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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437887/influence-of-sinomenine-upon-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-osteoclastogenesis
#1
Biao Zhou, Xiaolong Lu, Zhi Tang, Dan Liu, Youliang Zhou, Peng Zeng, Hui Xiong
With the advent of aging, the morbidity rates of such diseases as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and osteoporosis has witnessed a significant increase. As a common rattan drug, sinomenine (SIN) has been widely applied for the treatment of various arthritic diseases in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) clinics. Given that SIN has been reported to inhibit the expression of Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in several types of cells, in this study, the influence of SIN treatment on PGE2 expression in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), thereby changing the osteoprotegerin (OPG) receptor/activator for the nuclear factor-κ B ligand (RANKL) ratio, was investigated...
April 19, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437863/sirt3-acts-as-a-negative-regulator-of-autophagy-dictating-hepatocyte-susceptibility-to-lipotoxicity
#2
Songtao Li, Xiaobing Dou, Hua Ning, Qing Song, Wei Wei, Ximei Zhang, Chen Shen, Jiaxin Li, Changhao Sun, Zhenyuan Song
Lipotoxicity induced by saturated fatty acids (SFAs) plays a central role in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); however, the exact mechanism(s) remain to be fully elucidated. SIRT3 is an NAD(+) -dependent deacetylase primarily located inside mitochondria. In this study, we demonstrated that a SFAs-rich high-fat diet (HFD) was more detrimental to the liver than an isocaloric unsaturated FAs-rich HFD. Unexpectedly, SIRT3 expression/activity were significantly elevated in the livers of mice exposed to the SFAs-rich HFD...
April 24, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437853/inhibition-of-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling-promotes-expansion-of-human-epidermal-keratinocytes-in-feeder-cell-co-culture
#3
Daisuke Suzuki, Filipa Pinto, Makoto Senoo
Cultured epidermal autografts have been used worldwide since 1981 for patients with extensive third-degree burn wounds and limited skin donor sites. Despite significant progress in techniques toward improving clinical outcome of skin grafts, the long in vitro preparation time of cultured autografts has remained a major factor limiting its widespread use. Here, we show that pharmacological inhibition of TGF-β signaling promotes the expansion of human epidermal keratinocytes (HEKs) with high proliferative potential in co-cultures with both murine 3T3-J2 cells and human feeder cells, including dermal fibroblasts and preadipocytes...
April 24, 2017: Wound Repair and Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437852/a-diagnostic-microdosing-approach-to-investigate-platinum-sensitivity-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#4
Si-Si Wang, Maike Zimmermann, Hongyong Zhang, Tzu-Yin Lin, Michael Malfatti, Kurt Haack, Kenneth W Turteltaub, George D Cimino, Ralph de Vere White, Chong-Xian Pan, Paul T Henderson
The platinum-based drugs cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin are often used for chemotherapy, but drug resistance is common. The prediction of resistance to these drugs via genomics is a challenging problem since hundreds of genes are involved. A possible alternative is to use mass spectrometry to determine the propensity for cells to form drug-DNA adducts-the pharmacodynamic drug-target complex for this class of drugs. The feasibility of predictive diagnostic microdosing was assessed in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell culture and a pilot clinical trial...
April 24, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437599/human-%C3%AE-defensin-3-induces-il-8-release-and-apoptosis-in-airway-smooth-muscle-cells
#5
Weijia Wang, Xiaoyan Qu, Xiaomin Dang, Dong Shang, Liang Yang, Ying Li, Dan Xu, James G Martin, Qutayba Hamid, Jiankang Liu, Ying Chang
BACKGROUND: Human airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) may have a pro-inflammatory role through the release of inflammatory mediators. Increasing evidence indicates that human β-defensins (HBDs) are related to pathogenesis of asthma. OBJECTIVES: To examine the plasma level of HBD-1, -2 and -3 in asthmatic patients and the expression of their mouse orthologs in the lung tissue of a mouse model of chronic severe asthma. Further to investigate the effect of HBD-3 on the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 and to explore the mechanisms...
April 24, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437571/label-free-high-temporal-resolution-assessment-of-cell-proliferation-using-digital-holographic-microscopy
#6
Birgit Janicke, Andreas Kårsnäs, Peter Egelberg, Kersti Alm
Cell proliferation assays are widely applied in biological sciences to understand the effect of drugs over time. However, current methods often assess cell population growth indirectly, that is, the cells are not actually counted. Instead other parameters, for example, the amount of protein, are determined. These methods often also demand phototoxic labels, have low temporal resolution, or employ end-point assays, and frequently are labor intensive. We have developed a robust and label-free kinetic cell proliferation assay with high temporal resolution for adherent cells using digital holographic microscopy (DHM), one of many quantitative phase microscopy techniques...
April 24, 2017: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437437/use-of-short-interfering-rna-delivered-by-cationic-liposomes-to-enable-efficient-down-regulation-of-ptpn22-gene-in-human-t-lymphocytes
#7
Valentina Perri, Marsha Pellegrino, Francesca Ceccacci, Anita Scipioni, Stefania Petrini, Elena Gianchecchi, Anna Lo Russo, Serena De Santis, Giovanna Mancini, Alessandra Fierabracci
Type 1 diabetes and thyroid disease are T cell-dependent autoimmune endocrinopathies. The standard substitutive administration of the deficient hormones does not halt the autoimmune process; therefore, development of immunotherapies aiming to preserve the residual hormonal cells, is of crucial importance. PTPN22 C1858T mutation encoding for the R620W lymphoid tyrosine phosphatase variant, plays a potential pathophysiological role in autoimmunity. The PTPN22 encoded protein Lyp is a negative regulator of T cell antigen receptor signaling; R620W variant, leading to a gain of function with paradoxical reduced T cell activation, may represent a valid therapeutic target...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437435/infective-respiratory-syncytial-virus-is-present-in-human-cord-blood-samples-and-most-prevalent-during-winter-months
#8
Angela Mary Fonceca, Abha Chopra, Avram Levy, Paul Stanton Noakes, Matthew Wee-Peng Poh, Natasha Leanne Bear, Susan Prescott, Mark Lloyd Everard
BACKGROUND: Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) remains the most common cause of severe lower respiratory tract disease amongst infants, and continues to cause annual epidemics of respiratory disease every winter worldwide. Demonstrating placental transmission of viable RSV in human samples is a major paradigm shift in respiratory routes considered likely for RSV transmission. METHODS: Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) was used to identify RSV present in cord blood mononucleocytes (CBM)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437279/npy-impairs-cell-viability-and-mitochondrial-membrane-potential-through-ca2-and-p38-signaling-pathways-in-neonatal-rat-cardiomyocytes
#9
Jun Hu, Xuehua Xu, Yuanyi Zuo, Xiangting Gao, Yun Wang, Cunquan Xiong, Hongcheng Zhou, Shaohua Zhu
NPY is involved in stress cardiomyopathy (SCM). However, the associated mechanism for NPY-induced SCM remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to explore potential cell signaling pathways that are related to NPY-mediated cell viability in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. We found that NPY induced cell viability suppression in cultured cardiomyocytes in a dose-dependent manner. After NPY treatment, the expression of CaN and p-CAMKII was increased significantly, and the phosphorylation of p38 but not ERK and JNK was detected...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437250/ionizing-radiation-reduces-adam10-expression-in-brain-microvascular-endothelial-cells-undergoing-stress-induced-senescence
#10
Lucinda S McRobb, Matthew J McKay, Jennifer R Gamble, Michael Grace, Vaughan Moutrie, Estevam D Santos, Vivienne S Lee, Zhenjun Zhao, Mark P Molloy, Marcus A Stoodley
Cellular senescence is associated with aging and is considered a potential contributor to age-associated neurodegenerative disease. Exposure to ionizing radiation increases the risk of developing premature neurovascular degeneration and dementia but also induces premature senescence. As cells of the cerebrovascular endothelium are particularly susceptible to radiation and play an important role in brain homeostasis, we investigated radiation-induced senescence in brain microvascular endothelial cells (EC). Using biotinylation to label surface proteins, streptavidin enrichment and proteomic analysis, we analyzed the surface proteome of stress-induced senescent EC in culture...
April 17, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437187/synergy-between-choroid-plexus-epithelial-cells-conditioned-medium-and-knockout-serum-replacement-converts-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells-to-dopamine-secreting-neurons
#11
Mahdi Eskandarian Boroujeni, Mossa Gardaneh, Mehrnoosh Hasan Shahriari, Abbas Aliaghaei, Sanaz Hasani
Human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) have great capacity to differentiate into mesodermal origins as well as non-mesodermal lineages including neural cells. This valuable feature paves the way for the therapeutic application of hADSCs for neurodegenerative maladies such as Parkinson's disease (PD). We tested the capacity of Choroid Plexus epithelial cells-conditioned medium (CPEC-CM) alone or cocktailed with knock-out serum (KS) to induce dopaminergic differentiation of hADSCs. To this end, hADSCs from lipoaspirate were phenotypically characterized and shown to maintain mesodermal multipotency so selected media easily differentiated them into osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes...
March 2, 2017: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437178/a-novel-injectable-recombinant-collagen-i-peptide-based-macroporous-microcarrier-allows-superior-expansion-of-c2c12-and-human-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-and-supports-deposition-of-mineralized-matrix
#12
Davide Confalonieri, Margherita La Marca, Elisabeth Marianna Wilhelmina Maria van Dongen, Heike Walles, Franziska Ehlicke
The development of scaffold formulations based on extracellular matrix-inspired synthetic materials constitutes an important resource for the advance of cell-based therapies in bone tissue engineering approaches, where both cell and scaffold implantation are often needed. Culturing cells on porous microcarriers (MCs) allows cell expansion in a three-dimensional microenvironment and constitutes a possible solution for minimally invasive cell and scaffold simultaneous delivery, but the reduced pore dimension and pore interconnection diameter of several commercially available microcarriers limits de facto cell ingrowth, and ultimately their suitability for in vivo cell delivery...
March 3, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437133/the-impact-of-the-centrifuge-characteristics-and-centrifugation-protocols-on-the-cells-growth-factors-and-fibrin-architecture-of-a-leukocyte-and-platelet-rich-fibrin-l-prf-clot-and-membrane
#13
David M Dohan Ehrenfest, Nelson R Pinto, Andrea Pereda, Paula Jiménez, Marco Del Corso, Byung-Soo Kang, Mauricio Nally, Nicole Lanata, Hom-Lay Wang, Marc Quirynen
L-PRF (leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin) is one of the four families of platelet concentrates for surgical use and is widely used in oral and maxillofacial regenerative therapies. The first objective of this article was to evaluate the mechanical vibrations appearing during centrifugation in four models of commercially available table-top centrifuges used to produce L-PRF and the impact of the centrifuge characteristics on the cell and fibrin architecture of a L-PRF clot and membrane. The second objective of this article was to evaluate how changing some parameters of the L-PRF protocol may influence its biological signature, independently from the characteristics of the centrifuge...
April 24, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437065/a-macrocyclic-peptide-ligand-binds-the-oncogenic-microrna-21-precursor-and-suppresses-dicer-processing
#14
Matthew D Shortridge, Matthew J Walker, Tom Pavelitz, Yu Chen, Gabriele Varani
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) help orchestrate cellular growth and survival through post-transcriptional mechanisms. The dysregulation of miRNA biogenesis can lead to cellular growth defects, chemotherapeutic resistance and plays a direct role in the development of many chronic diseases. Among these RNAs, miR-21 is consistently overexpressed in most human cancers leading to the down regulation of key tumor suppressing and pro-apoptotic factors; suggesting that inhibition of miR-21 biogenesis could reverse these negative effects...
April 24, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437032/autonomic-receptor-mediated-regulation-of-production-and-release-of-nitric-oxide-in-normal-and-malignant-human-urothelial-cells
#15
Michael Winder, Renata Vesela, Patrik Aronsson, Bhavik Patel, Thomas Carlsson
In the urinary bladder, the main source of NO seems to be the urothelium and the underlying suburothelium. In this study, we aimed to characterize how receptors in the human urothelium regulate the production and release of NO. For this, we cultured two human urothelial cell lines - the normal immortalized cell line UROtsa and the malignant cell line T24. These were treated with an array of agonists and antagonists with affinity for adrenergic, muscarinic and purinergic receptors. The production of NO and expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) was studied by immunocytochemistry and western blotting...
April 24, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437016/electromechanical-nanogenerator-cell-interaction-modulates-cell-activity
#16
Gonzalo Murillo, Andreu Blanquer, Carolina Vargas-Estevez, Lleonard Barrios, Elena Ibáñez, Carme Nogués, Jaume Esteve
Noninvasive methods for in situ electrical stimulation of human cells open new frontiers to future bioelectronic therapies, where controlled electrical impulses could replace the use of chemical drugs for disease treatment. Here, this study demonstrates that the interaction of living cells with piezoelectric nanogenerators (NGs) induces a local electric field that self-stimulates and modulates their cell activity, without applying an additional chemical or physical external stimulation. When cells are cultured on top of the NGs, based on 2D ZnO nanosheets, the electromechanical NG-cell interactions stimulate the motility of macrophages and trigger the opening of ion channels present in the plasma membrane of osteoblast-like cells (Saos-2) inducing intracellular calcium transients...
April 24, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436965/a-three-dimensional-model-of-human-lung-development-and-disease-from-pluripotent-stem-cells
#17
Ya-Wen Chen, Sarah Xuelian Huang, Ana Luisa Rodrigues Toste de Carvalho, Siu-Hong Ho, Mohammad Naimul Islam, Stefano Volpi, Luigi D Notarangelo, Michael Ciancanelli, Jean-Laurent Casanova, Jahar Bhattacharya, Alice F Liang, Laura M Palermo, Matteo Porotto, Anne Moscona, Hans-Willem Snoeck
Recapitulation of lung development from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) in three dimensions (3D) would allow deeper insight into human development, as well as the development of innovative strategies for disease modelling, drug discovery and regenerative medicine. We report here the generation from hPSCs of lung bud organoids (LBOs) that contain mesoderm and pulmonary endoderm and develop into branching airway and early alveolar structures after xenotransplantation and in Matrigel 3D culture. Expression analysis and structural features indicated that the branching structures reached the second trimester of human gestation...
April 24, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436958/local-clearance-of-senescent-cells-attenuates-the-development-of-post-traumatic-osteoarthritis-and-creates-a-pro-regenerative-environment
#18
Ok Hee Jeon, Chaekyu Kim, Remi-Martin Laberge, Marco Demaria, Sona Rathod, Alain P Vasserot, Jae Wook Chung, Do Hun Kim, Yan Poon, Nathaniel David, Darren J Baker, Jan M van Deursen, Judith Campisi, Jennifer H Elisseeff
Senescent cells (SnCs) accumulate in many vertebrate tissues with age and contribute to age-related pathologies, presumably through their secretion of factors contributing to the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Removal of SnCs delays several pathologies and increases healthy lifespan. Aging and trauma are risk factors for the development of osteoarthritis (OA), a chronic disease characterized by degeneration of articular cartilage leading to pain and physical disability. Senescent chondrocytes are found in cartilage tissue isolated from patients undergoing joint replacement surgery, yet their role in disease pathogenesis is unknown...
April 24, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436711/mir-33b-5p-sensitizes-gastric-cancer-cells-to-chemotherapy-drugs-via-inhibiting-hmga2-expression
#19
Xiaoyan Yang, Qian Zhao, Huali Yin, Xiaoyong Lei, Runliang Gan
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are internal, noncoding, and ∼22 nt small RNAs that display cell- and tissue-specific expression. They play important regulatory roles in cell proliferation and chemo-sensitivity. This study focused on tumor-suppressive miR-33b-5p expression as well as its role in gastric cancer. MiR-33b-5p was found low expression in gastric cancer cell lines. Functionally, western blots and the luciferase reporter assay were used to confirme that HMGA2 was the potential target of miR-33b-5p. Next, we used CCK-8 kits to analyze the effect of miR-33b-5p combined chemotherapy drugs on cell inhibition rate, and flow cytometry to analyze cells apoptosis...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Drug Targeting
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436616/reduced-infectivity-of-waterborne-viable-but-nonculturable-helicobacter-pylori-strain-ss1-in-mice
#20
Kevin F Boehnke, Kathryn A Eaton, Clinton Fontaine, Rebecca Brewster, Jianfeng Wu, Joseph N S Eisenberg, Manuel Valdivieso, Laurence H Baker, Chuanwu Xi
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori infection has been consistently associated with lack of access to clean water and proper sanitation, but no studies have demonstrated that the transmission of viable but nonculturable (VBNC) H. pylori can occur from drinking contaminated water. In this study, we used a laboratory mouse model to test whether waterborne VBNCH. pylori could cause gastric infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed five mouse experiments to assess the infectivity of VBNCH...
April 24, 2017: Helicobacter
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