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Neglected tropical diseases

Luka Verrest, Thomas P C Dorlo
INTRODUCTION: Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) affect more than one billion people, mainly living in developing countries. For most of these NTDs, treatment is suboptimal. To optimize treatment regimens, clinical pharmacokinetic studies are required where they have not been previously conducted to enable the use of pharmacometric modeling and simulation techniques in their application, which can provide substantial advantages. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to provide a systematic overview and summary of all clinical pharmacokinetic studies in NTDs and to assess the use of pharmacometrics in these studies, as well as to identify which of the NTDs or which treatments have not been sufficiently studied...
October 15, 2016: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Non-fatal outcomes of disease and injury increasingly detract from the ability of the world's population to live in full health, a trend largely attributable to an epidemiological transition in many countries from causes affecting children, to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) more common in adults. For the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015), we estimated the incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for diseases and injuries at the global, regional, and national scale over the period of 1990 to 2015...
October 8, 2016: Lancet
Anne E Heggen, Anthony W Solomon, Paul Courtright
PURPOSE: Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) affect people living in the poorest regions of the world and their debilitating effects perpetuate the poverty cycle. Understanding the distribution of NTDs is crucial for effective intervention delivery. In 2012, the Global Trachoma Mapping Project (GTMP) was initiated to map >1800 suspected trachoma endemic districts by March 2015. This research was carried out to better understand the implementation experience and identify lessons which might inform the GTMP and similar initiatives...
October 11, 2016: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Piriyatharisini Thamilselvan, Krishna Raj Muthuraman, Jharna Mandal, Subash Chandra Parija
INTRODUCTION: Taenia solium is a common two-host parasitic cestode, residing in both humans (definitive) and pigs (intermediate). Invasion of this parasitic cyst into central nervous system leads to a condition known as neurocysticercosis (NCC). The World Health Organization (WHO) considers NCC as one of the "most neglected" tropical zoonotic diseases. The disease is presented with pleomorphic clinical manifestations, of which epilepsy is the most common. Diagnosis of NCC is carried out by serological tests and imaging methods...
July 2016: Tropical Parasitology
Partha Pratim Bose, Prakash Kumar
Visceral leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease and may prove fatal if not diagnosed and treated early. The amastigotes of Leishmania donovani nest in the macrophage of human host and thus, determination of parasitic burden in the infected macrophages has been the most crucial step in diagnosis, dose determination and medical management of relapse cases of this fatal disease. Microscopic count following Giemsa staining and other morphological analysis are the classical ways vastly used in the resource stringent endemic areas...
October 5, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Alice Halliday, Paul A Bates, Michael L Chance, Mark J Taylor
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease affecting millions of individuals worldwide. Despite several studies reporting involvement of the innate immune receptor Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in the recognition of surface glycolipids from Leishmania parasites in vitro, the role of TLR2 and its co-receptors during cutaneous leishmaniasis infection in vivo is unknown. METHODS: To explore the role of TLR2 and its co-receptors in cutaneous leishmaniasis, mice deficient in either TLR2, 4, 1 or 6, or wild-type (WT) controls, were infected with either Leishmania major promastigotes, L...
October 6, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Jean Frantz Lemoine, Anne Marie Desormeaux, Franck Monestime, Carl Renad Fayette, Luccene Desir, Abdel Nasser Direny, Sarah Carciunoiu, Lior Miller, Alaine Knipes, Patrick Lammie, Penelope Smith, Melissa Stockton, Lily Trofimovich, Kalpana Bhandari, Richard Reithinger, Kathryn Crowley, Eric Ottesen, Margaret Baker
Lymphatic filariasis (LF) and soil-transmitted helminths (STH) have been targeted since 2000 in Haiti, with a strong mass drug administration (MDA) program led by the Ministry of Public Health and Population and its collaborating international partners. By 2012, Haiti's neglected tropical disease (NTD) program had reached full national scale, and with such consistently good epidemiological coverage that it is now able to stop treatment for LF throughout almost all of the country. Essential to this success have been in the detail of how MDAs were implemented...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Anthony D Harries, Amitabh B Suthar, Kudakwashe C Takarinda, Hannock Tweya, Nang Thu Thu Kyaw, Katie Tayler-Smith, Rony Zachariah
The international community has committed to ending the epidemics of HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, and neglected tropical infections by 2030, and this bold stance deserves universal support. In this paper, we discuss whether this ambitious goal is achievable for HIV/AIDS and what is needed to further accelerate progress. The joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) 90-90-90 targets and the related strategy are built upon currently available health technologies that can diagnose HIV infection and suppress viral replication in all people with HIV...
2016: F1000Research
James W Kazura
Onchocerciasis is one of the two filarial helminth "neglected tropical diseases" (the other being lymphatic filariasis) that has been targeted for geographically local elimination followed by global eradication. The last known areas of Onchocerca volvulus transmission in the Americas have recently been reported to be eliminated. In contrast, achieving metrics for interruption of O. volvulus transmission in Africa, thus removing the requirement for continued monitoring and mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin, has been more challenging...
October 3, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Anna Leonidova, Mireille Vargas, Jörg Huwyler, Jennifer Keiser
One of the major neglected tropical diseases, schistosomiasis, is currently treated and controlled with a single drug, praziquantel. The quest for an alternative drug is fueled by its lack of activity against juvenile Schistosoma and the fear of emerging resistance. The synthetic ozonide OZ418 has shown high activity against Schistosoma mansoni, S. haematobium and S. japonicum in vivo, but its drug disposition remains unknown. To bridge this gap, our study determined the basic pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of a single oral dose (400 mg/kg) of OZ418 in uninfected mice...
October 3, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
J L Rey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2016: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
Annette C Kuesel
Onchocerciasis is a parasitic, vector borne disease caused by the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus. More than 99% of the population at risk of infection live in Africa. Onchocerciasis control was initiated in West Africa in 1974 with vector control, later complemented by ivermectin mass drug administration and in the other African endemic countries in 1995 with annual community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI.) This has significantly reduced infection prevalence. Together with proof-of-concept for onchocerciasis elimination with annual CDTI from foci in Senegal and Mali, this has resulted in targeting onchocerciasis elimination in selected African countries by 2020 and in 80% of African countries by 2025...
May 19, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: EBioMedicine
Alexandra Juhász, Ádám Dán, Béla Dénes, István Kucsera, József Danka, Gábor Majoros
Several trematodes that parasitize vertebrate animals utilize swimming aquatic larvae to infect the host percutaneously. The most important ones among these parasites are the blood-flukes of birds and mammals comprising species that are also zoonotic. Within this latter group are species that cause the bilharziasis or schistosomiasis of inhabitants of the tropical countries, and other trematode species that are able to penetrate human skin, but do not develop to an adult form of the worm in the body. In temperate climates this latter type of infection occurs mainly in the form of an unpleasant inflammation of the skin and is often called "swimmer's itch"...
October 2016: Orvosi Hetilap
Annum Jaffer, Peter J Hotez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Kenate Bekele, Kebede Deribe, Tsige Amberbir, Geleta Tadele, Gail Davey, Abdi Samuel
OBJECTIVE: Podoconiosis is a neglected tropical disease characterised by a slowly progressive swelling of the foot and lower leg. It is prevalent among subsistence barefoot farmers who live and work in highland areas of the tropics. This study was conducted in Wayu Tuka 'woreda' (district), western Ethiopia to determine the prevalence of podoconiosis and assess factors associated with acute adenolymphangitis (ALA) episodes. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A two phase, community-based cross-sectional study was conducted between January and March 2015...
2016: BMJ Open
Pitcha Ratanawong, Pattamaporn Kittayapong, Phanthip Olanratmanee, Annelies Wilder-Smith, Peter Byass, Yesim Tozan, Peter Dambach, Carlos Alberto Montenegro Quiñonez, Valérie R Louis
BACKGROUND: Dengue is an important neglected tropical disease, with more than half of the world's population living in dengue endemic areas. Good understanding of dengue transmission sites is a critical factor to implement effective vector control measures. METHODS: A cohort of 1,811 students from 10 schools in rural, semi-rural and semi-urban Thailand participated in this study. Seroconversion data and location of participants' residences and schools were recorded to determine spatial patterns of dengue infections...
2016: PloS One
Pelagie M Boko, Moudachirou Ibikounle, Ablawa Onzo-Aboki, Jean-Jacques Tougoue, Yollande Sissinto, Wilfrid Batcho, Dorothe Kinde-Gazard, Achille Kabore
In 2013, Benin developed strategies to control neglected tropical diseases and one of the first step was the disease mapping of the entire country in order to identify endemic districts of schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminths (STH). This study was carried out in 30 of the 77 districts of Benin. Of these 30 districts 22 were previously treated for Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) using the Ivermectin and Albendazole combination. In each district, five schools were selected and 50 children aged 8 to 14 years were sampled in each school, making a total of 250 children sampled in the district...
2016: PloS One
David H Molyneux, Lorenzo Savioli, Dirk Engels
The concept of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) emerged more than a decade ago and has been recognised as a valid way to categorise diseases that affect the poorest individuals. Substantial progress in control and elimination has been achieved and policy momentum has been generated through continued bilateral, philanthropic, and non-governmental development organisation (NGDO) support, and donations of drugs from pharmaceutical companies. WHO has defined a Roadmap to reach 2020 targets, which was endorsed by member states in a World Health Assembly Resolution in 2013...
September 14, 2016: Lancet
Daniel Engelman, L Claire Fuller, Anthony W Solomon, James S McCarthy, Roderick J Hay, Patrick J Lammie, Andrew C Steer
Many neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) affect the skin, causing considerable disability, stigma, and exacerbation of poverty. However, there has been relatively little investment into laboratory research, epidemiology, diagnostic tools or management strategies to control tropical skin disease. Integration may advance the control of skin disease across a range of domains, including mapping, diagnosis, clinical management, and community control measures such as mass drug administration. Examples of successful integration strategies include programs targeting scabies, impetigo, yaws, and diseases causing lymphoedema...
September 13, 2016: Trends in Parasitology
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