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Raquel Tonello, Camilla Fusi, Serena Materazzi, Ilaria M Marone, Francesco De Logu, Silvia Benemei, Muryel C Gonçalves, Elisabetta Coppi, Celio J Castro-Junior, Marcus Vinicius Gomez, Pierangelo Geppetti, Juliano Ferreira, Romina Nassini
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Peptides from venomous animals have long been important tools for understanding pain mechanisms and for the discovery of pain treatments. Here, we hypothesized that Phα1β, a peptide purified from the armed spider Phoneutria nigriventer venom, produces analgesia by blocking the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Cultured rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, human IMR90 fibroblasts or HEK293 cells expressing the human TRPA1 (hTRPA1-HEK293), TRPV1 (hTRPV1-HEK293) or TRPV4 (hTRPV4-HEK293), were used for calcium imaging and electrophysiology...
October 19, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Jian Zhang, Guixin Chou, Zhijun Liu, Mei Liu
AIM: To examine if rubusoside (RUB) can overcome insolubility of betulonic acid (BEA), it can be accurately evaluated for its intrinsic activity against cancer in cell culture and in tumor animal models. MATERIALS & METHODS: By processing RUB and BEA together using a solvent evaporation method, a joint nanoparticulate structure is formed, designated as BEA-NP. RESULTS: BEA-NP was found over three-times more permeable than that solubilized by DMSO in Caco-2 cell monocultures...
October 19, 2016: Nanomedicine
Fengyang Xu, Jie Liu, Jian Tian, Lingfeng Gao, Xiaju Cheng, Yue Pan, Ziling Sun, Xinming Li
In this work, we reported the generation of a novel supramolecular hydrogelator from a peptide derivative which consisted of a structural motif (e.g., Fc-FF) for supramolecular self-assembly and a functional moiety (e.g., RGD) for integrin binding. Following self-assembly in water at neutral pH, this molecule firstly tended to form metastable spherical aggregates, which subsequently underwent a morphological transformation to form high-aspect-ratio nanostructures over 2 h when aged at room temperature. More importantly, because of the presence of nanoscale RGD clusters on the surface of nanostructures, the self-assembled nanomaterials (e...
October 19, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jia-Ying Zhang, Ying Yin, Li Ni, Quan Long, Li You, Qian Zhang, Shan-Yan Lin, Jing Chen
Low-protein diet plus ketoacids (LPD+KA) has been reported to decrease proteinuria in patients with chronic kidney diseases (CKD). However, the mechanisms have not been clarified. As over-activation of intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been shown to play a key role in the progression of CKD, the current study was performed to investigate the direct effects of LPD+KA on intrarenal RAS, independently of renal haemodynamics. In this study, 3/4 subtotal renal ablated rats were fed 18 % normal-protein diet (Nx-NPD), 6 % low-protein diet (Nx-LPD) or 5 % low-protein diet plus 1 % ketoacids (Nx-LPD+KA) for 12 weeks...
October 18, 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Timo J Autio, Timo Koskenkorva, Tuomo K Leino, Petri Koivunen, Olli-Pekka Alho
OBJECTIVE: To illuminate the pathophysiology of acute rhinosinusitis (ARS) with sequential monitoring of inflammatory biomarkers during an ARS episode and to clarify their diagnostic usability in bacterial ARS. STUDY DESIGN: Inception cohort study with 50 conscripts with ARS. METHODS: We collected peripheral blood high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), white blood cell (WBC), procalcitonin, and nasal nitric oxide (nNO) counts at 2 to 3 and 9 to 10 days of symptoms during an ARS episode...
October 18, 2016: Laryngoscope
Olga I Podgornaya, Irina N Vasilyeva, Vladimir G Bespalov
Only limited sequencing data of the normal extracellular DNA (ecDNA) are currently available. The uptake of the ecDNA by cultured cells and its integration into the host chromatin have been demonstrated. A number of membrane-bearing vesicles in plasma and serum have been shown to carry nucleic acids. The presence of Tandem Repeat (TR) in both apoptotic DNA of HUVEC culture medium and membrane-associated DNA is shown. The existence and successful application of CREST serum also show the presence of fragments of the centromeric heterochromatin together with their TR and specific proteins in blood...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Abel Jacobus Bronkhorst, Johannes F Wentzel, Janine Aucamp, Etresia van Dyk, Lissinda H du Plessis, Piet J Pretorius
Non-invasive screening that utilizes cell-free DNA (cfDNA) offers remarkable potential as a method for the early detection of genetic disorders and a wide variety of cancers. Unfortunately, one of the most prominent elements delaying the translation of cfDNA analyses to clinical practice is the lack of knowledge regarding its origin and composition. The elucidation of the origin of cfDNA is complicated by the apparently arbitrary variability of quantitative and qualitative characteristics of cfDNA in the blood of healthy as well as diseased individuals...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
M Gálfi, M Radács, Zs Molnár, I Budai, G Tóth, A Pósa, K Kupai, Z Szalai, R Szabó, H A Molnár, J Gardi, Ferenc A László, Cs Varga
The effects of ghrelin on vasopressin and oxytocin secretion were studied in 13-14-day cell cultures of isolated rat neurohypophyseal tissue. The vasopressin and oxytocin contents of the supernatant were determined by radioimmunoassay after a 1- or 2-h incubation. Significantly increased levels of vasopressin and oxytocin production were detected in the cell culture media following ghrelin administration, depending on the ghrelin doses. The oxytocin level proved to be more elevated than that of vasopressin...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Jonas Magno Santos Cesário, Rodrigo Barbosa Oliveira Brito, Camila Soares Malta, Chrisna Souza Silva, Yves Silva Teles Matos, Tânia Cristina Macedo Kunz, Jessica Julioti Urbano, Luis Vicente Franco Oliveira, Maria Aparecida Dalboni, Humberto Dellê
Angiogenesis is an essential process for the establishment, development, and dissemination of several malignant tumors including bladder cancer. The hypoxic condition promotes the stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α), which translocates to the nucleus to mediate angiogenic factors including the vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A). AnaeroGen system was developed for microbiology area to create a low oxygen tension required to the growth of anaerobic bacteria. Here, we hypothesized the use of AnaeroGen system to induce hypoxia in T24 human bladder carcinoma cells, in order to promote the overexpression of VEGF-A...
October 17, 2016: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
Shuang Chen, Jie Yan, Hai-Xiao Deng, Ling-Ling Long, Yong-Jun Hu, Mi Wang, Lei Shang, Dan Chen, Ju-Fang Huang, Kun Xiong
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of inhibition of calpain on retinal ganglion cell-5 (RGC-5) necroptosis following oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD). RGC-5 cells were cultured in Dulbecco's-modified essential medium and necroptosis was induced by 8-h OGD. PI staining and flow cytometry were performed to detect RGC-5 necrosis. The calpain expression was detected by Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining. The calpain activity was tested by activity detection kit. Flow cytometry was used to detect the effect of calpain on RGC-5 necroptosis following OGD with or without N-acetyl-leucyl-leucyl-norleucinal (ALLN) pre-treatment...
October 2016: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
Serap Sunar, Mustafa Anar, Meryem Sengul, Guleray Agar
In this research, the genotoxic and antigenotoxic effects of methanol extract of Sempervivum armenum (MSA) were studied using micronucleus (MN) test and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) test systems in cultured human peripheral blood cells. According to the SCE and MN tests results, MSA reduced the genotoxic effects of aflatoxin B1. In order to explain the reason for the antigenotoxic effects of MSA, antioxidants levels were determined. Cotreatments of 5, 10, 20 mg/mL concentrations of MSA with aflatoxin B1 decreased the frequencies of SCE, MN and the malondialdehyde level and increased the amount of superoxide dismutase, glutathione and glutathione peroxidase which were decreased by aflatoxin...
October 18, 2016: Cytotechnology
Ulvi K Gursoy, Mervi Gursoy, Eija Könönen, Herman O Sintim, Veli-Jukka Uitto, Stina Syrjänen
In construction of epithelial cells as multilayers, the cells are grown submerged to confluence on fibroblast-embedded collagen gels and, then, lifted to air to promote their stratification. We recently demonstrated that gingival epithelial cells form uniform monolayers on semi-permeable nitrocellulose membranes, supported with a semi-solid growth medium, which allows the cells to grow at an air-liquid-solid interface from the beginning of the culturing protocol. In this study, the aim was to further develop our previous model to form a multilayered gingival epithelial culture model...
October 17, 2016: Cytotechnology
Lien M Dos Santos, Tatiane M da Silva, Juliana H Azambuja, Priscila T Ramos, Pathise S Oliveira, Elita F da Silveira, Nathalia S Pedra, Kennia Galdino, Carlus A T do Couto, Mayara S P Soares, Rejane G Tavares, Roselia M Spanevello, Francieli M Stefanello, Elizandra Braganhol
Methionine is an essential amino acid involved in critical metabolic process, and regulation of methionine flux through metabolism is important to supply this amino acid for cell needs. Elevation in plasma methionine commonly occurs due to mutations in methionine-metabolizing enzymes, such as methionine adenosyltransferase. Hypermethioninemic patients exhibit clinical manifestations, including neuronal and liver disorders involving inflammation and tissue injury, which pathophysiology is not completely established...
October 17, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Su Jin Kang, Ji Yeon Seo, Kye Man Cho, Chang Kwon Lee, Jeong Hwan Kim, Jong-Sang Kim
A new type of doenjang was manufactured by mixing soaked soybean, koji (Rhizopus oryzae), cheonggukjang (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens MJ1-4 and B. amyloliquefaciens EMD17), and Pichia farinosa SY80 as a yeast, salt, and water, followed by fermentation with koji that was made by fermenting whole wheat with R. oryzae. The mixed culture doenjang was designed to have a more palatable flavor and stronger biological activities than the conventional product. The extract of mixed culture doenjang showed higher antioxidant activity than the commercial doenjang as evaluated by the ferric reducing antioxidant power assay although it was not significantly different from the commercial product in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical scavenging activities...
September 2016: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
Ryan P Brothers, Steven D Daveluy
A 61 year old immunosuppressed male presented with a non-healing wound following a rose thorn injury. Initial cultures revealed Candida parapsilosis, however histology confirmed squamous cell carcinoma in-situ (SCCis). This case emphasizes the importance of biopsy and cultures as fungal infection and SCCis often have similar, non-specific clinical appearances.
2016: IDCases
Petra Kraus, Thomas Lufkin
The adult bovine (Bos taurus) intervertebral disc is primarily comprised of two major tissue types: The outer annulus fibrosus (AF) and the central nucleus pulposus (NP). We isolated several primary cell lineages of passage (P) 0 cells from the AF tissue omitting typically used enzymatic tissue digestion protocols. The cells grow past p10 without signs of senescence in DMEM + 10% FCS on 0.1% gelatin coated/uncoated surfaces of standard cell culture plates and survive freeze-thawing. Preliminary analysis of the AF derived cells for expression of the two structural genes Col1a1 and Col2a1 was performed by PISH recapitulating the expression observed in vivo...
December 2016: Genomics Data
J Hu, X Y Zou, H Zhuang, X J Gao
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of three root canal sealers with respect to time on biocompatibility of human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs).The sealers included zinc oxide and eugenol based sealers (ZOE), epoxy resin sealers (ERS) and silicone based sealers (SBS). METHODS: hPDLCs were primarily cultured,with the method combining of tissue explant and enzymatic digestion. The cells were then exposed to different extract fluids: (1) ZOE extracted for 24 h group ;(2) ZOE extracted for 1 week group;(3)ZOE extracted for 2 weeks group;(4) ERS extracted after 24 h group; (5) ERS extracted after 1 week group; (6) ERS extracted after 2 weeks group; (7) SBS extracted after 24 h group; (8) SBS extracted after 1 week group; (9) SBS extracted after 2 weeks group; (10) Dulbecco modified Eagle's medium/F12 (DMEM/F12) as negative control group...
October 18, 2016: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
Amin Hassanzadeh-Barforoushi, Jonathan Shemesh, Nona Farbehi, Mohsen Asadnia, Guan Heng Yeoh, Richard P Harvey, Robert E Nordon, Majid Ebrahimi Warkiani
Regulation of tissue development and repair depends on communication between neighbouring cells. Recent advances in cell micro-contact printing and microfluidics have facilitated the in-vitro study of homotypic and heterotypic cell-cell interaction. Nonetheless, these techniques are still complicated to perform and as a result, are seldom used by biologists. We report here development of a temporarily sealed microfluidic stamping device which utilizes a novel valve design for patterning two adherent cell lines with well-defined interlacing configurations to study cell-cell interactions...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Xuehua Shao, Duo Lai, Ling Zhang, Hanhong Xu
Azadirachtin is one of the most effective botanical insecticides and has been widely used in pest control. Toxicological reports show that azadirachtin can induce apoptosis in various insect cell lines. However, studies of azadirachtin-induced autophagy in cultured insect cells are lacking. This study reports that azadirachtin A significantly inhibits cell proliferation by inducing autophagic and apoptotic cell death in Spodoptera litura cultured cell line (SL-1 cell). Characteristic autophagolysosome and Atg8-PE (phosphatidylethanolamine) accumulation were observed by electron microscopy and western blotting, indicating that azadirachtin triggered autophagy in SL-1 cell...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Juan A Montero, Cristina Sanchez-Fernandez, Carlos I Lorda-Diez, Juan A Garcia-Porrero, Juan M Hurle
DNA damage independent of caspase activation accompanies programmed cell death in different vertebrate embryonic organs. We analyzed the significance of DNA damage during the regression of the interdigital tissue, which sculpts the digits in the embryonic limb. Interdigit remodeling involves oxidative stress, massive apoptosis and cell senescence. Phosphorylation of H2AX mediated by ATM precedes caspase dependent apoptosis and cell senescence during interdigit regression. The association of γH2AX with other downstream DNA repair factors, including MDC1, Rad50 and 53BP1 suggests a defensive response of cells against DNA damage...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
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