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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679930/mixed-culture-polyhydroxyalkanoate-pha-synthesis-from-nutrient-rich-wet-oxidation-liquors
#1
Suren Wijeyekoon, Carlo R Carere, Mark West, Shresta Nath, Daniel Gapes
Organic waste residues can be hydrothermally treated to produce organic acid rich liquors. These hydrothermal liquors are a potential feedstock for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production. We investigated the effect of dissolved oxygen concentration and substrate feeding regimes on PHA accumulation and yield using two hydrothermal liquors derived from a mixture of primary and secondary municipal wastewater treatment sludge and food waste. The enriched culture accumulated a maximum of 41% PHA of cell dry weight within 7 h; which is among the highest reported for N and P rich hydrothermal liquors...
April 12, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679904/tanshinone-iia-protects-murine-chondrogenic-atdc5-cells-from-lipopolysaccharide-induced-inflammatory-injury-by-down-regulating-microrna-203a
#2
Luan Luan, Zhiyuan Liang
BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis is the most common bone-joint disease in middle and older people all over the world. Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA) is the main lipophilic diterpenoid isolated from the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Lamiaceae). This study analyzed the protective effects of Tan IIA on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced murine chondrogenic ATDC5 cell inflammatory injury model. METHODS: Cell viability was assessed using cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. Cell apoptosis was detected using Annexin V-FITC/PI staining...
April 18, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679854/thymol-attenuates-the-worsening-of-atopic-dermatitis-induced-by-staphylococcus-aureus-membrane-vesicles
#3
Hyo Il Kwon, Na Hee Jeong, So Hyun Jun, Joo Hee Son, Shukho Kim, Hyejin Jeon, Sun Chul Kang, Sang Hyun Kim, Je Chul Lee
Staphylococcus aureus membrane vesicles (MVs) aggravate atopic dermatitis (AD) through the delivery of bacterial effector molecules to host cells and the stimulation of inflammatory responses. This study investigated the inhibitory effect of thymol, a phenolic monoterpene found in essential oils derived from plants, on the worsening of AD induced by S. aureus MVs both in vitro and in vivo. The sub-minimal inhibitory concentrations of thymol disrupted S. aureus MVs. Intact S. aureus MVs induced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine (interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α) and chemokine (IL-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) genes in cultured keratinocytes, whereas thymol-treated S...
April 18, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679807/fish-sarcoplasmic-proteins-as-a-high-value-marine-material-for-wound-dressing-applications
#4
Sara Vieira, Albina R Franco, Emanuel M Fernandes, Sara Amorim, Helena Ferreira, Ricardo A Pires, Rui L Reis, Albino Martins, Nuno M Neves
Fish sarcoplasmic proteins (FSP) constitute around 25-30% of the total fish muscle protein. As the FSP are water soluble, FSP were isolated from fresh cod (Gadus morhua) by centrifugation. By SDS-PAGE, it was possible to determine the composition of FSP extracts (FSP-E). The FSP-E undergo denaturation at 44.12 ± 2.34° C, as characterized by differential scanning calorimetry thermograms (DSC). The secondary structure of FSP-E is mainly composed by α-helix structure, as determined by circular dichroism...
April 5, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679785/implications-in-studies-of-environmental-risk-assessments-does-culture-medium-influence-the-results-of-toxicity-tests-of-marine-bacteria
#5
Alejandra Díaz-García, Ana R Borrero-Santiago, Inmaculada Riba
Two marine bacterial populations (Roseobacter sp. and Pseudomonas litoralis) were exposed to different concentrations of zinc (300, 625, 1250, 2000, 2500 and 5000 mg L-1 ) and cadmium (75, 250, 340, 500 and 1000 mg L-1 ) using two culture media (full nutrient Marine Broth 2216 "MB" and 1:10 (vol/vol) dilution with seawater of Marine Broth 2216 "MBSW "), in order to assess population responses depending on the culture medium and also potential adverse effects associated with these two metals...
April 14, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679758/validation-and-bioinformatic-analysis-of-propofol-induced-differentially-expressed-micrornas-in-primary-cultured-neural-stem-cells
#6
Yan Li, Youtan Liu, Jun Fan, Quan Zhou, Xiuling Song, Zhiyong Peng, Zaisheng Qin, Tao Tao
Propofol, a widely used intravenous anesthetic, was previously considered as a neuroprotective agent. Recently, however, accumulating evidence suggests that it may cause neurotoxicity, especially in the development of neural stem cells (NSCs). The potential mechanisms contributing to propofol-induced neurotoxicity during neurogenesis, such as those involving microRNAs (miRNAs), are still unknown. In this study, a total of 27 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified in our initial screen and 6 miRNAs were validated by qRT-PCR...
April 18, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679753/daidzein-rich-isoflavone-aglycones-inhibit-cell-growth-and-inflammation-in-endometriosis
#7
O Takaoka, T Mori, F Ito, H Okimura, H Kataoka, Y Tanaka, A Koshiba, I Kusuki, S Shigehiro, T Amami, J Kitawaki
Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent disease, and isoflavones interact with estrogen receptors. The purposes of this study are to investigate the in vitro and in vivo effects of daidzein-rich isoflavone aglycones (DRIAs), dietary supplements, on cellular proliferation in endometriosis. Stromal cells isolated from ovarian endometrioma (OESCs) and normal endometrium (NESCs) were cultured with DRIAs, i.e., each of the DRIA components (daidzein, genistein, or glycitein), or isoflavone glycosides (IG; DRIA precursors)...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679717/stat-3-regulation-of-cxcr4-is-necessary-for-the-prenylflavonoid-icaritin-to-enhance-mesenchymal-stem-cell-proliferation-migration-and-osteogenic-differentiation
#8
R Z L Lim, L Li, E L Yong, N Chew
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. MSCs derived from osteoporotic subjects demonstrate significant impairment in proliferation, adhesion and chemotaxis, and osteogenic differentiation, leading to reduced functional bone-forming osteoblasts and ultimately nett bone loss and osteoporosis. Epimedium herbs and its active compound Icaritin (ICT) have been used in Chinese ethnopharmacology for the treatment of metabolic bone diseases. Using an in-vitro cell culture model, we investigated the benefits of ICT treatment in enhancing MSC proliferation, migration and osteogenic differentiation, and provide novel data to describe its mechanism of action...
April 18, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679712/evaluating-the-genotoxicity-of-cellulose-nanofibrils-in-a-co-culture-of-human-lung-epithelial-cells-and-monocyte-derived-macrophages
#9
Célia Ventura, Ana Filipa Lourenço, António Sousa-Uva, Paulo J T Ferreira, Maria João Silva
Cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) are manufactured nanofibres that hold impressive expectations in forest, food, pharmaceutical, and biomedical industries. CNF production and applications are leading to an increased human exposure and thereby it is of utmost importance to assess its safety to health. In this study, we screened the cytotoxic, immunotoxic and genotoxic effects of a CNF produced by TEMPO-mediated oxidation of an industrial bleached Eucalyptus globulus kraft pulp on a co-culture of lung epithelial alveolar (A549) cells and monocyte-derived macrophages (THP-1 cells)...
April 18, 2018: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679684/expression-profile-and-reproductive-regulation-of-apgwamide-in-pacific-abalone-haliotis-discus-hannai
#10
Kyeong Seop Kim, Tae Ha Kim, Mi Ae Kim, Jung Sick Lee, Young Chang Sohn
Neuropeptides in the central nervous system regulate reproductive activities in vertebrates. Ala-Pro-Gly-Trp-NH2 (APGWamide), a neuromediator expressed in the neural ganglia of mollusks, controls sexual maturation and reproduction. To clarify the role of APGWamide in sexual behavior regulation and gamete cell maturation in mollusks, we cloned the cDNA of APGWamide precursor (Hdh-APGWamide) and examined the spatiotemporal expression of the transcript in the Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai. The 222-amino acid sequence of the precursor deduced from the cDNA sequence showed typical features of gastropod APGWamide precursors...
April 18, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679679/activation-of-cyclic-gmp-dependent-protein-kinase-blocks-alcohol-mediated-cell-death-and-calcium-disruption-in-cerebellar-granule-neurons
#11
Dimitrios E Kouzoukas, Ramesh C Bhalla, Nicholas J Pantazis
Alcohol during brain development leads to the widespread neuronal death observed in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). In comparison, the mature brain is less vulnerable to alcohol. Studies into maturation-acquired alcohol resistance uncovered a protective mechanism that reduces alcohol-induced neuronal death through nitric oxide-cGMP-cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (NO-cGMP-cGK) signaling. However, the downstream processes underlying this neuroprotection remain unclear. Alcohol can disrupt levels of intracellular calcium ([Ca2+ ]i ) in vulnerable neuronal populations to trigger cell death in both in vivo and in vitro models of FASD...
April 18, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679653/effects-of-selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors-ssris-on-human-villous-trophoblasts-syncytialization
#12
Hélène Clabault, Denis Flipo, Jean Guibourdenche, Thierry Fournier, Thomas Sanderson, Cathy Vaillancourt
Selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most commonly prescribed antidepressants during pregnancy. The human placenta is a highly specialized organ supporting normal growth and development of the fetus. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the effects of SSRIs on villous cytotrophoblasts cells, using BeWo cells and human placental trophoblast cells in primary culture. The SSRIs fluoxetine and its metabolite norfluoxetine, sertraline and venlafaxine did not affect BeWo cell proliferation and viability, nor the percentage of M30-positive (apoptotic) primary trophoblast cells...
April 18, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679638/inhibition-of-immunoproteasome-promotes-angiogenesis-via-enhancing-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-abundance-in-rats-following-focal-cerebral-ischaemia
#13
Xingyong Chen, Xu Zhang, Ting Chen, Xiulong Jiang, Xiaosong Wang, Huixin Lei, Yinzhou Wang
Angiogenesis after ischemic stroke contributes to the restoration of blood supply in the ischemic zone. Strategies to improve angiogenesis may facilitate the function recovery after stroke. Growing evidence shows that proteasome inhibitors enhance angioneurogenesis and induces a long-term neuroprotection after cerebral ischemia in rodents' models. We have previously reported that inhibition of the immunoproteasome subunit low molecular mass peptide 2 (LMP2) offers a strong neuroprotection in ischemic stroke rats...
April 18, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679571/metformin-ameliorates-tgf-%C3%AE-1-induced-osteoblastic-differentiation-of-human-aortic-valve-interstitial-cells-by-inhibiting-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#14
Liu Fayuan, Chu Chong, Wei Qinyu, Shi Jiawei, Li Huadong, Dong Nianguo
Osteoblastic differentiation of aortic valve interstitial cells (AVICs) is the central process in the development of calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD). Metformin is a widely used first-line antidiabetic drug, and recently, pleiotropic benefits of metformin beyond hypoglycemia have been reported in the cardiovascular system. Here, we examined the effect of metformin on the osteoblastic differentiation of human AVICs. Our results showed that metformin ameliorated TGF-β1-induced production of osteogenic proteins Runx2 and osteopontin as well as calcium deposition in the cultured human AVICs...
April 18, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679566/matrix-stiffness-regulate-apoptotic-cell-death-in-hiv-hcv-co-infected-hepatocytes-importance-for-liver-fibrosis-progression
#15
Murali Ganesan, Raghubendra Singh Dagur, Edward Makarov, Larisa I Poluektova, Srivatsan Kidambi, Natalia A Osna
HIV-HCV co-infection causes rapid progression of liver fibrosis. These outcomes to liver cirrhosis can be improved, but not stopped by specific antiviral therapies. Due to high significance of HIV-HCV interactions for morbidity and mortality in co-infected patients, our attention was attracted to the multi-component pathogenesis of fibrosis progression as the transition to end-stage liver disease development. In this study, we hypothesize that increased matrix stiffness enhances apoptosis in HCV-HIV-co-infected hepatocytes and that capturing of apoptotic bodies (AB) derived from these infected hepatocytes by hepatic stellate cells (HSC) drives the fibrosis progression...
April 18, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679562/myotube-derived-factor-promotes-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cell-proliferation
#16
Akino Nakasone, Rieko Muramatsu, Yuki Kato, Yukio Kawahara, Toshihide Yamashita
Muscle cells secrete numerous molecules that function as endocrine hormones and regulate the functions of distant organs. Myelination in the central nervous system (CNS) is regulated by peripheral hormones. However, the effects of muscle-derived molecules on myelination have not been sufficiently analyzed. In this study, we show that muscle-releasing factors promote proliferation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), which is an element of myelination process. Supernatants of mouse myotube cultures stimulated bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation into mouse OPCs...
April 18, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679536/curcumin-formulated-in-solid-lipid-nanoparticles-has-enhanced-efficacy-in-hodgkin-s-lymphoma-in-mice
#17
Jacob Guorgui, Ruixue Wang, George Mattheolabakis, Gerardo G Mackenzie
Curcumin reduces Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) cell growth in vitro, but its unfavorable pharmacokinetics highlight the need for novel in vivo delivery systems. Thus, we explored whether formulation of curcumin in solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN-curc) or d-α-Tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) nanoparticles (TPGS-curc) could enhance its efficacy in mice. Curcumin formulated in SLN and in TPGS resulted in higher curcumin plasma levels in mice. Compared to vehicle-treated controls, SLN-curc and TPGS-curc reduced HL xenograft growth by 50...
April 18, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679507/novel-inhibitors-of-the-cellular-ras-components-poricoic-acids-target-smad3-phosphorylation-and-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway-against-renal-fibrosis
#18
Ming Wang, Dan-Qian Chen, Lin Chen, Gang Cao, Hui Zhao, Dan Liu, Nosratola D Vaziri, Yan Guo, Ying-Yong Zhao
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Tubulo-interstitial fibrosis is the final pathway of progression of CKD to ESRD. Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a major role in CKD progression. Present study demonstrates efficacy of the novel RAS inhibitors isolated from Poria cocos against renal fibrosis. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The effect of three novel tetracyclic triterpenoid compounds poricoic acid ZC (PZC), poricoic acid ZD (PZD) and poricoic acid ZE (PZE) was investigated on TGF-β1- and angiotensin II (AngII)-treated HK-2 cells and UUO mice...
April 21, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679475/chemically-controlled-aggregation-of-pluripotent-stem-cells
#19
Yonatan Y Lipsitz, Peter Tonge, Peter W Zandstra
Heterogeneity in pluripotent stem cell (PSC) aggregation leads to variability in mass transfer and signaling gradients between aggregates, which results in heterogeneous differentiation and therefore variability in product quality and yield. We have characterized a chemical based method to control aggregate size within a specific, tunable range with low heterogeneity, thereby reducing process variability in PSC expansion. This method enables controlled, scalable, stirred suspension based manufacturing of PSC cultures which are critical for the translation of regenerative medicine strategies to clinical products...
April 21, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679468/high-efficiency-affinity-precipitation-of-multiple-industrial-mabs-and-fc-fusion-proteins-from-cell-culture-harvests-using-z-elp-e2-nanocages
#20
Andrew R Swartz, Xuankuo Xu, Steven J Traylor, Zheng Jian Li, Wilfred Chen
Affinity precipitation using Z-ELP-E2 nanocages has been shown to be a promising alternative to Protein A chromatography for monoclonal antibody (mAb) purification. We have previously described a high-yielding, affinity precipitation process capable of rapidly capturing mAbs from cell culture through spontaneous, multi-valent crosslinking into large aggregates. To challenge the capabilities of this technology, nanocage affinity precipitation was investigated using four industrial mAbs (mAbs A-D) and one Fc fusion protein (Fc A) with diverse molecular properties...
April 21, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
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