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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222139/leprosy-reactions-the-predictive-value-of-mycobacterium-leprae-specific-serology-evaluated-in-a-brazilian-cohort-of-leprosy-patients-u-mdt-ct-br
#1
Emerith Mayra Hungria, Samira Bührer-Sékula, Regiane Morillas de Oliveira, Lúcio Cartaxo Aderaldo, Araci de Andrade Pontes, Rossilene Cruz, Heitor de Sá Gonçalves, Maria Lúcia Fernandes Penna, Gerson Oliveira Penna, Mariane Martins de Araújo Stefani
BACKGROUND: Leprosy reactions, reversal reactions/RR and erythema nodosum leprosum/ENL, can cause irreversible nerve damage, handicaps and deformities. The study of Mycobacterium leprae-specific serologic responses at diagnosis in the cohort of patients enrolled at the Clinical Trial for Uniform Multidrug Therapy Regimen for Leprosy Patients in Brazil/U-MDT/CT-BR is suitable to evaluate its prognostic value for the development of reactions. METHODOLOGY: IgM and IgG antibody responses to PGL-I, LID-1, ND-O-LID were evaluated by ELISA in 452 reaction-free leprosy patients at diagnosis, enrolled and monitored for the development of leprosy reactions during a total person-time of 780,930 person-days, i...
February 21, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222097/a-genome-wide-association-study-identifies-a-lncrna-as-risk-factor-for-pathological-inflammatory-responses-in-leprosy
#2
Vinicius M Fava, Jeremy Manry, Aurélie Cobat, Marianna Orlova, Nguyen Van Thuc, Milton O Moraes, Carolinne Sales-Marques, Mariane M A Stefani, Ana Carla P Latini, Andrea F Belone, Vu Hong Thai, Laurent Abel, Alexandre Alcaïs, Erwin Schurr
Leprosy Type-1 Reactions (T1Rs) are pathological inflammatory responses that afflict a sub-group of leprosy patients and result in peripheral nerve damage. Here, we employed a family-based GWAS in 221 families with 229 T1R-affect offspring with stepwise replication to identify risk factors for T1R. We discovered, replicated and validated T1R-specific associations with SNPs located in chromosome region 10p21.2. Combined analysis across the three independent samples resulted in strong evidence of association of rs1875147 with T1R (p = 4...
February 21, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219296/phytochemical-screening-and-evaluation-of-in-vitro-antioxidant-and-antimicrobial-activities-of-the-indigenous-medicinal-plant-albizia-odoratissima
#3
Venkanna Banothu, Chandrasekharnath Neelagiri, Uma Adepally, Jayalakshmi Lingam, Kesavaharshini Bommareddy
CONTEXT: Albizia odoratissima (L. f.) Benth has been used in Indian folk medicine to treat numerous inflammatory pathologies, such as leprosy, ulcers, burns and asthma. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of A. odoratissima. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dried leaves of A. odoratissima were extracted in organic solvents (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol). The total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride colorimetric methods, respectively...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208863/fine-needle-aspiration-cytology-of-papulonodular-lesions-of-skin-a-study-of-50-cases
#4
Sapna Patel, Asha Mahadevappa, Gubbanna Vimalambike Manjunath
INTRODUCTION: Skin is one of the frequent site of disease in human body. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) is a safe diagnostic method in these cases. FNAC has some limitation, particularly related to representativity of samples, exact typing of skin adnexal tumours and classifying the nature of metastatic cutaneous nodules. Thus, FNAC alone may not give a confirmative diagnosis regarding few skin lesions. Hence, histopathological study has been the standard technique for the diagnosis of skin lesions...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207542/rifampicin-induced-disseminated-intravascular-coagulation-in-pulmonary-tuberculosis-treatment-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#5
Guo Chen, Jian-Qing He
RATIONALE: Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) induced by daily rifampicin therapy is rare, especially the patient is absent of malignancy, severe infection, and prior exposure to rifampicin. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report a case of DIC induced by daily rifampicin treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis. A 22-year-old, previously healthy man received an anti-tuberculosis therapy consisting of isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide on the daily dose recommended by the World Health Organization tuberculosis guidelines after a diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202666/lrrk2-in-peripheral-and-central-nervous-system-innate-immunity-its-link-to-parkinson-s-disease
#6
REVIEW
Heyne Lee, William S James, Sally A Cowley
Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene are found in familial and idiopathic cases of Parkinson's disease (PD), but are also associated with immune-related disorders, notably Crohn's disease and leprosy. Although the physiological function of LRRK2 protein remains largely elusive, increasing evidence suggests that it plays a role in innate immunity, a process that also has been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases, including PD. Innate immunity involves macrophages and microglia, in which endogenous LRRK2 expression is precisely regulated and expression is strongly up-regulated upon cell activation...
February 8, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196219/the-role-of-rifampin-in-leprosy-leprosy-through-a-new-lens
#7
Herbert B Allen, Samuel L Moschella
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 8, 2017: JAMA Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194322/sural-artery-perforator-flap-with-posterior-tibial-neurovascular-decompression-for-recurrent-foot-ulcer-in-leprosy-patients
#8
Hossam El-Din Ali Ismail, Mohamed Hassan El Fahar
Introduction: The sensory loss and alteration of the shape of the foot make the foot liable to trauma and pressure, and subsequently cause more callus formation, blisters, and ulcers. Foot ulcers usually are liable to secondary infection as cellulitis or osteomyelitis, and may result in amputations. Foot ulcers are a major problem and a major cause of handicaps in leprosy patients. The current study is to present our clinical experience and evaluate the use of sural flap with posterior tibial neurovascular decompression (PTND) in recurrent foot ulcers in leprosy patients...
2017: GMS Interdisciplinary Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery DGPW
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192426/multibacillary-leprosy-by-population-groups-in-brazil-lessons-from-an-observational-study
#9
Mauricio Lisboa Nobre, Ximena Illarramendi, Kathryn Margaret Dupnik, Mariana de Andrea Hacker, José Augusto da Costa Nery, Selma Maria Bezerra Jerônimo, Euzenir Nunes Sarno
BACKGROUND: Leprosy remains an important public health problem in Brazil where 28,761 new cases were diagnosed in 2015, the second highest number of new cases detected globally. The disease is caused by Mycobacterium leprae, a pathogen spread by patients with multibacillary (MB) leprosy. This study was designed to identify population groups most at risk for MB disease in Brazil, contributing to new ideas for early diagnosis and leprosy control. METHODS: A national databank of cases reported in Brazil (2001-2013) was used to evaluate epidemiological characteristics of MB leprosy...
February 13, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167593/a-review-on-dapsone-hypersensitivity-syndrome-among-chinese-patients-with-an-emphasis-on-preventing-adverse-drug-reactions-with-genetic-testing
#10
REVIEW
Na Wang, Leela Parimi, Hong Liu, Furen Zhang
Dapsone is a bactericidal and bacteriostatic against Mycobacterium leprae, a causative agent of leprosy. Dapsone is also applied in a range of medical fields because of its anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. Dapsone hypersensitivity syndrome (DHS) is a rare yet serious adverse drug reaction (ADR) caused by dapsone involving multiple organs. We performed a systematic review of published articles describing dapsone-induced hypersensitivity syndrome, including all Chinese articles and the latest literature available in online databases published between October 2009 and October 2015...
February 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166214/dense-genotyping-of-immune-related-loci-implicates-host-responses-to-microbial-exposure-in-beh%C3%A3-et-s-disease-susceptibility
#11
Masaki Takeuchi, Nobuhisa Mizuki, Akira Meguro, Michael J Ombrello, Yohei Kirino, Colleen Satorius, Julie Le, Mary Blake, Burak Erer, Tatsukata Kawagoe, Duran Ustek, Ilknur Tugal-Tutkun, Emire Seyahi, Yilmaz Ozyazgan, Inês Sousa, Fereydoun Davatchi, Vânia Francisco, Farhad Shahram, Bahar Sadeghi Abdollahi, Abdolhadi Nadji, Niloofar Mojarad Shafiee, Fahmida Ghaderibarmi, Shigeaki Ohno, Atsuhisa Ueda, Yoshiaki Ishigatsubo, Massimo Gadina, Sofia A Oliveira, Ahmet Gül, Daniel L Kastner, Elaine F Remmers
We analyzed 1,900 Turkish Behçet's disease cases and 1,779 controls genotyped with the Immunochip. The most significantly associated SNP was rs1050502, a tag SNP for HLA-B*51. In the Turkish discovery set, we identified three new risk loci, IL1A-IL1B, IRF8, and CEBPB-PTPN1, with genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10(-8)) by direct genotyping and ADO-EGR2 by imputation. We replicated the ADO-EGR2, IRF8, and CEBPB-PTPN1 loci by genotyping 969 Iranian cases and 826 controls. Imputed data in 608 Japanese cases and 737 controls further replicated ADO-EGR2 and IRF8, and meta-analysis additionally identified RIPK2 and LACC1...
February 6, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162092/the-influence-of-innate-and-adaptative-immune-responses-on-the-differential-clinical-outcomes-of-leprosy
#12
REVIEW
Adriana Barbosa de Lima Fonseca, Marise do Vale Simon, Rodrigo Anselmo Cazzaniga, Tatiana Rodrigues de Moura, Roque Pacheco de Almeida, Malcolm S Duthie, Steven G Reed, Amelia Ribeiro de Jesus
Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. According to official reports from 121 countries across five WHO regions, there were 213 899 newly diagnosed cases in 2014. Although leprosy affects the skin and peripheral nerves, it can present across a spectrum of clinical and histopathological forms that are strongly influenced by the immune response of the infected individuals. These forms comprise the extremes of tuberculoid leprosy (TT), with a M. leprae-specific Th1, but also a Th17, response that limits M...
February 6, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158186/a-high-throughput-phenotypic-screen-identifies-clofazimine-as-a-potential-treatment-for-cryptosporidiosis
#13
Melissa S Love, Federico C Beasley, Rajiv S Jumani, Timothy M Wright, Arnab K Chatterjee, Christopher D Huston, Peter G Schultz, Case W McNamara
Cryptosporidiosis has emerged as a leading cause of non-viral diarrhea in children under five years of age in the developing world, yet the current standard of care to treat Cryptosporidium infections, nitazoxanide, demonstrates limited and immune-dependent efficacy. Given the lack of treatments with universal efficacy, drug discovery efforts against cryptosporidiosis are necessary to find therapeutics more efficacious than the standard of care. To date, cryptosporidiosis drug discovery efforts have been limited to a few targeted mechanisms in the parasite and whole cell phenotypic screens against small, focused collections of compounds...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137508/nasal-pcr-assay-for-the-detection-of-mycobacterium-leprae-pra-gene-to-study-subclinical-infection-in-a-community
#14
Kamalanathan Arunagiri, Gopalakrishnan Sangeetha, Padmavathy Krishnan Sugashini, Sekar Balaraman, M K Showkath Ali
Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. Identification of Mycobacterium leprae is difficult in part due to the inability of the leprosy bacillus to grow in vitro. A number of diagnostic methods for leprosy diagnosis have been proposed. Both serological tests and molecular probes have shown certain potential for detection and identification of Mycobacterium leprae in patients. In this study, we have investigated whether Mycobacterium leprae DNA from the nasal secretion of healthy household contacts and the non contacts could be detected through PCR amplification as a method to study the sub clinical infection in a community...
January 27, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130151/a-new-mammalian-model-system-for-thalidomide-teratogenesis-monodelphis-domestica
#15
Daniel Sorensen, Amanda Sackett, Daniel J Urban, Jennifer Maier, Neil Vargesson, Karen E Sears
From 1957 to 1962, thalidomide caused birth defects in >10,000 children. While the drug was pulled from the market, thalidomide is currently prescribed to treat conditions including leprosy. As a result, a new generation of babies with thalidomide defects is being born in the developing world. This represents a serious problem, as the mechanisms by which thalidomide disrupts development remain unresolved. This lack of resolution is due, in part, to the absence of an appropriate mammalian model for thalidomide teratogenesis...
January 24, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126361/antigen-specific-secretion-of-ifn%C3%AE-and-cxcl10-in-whole-blood-assay-detects-mycobacterium-leprae-infection-but-does-not-discriminate-asymptomatic-infection-from-symptomatic-leprosy
#16
Emerith Mayra Hungria, Aline Araújo Freitas, Maria Araci Andrade Pontes, Heitor Sá Gonçalves, Ana Lúcia Osório Maroccolo Sousa, Maurício Barcelos Costa, Mirian Lane Oliveira Rodrigues Castilho, Malcolm S Duthie, Mariane Martins Araújo Stefani
To advance toward a whole blood assay (WBA)-based test capable of facilitating the diagnosis of paucibacillary (PB) leprosy, we evaluated a prototype in-tube WBA using combinations of Mycobacterium leprae antigens. Blood was collected from newly diagnosed untreated PB (n=38), multibacillary (MB) (n=30), healthy household contacts (HHC) of MB (n=27), and endemic controls (n=61) residing in Goiânia and Fortaleza, Brazil. Blood was incubated with M. leprae cell sonicate, recombinant proteins (46f+LID-1; ML0276+LID-1), or controls (phosphate-buffered saline, phytohemagglutinin, M...
January 5, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125649/investigation-of-a-medieval-pilgrim-burial-excavated-from-the-leprosarium-of-st-mary-magdalen-winchester-uk
#17
Simon Roffey, Katie Tucker, Kori Filipek-Ogden, Janet Montgomery, Jamie Cameron, Tamsin O'Connell, Jane Evans, Phil Marter, G Michael Taylor
We have examined the remains of a Pilgrim burial from St Mary Magdalen, Winchester. The individual was a young adult male, aged around 18-25 years at the time of death. Radiocarbon dating showed the remains dated to the late 11th-early 12th centuries, a time when pilgrimages were at their height in Europe. Several lines of evidence in connection with the burial suggested this was an individual of some means and prestige. Although buried within the leprosarium cemetery, the skeleton showed only minimal skeletal evidence for leprosy, which was confined to the bones of the feet and legs...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117607/leucine-rich-repeat-kinase-2-inhibitors-a-patent-review-2014-2016
#18
Paul Galatsis
Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is a member of the Tyrosine Kinase-Like (TKL) branch of the kinome tree and is a multi-domain protein that includes GTPase and kinase activity. While genome-wide association studies (GWAS) has linked LRRK2 with Crohn's disease and leprosy, it has received the greatest attention due to it being implicated as one of the genetic loci associated with autosomal dominant inheritance in Parkinson's disease (PD). Areas covered: In this review, the small molecule patent literature from 2014-2016 with a focus on composition of matter and use patents was surveyed...
January 31, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114411/evaluation-and-monitoring-of-mycobacterium-leprae-transmission-in-household-contacts-of-patients-with-hansen-s-disease-in-colombia
#19
Marcela Romero-Montoya, Juan Camilo Beltran-Alzate, Nora Cardona-Castro
Leprosy in Colombia is in a stage of post elimination-since 1997, prevalence of the disease is less than 1/10000. However, the incidence of leprosy has remained stable, with 400-500 new cases reported annually, with MB leprosy representing 70% of these case and 10% having grade 2 disability. Thus, leprosy transmission is still occurring, and household contacts (HHCs) of leprosy patients are a population at high risk of contracting and suffering from the effects of the disease during their lifetime. We performed a cross-sectional study with the aim of evaluating leprosy transmission within Family Groups (FGs) from four Colombian departments: Antioquia, Bolívar, Córdoba and Sucre...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110210/il-12-and-il-23-modulate-plasticity-of-foxp3-regulatory-t-cells-in-human-leprosy
#20
Mohd Tarique, Chaman Saini, Raza Ali Naqvi, Neena Khanna, Alpana Sharma, D N Rao
Leprosy is a bacterial disease caused by M. leprae. Its clinical spectrum reflects the host's immune response to the M. leprae and provide an ideal model to investigate the host pathogen interaction and immunological dysregulation. Tregs are high in leprosy patients and responsible for immune suppression of the host by producing IL-10 and TGF-β cytokines. In leprosy, plasticity of Tregs remain unstudied. This is the first study describing the conversion of Tregs into Th1-like and Th17-like cells using in vitro cytokine therapy in leprosy patients...
March 2017: Molecular Immunology
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