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Ashley I Huppe, Anita K Mehta, Rachel F Brem
Molecular breast imaging (MBI), also called breast-specific gamma imaging (BSGI), has been an integral component of our breast imaging practice for over a decade. Unlike mammography and ultrasound that are based on anatomy, MBI is a physiologic approach to breast cancer detection. MBI detects additional foci of occult breast cancer in 9.0% of women with newly diagnosed breast cancer, has a high sensitivity for detecting high-risk lesions, and detects 98% of invasive breast cancer and 91.0% of ductal carcinoma in situ...
February 2018: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
Clemens Rauer, Juan J Nogueira, Philipp Marquetand, Leticia González
Abstract: Cyclobutane thymine dimerization is the most prominent DNA photoinduced damage. While the ultrafast mechanism that proceeds in the singlet manifold is nowadays well established, the triplet-state pathway is not completely understood. Here we report the underlying mechanism of the photosensitized dimerization process in the triplet state. Quantum chemical calculations, combined with wavefunction analysis, and nonadiabatic molecular dynamics simulations demonstrate that this is a stepwise reaction, traversing a long-lived triplet biradical intermediate, which is characterized as a Frenkel exciton with very small charge-transfer character...
2018: Monatshefte Für Chemie
Tchin Darré, Mazamaesso Tchaou, Koué Folligan, Abdoulatif Amadou, Bidamin N'Timon, Lantam Sonhaye, Abdoul-Samadou Aboubakari, Koffi Amégbor, Koffi Akpadza, Gado Napo Koura
Breast cancer in young female patients represents a public health problem in developing countries. The objectives of the study were to study the epidemiological and histological characteristics of breast cancer in female patients under 35 years of age. This was a retrospective analytical study of a series of 158 cases of breast cancer in female patients under 35 years of age, conducted at the University Teaching Hospital of Lomé between 2000 and 2015. A total of 158 cases were collected, representing 36.2% (436) of all breast cancer cases...
December 2017: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Jean-Francois Morin, Maude Desroches
Three new and stable diradical-dications based on the 4,10-dibromoanthanthrone have been synthesized and characterized. In their dicationic state, the amines show a biradical character in the ground state. Their magnetic properties have been investigated by NMR and EPR. The dicationic salts shows strong and broad optical absorption in the near-infrared region. The main driving force to obtain a ground state biradical is the high steric hindrance that prevent planarization of the diphenylamines with the anthanthrone aromatic core...
December 23, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Garima Verma, Maria Laura Luciani, Alessandro Palombo, Linda Metaxa, Giovanna Panzironi, Federica Pediconi, Alessandro Giuliani, Mariano Bizzarri, Virginia Todde
INTRODUCTION: Herein, we propose a Systems Biology approach aimed at identifying quantitative morphological parameters useful in discriminating benign from malignant breast microcalcifications at digital mammography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study includes 31 patients in which microcalcifications had been detected during XR mammography and were further confirmed by stereotactic (XR-guided) biopsies. Patients were classified according to the BIRADS (Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System), along with their parenchyma fractal dimension and biopsy size...
December 11, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Zhongshu Li, Yuanfeng Hou, Yaqi Li, Alexander Hinz, Xiaodan Chen
Organic biradicals are usually very short-lived species under standard laboratory conditions, which makes their experimental studies difficult. In contrast, heteroatom-substituted analogs of these biradicals display enhanced stability by π-electron delocalization, which is why main group biradicals (or biradicaloids) of archetypical heterocyclobutanediyls have been thoroughly investigated. Here, we show that NHC-stabilized dicarbondiphosphide compounds of the type (L2)C2P2 (L = NHC, N-heterocyclic carbene) were utilized to activate both single and multiple bonds in small molecules with a feasible concerted mechanism...
December 16, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Yane Li, Ming Fan, Hu Cheng, Peng Zhang, Bin Zheng, Lihua Li
This study aims to develop and test a new imaging marker-based short-term breast cancer risk prediction model. An age-matched dataset of 566 screening mammography cases was used. All "prior" images acquired in the two screening series were negative, while in the "current" screening images, 283 cases were positive for cancer and 283 cases remained negative. For each case, two bilateral cranio-caudal view mammograms acquired from the "prior" negative screenings were selected and processed by a computer-aided image processing scheme, which segmented the entire breast area into 9 strip-based local regions, extracted the element regions using difference of Gaussian filters, and computed both global- and local-based bilateral asymmetrical image features...
December 11, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Piyush Joshi, Rohit Sharma
Introduction: Screening mammography is used for detection of breast cancer and is interpreted using the Breast Image Reporting and Data System (BIRADS) convention. It is not routinely offered to women in countries which do not have a national screening programme resulting in a challenge for the radiologist who has to interpret these in the absence of previous mammograms. Aim: To analyse benign and probably benign lesions in screening mammograms in a hitherto unscreened population and suggest protocols to increase diagnostic confidence...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Yusuke Takahashi, Youhei Miura, Naoki Yoshioka
The magneto-structural correlation of hetero biradical derivatives containing a 2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolin-1-yloxyl unit as a localized spin center and a verdazyl or nitronyl nitroxide radical was reported. The magnetic susceptibility measurement revealed that the verdazyl attached biradical 1 exhibited ferromagnetic interaction, whereas antiferromagnetic interaction for nitronyl nitroxide attached biradical 2. An EPR study in toluene glass matrix suggested that both 1 and 2 have a ground triplet state. DFT calculations predicted that there is intramolecular ferromagnetic interaction for both biradicals...
December 4, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Xavier Creary
The rate of the methylenecyclopropane rearrangement is enhanced by an alkyne-Co2(CO)6 complex bonded to the para-position of a benzene ring. This is explained by a stabilizing effect on the transition state leading to the biradical intermediate. Computational studies indicate that the benzylic type biradical intermediate is stabilized by a delocalization mechanism, where spin is delocalized onto the two cobalt atoms. Silver cation also enhances the rate of the methylenecyclopropane rearrangement. Computational studies suggest that silver cation can also stabilize a benzylic radical by spin delocalization involving silver...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Won-Young Cha, Taeyeon Kim, Arindam Ghosh, Zhan Zhang, Xian-Sheng Ke, Rashid Ali, Vincent M Lynch, Jieun Jung, Woojae Kim, Sangsu Lee, Shunichi Fukuzumi, Jung Su Park, Jonathan L Sessler, Tavarekere K Chandrashekar, Dongho Kim
Classic formulations of aromaticity have long been associated with topologically planar conjugated macrocyclic systems. The theoretical possibility of so-called bicycloaromaticity was noted early on. However, it has yet to be demonstrated by experiment in a simple synthetic organic molecule. Conjugated organic systems are attractive for studying the effect of structure on electronic features. This is because, in principle, they can be modified readily through dedicated synthesis. As such, they can provide useful frameworks for testing by experiment with fundamental insights provided by theory...
December 2017: Nature Chemistry
Michael Co, Ava Kwong, Tony Shek
INTRODUCTION: Due to the possibility of underestimation, surgical excision is usually offered to patients with atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) diagnosed with core needle biopsy (CNB). Here we review the 10-year data of patients with ADH diagnosed by CNB, aiming to identify the factors associated with under-diagnosis. METHODS: Retrospective review of database from 1st Jan 2005 to 31st Dec 2014 was performed; patients with ADH diagnosed by CNB were identified. Diagnosis upgrade rate and its risk factors were evaluated...
November 13, 2017: International Journal of Surgery
Zhe Li, D Jean Burnell, Russell Jaye Boyd
Cytochrome P450 enzymes were recently engineered to catalyze the C-H amination reaction of aryl sulfonyl azides with excellent regio- and stereoselectivity (Arnold and coworkers JACS, 2014, 136, 15505). The mechanism of this reaction was studied by quantum mechanical (QM)/molecular mechanical (MM) calculations in this work. The C-H activation is found to be a stepwise process consisting of hydrogen abstraction (H-abstraction) of the reactive C-H bond by an iron nitrenoid cofactor to produce the biradical intermediate and the subsequent radical rebinding to form the final product...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Christina Kaiser, Christina Kehrer, Mignon-Denise Keyver-Paik, Thomas Hecking, Tiyasha Hosne Ayub, Claudia Leutner, Hans Schild, Walther Kuhn
Background A published retrospective data of our study group demonstrated that premenopausal women, patients with lobular invasive breast cancer or patients with high breast density [American College of Radiology (ACR) classification 3+4] significantly benefit from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) leading to additional detection of malignant foci of 20.2% in the index and 2.5% in the contralateral breast, which would otherwise not be detected by routine imaging. Critics of preoperative MRI focus on higher false-positive rates leading to unnecessary surgical procedures and mastectomies...
November 11, 2017: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Stephanie A Valenzuela, Alondra J Cortés, Zakery J E Tippins, Morgan H Daly, Terell E Keel, Benjamin F Gherman, John D Spence
A combined computational and experimental study was conducted to examine the effect of extended benzannelation orientation on C(1)-C(5) and C(1)-C(6) cyclization of acyclic quinoxalenediynes. Calculations (mPW1PW91/cc-pVTZ//mPW1PW91/6-31G(d,p)) on terminal and phenylethynyl-substituted 5,6-diethynylquinoxaline and 6,7-diethynylquinoxaline showed C(1)-C(6) Bergman cyclization as the favored thermodynamic reaction pathway, with larger C(1)-C(6) preference for the angular quinoxalenediynes due to gain of a new aromatic sextet...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Rivkah Tamar Rogawski, Ivan V Sergeyev, Yinglu Zhang, Timothy Hoang Tran, Yongjun Li, Liang Tong, Ann E McDermott
We characterize the effect of specifically bound biradicals on the NMR spectra of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) from E. coli. Dynamic nuclear polarization methods enhance the signal-to-noise of solid state NMR experiments by transferring polarization from unpaired electrons of biradicals to nuclei. There has been recent interest in co-localizing the paramagnetic polarizing agents with the analyte of interest through covalent or non-covalent specific interactions. This experimental approach broadens the scope of dynamic nuclear polarization methods by offering the possibility of selective signal enhancements and the potential to work in a broad range of environments...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Dominique J P van Uden, J Hans W de Wilt, Carla Meeuwis, Charlotte F J M Blanken-Peeters, Ritse M Mann
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to describe the dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) features of inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) and to assess the value of DCE-MRI for the prediction of pathological complete response (pCR). METHODS: Image analysis was performed in 15 patients with IBC (cT4d) and 12 patients with non-IBC (cT2), and included the assessment of BIRADS characteristics, skin alterations, enhancement characteristics, and changes post chemotherapy...
September 2017: Breast Care
Tim Seung Chung, Jin H Park, Miguel A Garcia-Garibay
Taking advantage of an operationally simple technique to perform transmission pump-probe spectroscopy in crystalline solids, based on the use nanocrystalline suspensions in water, we analyzed the intermediates in the photodenitrogenation of a Δ2-1,2,3-triazoline bearing a benzophenone group that served as an internal triplet sensitizer. Measurements carried out in acetonitrile solution revealed the formation of a transient with a λmax= 570 nm with a lifetime of 70 ns. Measurements in the solid state displayed an analogous blue shifted transient with a λmax= 510 nm that first grows and then decays with time constants of 63 ns and 270 ns, respectively...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Irene Ruggirello, Jacopo Nori, Isacco Desideri, Calogero Saieva, Elisabetta Giannotti, Giulia Bicchierai, Diego De Benedetto, Giulio Francolini, Simonetta Bianchi, Vania Vezzosi, Luis Sanchez, Tommaso Susini, Lorenzo Orzalesi, Icro Meattini, Lorenzo Livi, Vittorio Miele
PURPOSE: The 11-gauge (11G) stereotactic vacuum-assisted breast biopsy (VABB) showed a better profile than 14G-VABB in terms of feasibility, safety, microcalcification sampling, and accuracy. Underestimation rates were significantly lower with 11G-VABB than with 14G-VABB. Thus, the introduction of an even larger needle at the VABB procedure could reduce this rate further. The purpose of this study was to compare the overall performance of stereotactic VABB with 8G and 11G needles. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four hundred and three VABBs performed between July 2012 and February 2015 at the Breast Diagnostic Unit of Careggi Hospital in Florence were retrospectively analyzed; 197 were performed with 11G-VABB and 206 with 8G-VABB...
December 2017: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
Gloria Zhang, Dana Ataya, Paulette L Lebda, Benjamin C Calhoun
Mucocele-like lesions of the breast diagnosed on core biopsy are usually excised to exclude the possibility of partial sampling of an invasive mucinous carcinoma. The goal of this study was to correlate the pathologic and radiologic features of mucocele-like lesions to determine if excision is mandatory. Over a 16 year period we identified 32 patients with mucocele-like lesions diagnosed on 27 (84%) stereotactic and 5 (16%) ultrasound-guided core biopsies. The indications for core biopsy were: calcifications in 24 (75%), a mass in 7 (22%), and a mass with calcifications in 1 (3%)...
October 11, 2017: Breast Journal
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