline assessment. The aim of the present narrative review was to provide an overview of ELSA-Brasil CIMT articles published up to July 31, 2017. DESIGN AND SETTING: Narrative review of ELSA-Brasil CIMT studies using baseline assessment data...
January 2018: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
Virginie Sauvage, Laure Boizeau, Daniel Candotti, Mathias Vandenbogaert, Annabelle Servant-Delmas, Valérie Caro, Syria Laperche
Until recently, the method of choice to characterize viral diversity consisted in cloning PCR amplicons of full-length viral genomes and Sanger-sequencing of multiple clones. However, this is extremely laborious, time-consuming, and low-throughput. Next generation short-read sequencing appears also limited by its inability to directly sequence full-length viral genomes. The MinION™ device recently developed by Oxford Nanopore Technologies can be a promising alternative by applying long-read single-molecule sequencing directly to the overall amplified products generated in a PCR reaction...
2018: PloS One
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