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Laure Spieser, Mathieu Servant, Thierry Hasbroucq, Borís Burle
Both in real life and experimental settings, increasing response speed typically leads to more error-prone actions. Processes underlying such a "speed-accuracy trade-off" (SAT) are usually assumed to be purely decisional: cautiousness would be determined only by the amount of sensory evidence required to select a response. The present data challenges this largely accepted view, by directly showing that motor processes are speeded up under time pressure. In a choice reaction time task where emphasis was put either on response speed or accuracy, motor processes were investigated through the analysis of muscular activity related to response execution...
October 18, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
George P Allen, W Mark Moore, Lynette R Moser, Kathryn K Neill, Usha Sambamoorthi, Hershey S Bell
A variety of changes are facing leaders in academic pharmacy. Servant and transformational leadership have attributes that provide guidance and inspiration through these changes. Servant leadership focuses on supporting and developing the individuals within an institution, while transformational leadership focuses on inspiring followers to work towards a common goal. This article discusses these leadership styles and how they may both be ideal for leaders in academic pharmacy.
September 25, 2016: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
Christoph Gyo, Michael Boll, Dörthe Brüggmann, Doris Klingelhöfer, David Quarcoo, David A Groneberg
BACKGROUND: State-certified occupational physicians who work as civil servants in the Federal Republic of Germany are key players in the German Public Health system. They control i.e. the legal compliance in occupational health and participate in the occupational disease procedures. Despite the role model function of the German Public health system for many developing countries, this area of Public health is debated to have been hampered in the past years by a disregard concerning structural developments...
2016: Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology
Martha Ali Abdulai, Frank Baiden, George Adjei, Seth Owusu-Agyei
BACKGROUND: Over 2 billion people are infected with Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and about 240 million are chronic carriers of the virus. Chronic HBV infection is an important cause of liver cancer. The infectivity of HBV is hundred times higher than the HIV virus yet it receives comparatively little attention in public health. The study assessed knowledge and awareness of HBV among pregnant women in the Kintampo Municipality of Ghana. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in two facilities between September 2010 and November 2010...
September 2016: Ghana Medical Journal
Takahiro Higashibata, Kenji Wakai, Rieko Okada, Hiroko Nakagawa, Nobuyuki Hamajima
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to examine the associations of current smoking with five other unhealthy lifestyle behaviors among urban civil servants in Japan according to sex and occupational category. METHODS: The study included 10,232 urban civil servants in Japan who presented for a health check-up in 2011. We analyzed data on anthropometric measurements and self-reported lifestyle factors. RESULTS: Current smokers had a higher BMI than never smokers in white-collar workers, but not in blue-collar workers of both sexes...
October 3, 2016: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
Sirirat Anutrakulchai, Pisaln Mairiang, Cholatip Pongskul, Kaewjai Thepsuthammarat, Chitranon Chan-On, Bandit Thinkhamrop
BACKGROUND: Thailand has reformed its healthcare to ensure fairness and universality. Previous reports comparing the fairness among the 3 main healthcare schemes, including the Universal Coverage Scheme (UCS), the Civil Servant Medical Benefit Scheme (CSMBS) and the Social Health Insurance (SHI) have been published. They focused mainly on provision of medication for cancers and human immunodeficiency virus infection. Since chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients have a high rate of hospitalization and high risk of death, they also require special care and need more than access to medicine...
September 29, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Ying Liang, Lei Wang, Xican Yin
BACKGROUND: The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) is a commonly used screening instrument for measuring mental disorders. However, few studies have measured the mental health of Chinese professionals or explored the factor structure of the GHQ-12 through investigations of young Chinese civil servants. METHOD: This study analyses the factor structure of the GHQ-12 on young Chinese civil servants. Respondents include 1051 participants from six cities in eastern China...
September 26, 2016: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
Aimin Yan, Yigui Xiao
This study tested the influence and mechanisms of servant leadership on voice behavior, including the mediating role of psychological safety, and the moderating role of supervisor-subordinate Guanxi. Data were collected from 430 civil servants and their immediate supervisors in Changsha, China. Cross-Level investigation revealed that servant leadership had a significant influence on voice behavior, psychological safety mediated the relationship between servant leadership and voice behavior, while supervisor-subordinate Guanxi negatively moderated the relationship between servant leadership and voice behavior...
2016: SpringerPlus
Bruna Angelo Vieira, Vivian Cristine Luft, Maria Inês Schmidt, Lloyd Ellwood Chambless, Dora Chor, Sandhi Maria Barreto, Bruce Bartholow Duncan
The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is rising worldwide. Its association with alcohol intake, a major lifestyle factor, is unclear, particularly with respect to the influence of drinking with as opposed to outside of meals. We investigated the associations of different aspects of alcohol consumption with the metabolic syndrome and its components. In cross-sectional analyses of 14,375 active or retired civil servants (aged 35-74 years) participating in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), we fitted logistic regression models to investigate interactions between the quantity of alcohol, the timing of its consumption with respect to meals, and the predominant beverage type in the association of alcohol consumption with the metabolic syndrome...
2016: PloS One
Benjamin Lelouvier, Florence Servant, Sandrine Païssé, Anne-Claire Brunet, Salah Benyahya, Matteo Serino, Carine Valle, Maria Rosa Ortiz, Josep Puig, Michael Courtney, Massimo Federici, José Manuel Fernández-Real, Rémy Burcelin, Jacques Amar
OBJECTIVE: The early detection of liver fibrosis among patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an important clinical need. In view of the suggested role played by bacterial translocation in liver disease and obesity, we sought to investigate the relationship between blood microbiota and liver fibrosis in European cohorts of patients with severe obesity. DESIGN: We carried out a cross-sectional study of obese patients, well-characterized with respect to the severity of the NAFLD, in the cohort FLORINASH...
September 17, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Ramya Raman, Anantanarayanan Raman
The Government at Fort St George determined that a school for instructing and training candidates towards the titles of 'apothecary' was necessary to improve medical help to people in the 1830s. This led to the establishment of the medical school in Madras (presently Chennai) in 1835. The school got renamed as the Madras Medical College in 1850. From 1835, the Madras Medical School offered formal training to personnel to be called either 'apothecaries' or 'dressers' under the superintendence of William Mortimer, who was assisted by George Harding in teaching at the school...
March 2016: National Medical Journal of India
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 3, 2016: Veterinary Record
Thomas C Südhof
Scientists, public servants, and patient advocates alike increasingly question the validity of published scientific results, endangering the public's acceptance of science. Here, I argue that emerging flaws in the integrity of the peer review system are largely responsible. Distortions in peer review are driven by economic forces and enabled by a lack of accountability of journals, editors, and authors. One approach to restoring trust in the validity of published results may be to establish basic rules that render peer review more transparent, such as publishing the reviews (a practice already embraced by some journals) and monitoring not only the track records of authors but also of editors and journals...
August 2016: PLoS Biology
R Ladwig, A Vigo, L M G Fedeli, L E Chambless, I Bensenor, M I Schmidt, P G Vidigal, C D Castilhos, B B Duncan
Multi-center epidemiological studies must ascertain that their measurements are accurate and reliable. For laboratory measurements, reliability can be assessed through investigation of reproducibility of measurements in the same individual. In this paper, we present results from the quality control analysis of the baseline laboratory measurements from the ELSA-Brasil study. The study enrolled 15,105 civil servants at 6 research centers in 3 regions of Brazil between 2008-2010, with multiple biochemical analytes being measured at a central laboratory...
August 1, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
H Y Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 20, 2016: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
Lital Keinan-Boker, Uri Goldbourt
Previous studies, often using proxy exposure assessment and not controlling for individual risk factors, suggested higher cancer risk in Holocaust survivors. We have used individual-level data from a male cohort of Israeli civil servants recruited in 1963 to investigate cancer incidence in Holocaust survivors, controlling for potential confounders. The analysis included 4,669 Europe-born subjects; 689 exposed = E (immigrated to Israel after 1939 and reported of being in Nazi camps during World War II); 2,307 potentially exposed = PE (immigrated to Israel after 1939 and reported of not being in Nazi camps); and 1,673 non-exposed = NE (immigrated to Israel prior to 1939)...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Dóra Chor, Letícia Oliveira Cardoso, Aline Araújo Nobre, Rosane Härter Griep, Maria de Jesus Mendes Fonseca, Luana Giatti, Isabela Bensenor, Maria Del Carmen Bisi Molina, Estela M L Aquino, Ana Diez-Roux, Débora de Pina Castiglione, Simone M Santos
BACKGROUND: The study explores associations between perceived neighbourhood characteristics, physical activity and diet quality, which in Latin America and Brazil have been scarcely studied and with inconsistent results. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 14,749 individuals who participated in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto, ELSA-Brasil) baseline. The study included current and retired civil servants, aged between 35 and 74 years, from universities and research institutes in six Brazilian states...
2016: BMC Public Health
Jessica G Abell, Tobias Stalder, Jane E Ferrie, Martin J Shipley, Clemens Kirschbaum, Mika Kivimäki, Meena Kumari
Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) have been suggested to reflect long-term integrated cortisol levels, but most evidence of associations with co-variates is from small samples of healthy volunteers. The objective of this study was to describe the collection of hair samples in a large cohort study and report associations of demographic and health measures with HCC. We examined HCC measured from the 3cm hair segment near the scalp in 3507 participants (aged 59-83y) from The Whitehall II occupational cohort study of British civil servants...
November 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Annie Britton, Rebecca Hardy, Diana Kuh, John Deanfield, Marietta Charakida, Steven Bell
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence indicates a protective effect of light-moderate drinking on cardiovascular disease and an increased risk for heavier drinking. Nevertheless, the effect of alcohol on atherosclerotic changes in vessel walls is disputed. Most previous studies have only looked at the cross-sectional relationship between alcohol and carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) - a surrogate marker of atherosclerosis. Single measurements of alcohol assume that alcohol exposure is stable and ignore the possible cumulative effects of harm, leading to possibly incorrect inferences...
2016: BMC Medicine
Kamaldeep Bhui
Discrimination is a major public health issue. Discrimination is known and well recognized to be associated with poor physical and mental health, as well as creating social divisions and fear that undermines the success of society and economic progress. Policies to eradicate discrimination and prejudice in the public sphere, and in public life, need thoughtful and careful planning and engagement by all public institutions and in the way they conduct their business. This forms the basis of social justice. Employers, politicians, and public servants, as well as other stakeholders, irrespective of their professional status, all have ethical responsibilities to uphold such actions and policies, values, and supporting behaviours, as a core principle of successful societies...
August 2016: International Review of Psychiatry
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