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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773868/coexistence-of-nerve-enlargement-and-neuratrophy-detected-by-ultrasonography-in-leprosy-patients
#1
Xiaohua Chen, Liangfu Zhang, Meiying Huang, Xiuli Zhai, Yan Wen, Chunzhi Pan
The purpose of this study was to evaluate peripheral neural impairment in leprosy patients by ultrasonography (US). The cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of the median (M), ulnar (U) and common fibular (CF) nerves were compared in 71 leprosy patients and 29 healthy controls, and the data were analyzed between the leprosy, multibacillary (MB)/paucibacillary (PB), reaction (R)/no reaction (NR), disability (D)/no disability (ND), and longer/shorter duration groups after treatment. We found that for the nerves located in upper limbs, the CSAs were significantly increased in the leprosy patients vs the controls; the PB group vs the MB group; the R group vs the NR group; the ND group vs the D group; and the longer duration group vs the shorter duration group at some positions of the M nerve and U nerve...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771976/skin-disease-prevalence-study-in-schoolchildren-in-rural-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire-implications-for-integration-of-neglected-skin-diseases-skin-ntds
#2
Rie Roselyne Yotsu, Kouamé Kouadio, Bamba Vagamon, Konan N'guessan, Amari Jules Akpa, Aubin Yao, Julien Aké, Rigobert Abbet Abbet, Barbine Tchamba Agbor Agbor, Roger Bedimo, Norihisa Ishii, L Claire Fuller, Roderick Hay, Oriol Mitjà, Henning Drechsler, Kingsley Asiedu
BACKGROUND: Early detection of several skin-related neglected tropical diseases (skin NTDs)-including leprosy, Buruli ulcer, yaws, and scabies- may be achieved through school surveys, but such an approach has seldom been tested systematically on a large scale in endemic countries. Additionally, a better understanding of the spectrum of skin diseases and the at-risk populations to be encountered during such surveys is necessary to facilitate the process. METHODS: We performed a school skin survey for selected NTDs and the spectrum of skin diseases, among primary schoolchildren aged 5 to 15 in Côte d'Ivoire, West Africa...
May 17, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756085/neuropathic-pain-in-leprosy-symptom-profile-characterization-and-comparison-with-neuropathic-pain-of-other-etiologies
#3
Irina Raicher, Patrick Raymond Nicolas Andre Ghislain Stump, Simone Bega Harnik, Rodrigo Alves de Oliveira, Rosemari Baccarelli, Lucia H S C Marciano, Somei Ura, Marcos C L Virmond, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, Daniel Ciampi de Andrade
Introduction: Previous studies reported a high prevalence of neuropathic pain in leprosy, being especially present in "pharmacologically cured" patients. The presence of neuropathic pain in leprosy poses a supplementary burden in patient's quality of life, daily activities, and mood. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess whether neuropathic pain in leprosy has similar symptom profile as neuropathic pain of other etiologies and to retrospectively assess the efficacy of neuropathic pain medications regularly prescribed to leprosy...
March 2018: Pain Reports (Baltimore, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755459/type-i-interferons-autophagy-and-host-metabolism-in-leprosy
#4
REVIEW
Thiago Gomes Toledo Pinto, Leonardo Ribeiro Batista-Silva, Rychelle Clayde Affonso Medeiros, Flávio Alves Lara, Milton Ozório Moraes
For those with leprosy, the extent of host infection by Mycobacterium leprae and the progression of the disease depend on the ability of mycobacteria to shape a safe environment for its replication during early interaction with host cells. Thus, variations in key genes such as those in pattern recognition receptors ( NOD2 and TLR1 ), autophagic flux ( PARK2, LRRK2 , and RIPK2 ), effector immune cytokines ( TNF and IL12 ), and environmental factors, such as nutrition, have been described as critical determinants for infection and disease progression...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749352/world-leprosy-day-2018-how-forward-respecting-the-past
#5
EDITORIAL
Bernard Naafs
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746563/ancient-genomes-reveal-a-high-diversity-of-mycobacterium-leprae-in-medieval-europe
#6
Verena J Schuenemann, Charlotte Avanzi, Ben Krause-Kyora, Alexander Seitz, Alexander Herbig, Sarah Inskip, Marion Bonazzi, Ella Reiter, Christian Urban, Dorthe Dangvard Pedersen, G Michael Taylor, Pushpendra Singh, Graham R Stewart, Petr Velemínský, Jakub Likovsky, Antónia Marcsik, Erika Molnár, György Pálfi, Valentina Mariotti, Alessandro Riga, M Giovanna Belcastro, Jesper L Boldsen, Almut Nebel, Simon Mays, Helen D Donoghue, Sonia Zakrzewski, Andrej Benjak, Kay Nieselt, Stewart T Cole, Johannes Krause
Studying ancient DNA allows us to retrace the evolutionary history of human pathogens, such as Mycobacterium leprae, the main causative agent of leprosy. Leprosy is one of the oldest recorded and most stigmatizing diseases in human history. The disease was prevalent in Europe until the 16th century and is still endemic in many countries with over 200,000 new cases reported annually. Previous worldwide studies on modern and European medieval M. leprae genomes revealed that they cluster into several distinct branches of which two were present in medieval Northwestern Europe...
May 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735562/impact-of-clofazimine-dosing-on-treatment-shortening-of-the-first-line-regimen-in-a-mouse-model-of-tuberculosis
#7
Nicole C Ammerman, Rosemary V Swanson, Elaine M Bautista, Deepak V Almeida, Vikram Saini, Till F Omansen, Haidan Guo, Yong Seok Chang, Si-Yang Li, Asa Tapley, Rokeya Tasneen, Sandeep Tyagi, Fabrice Betoudji, Chivonne Moodley, Bongani Ngcobo, Logan Pillay, Linda A Bester, Sanil D Singh, Richard E Chaisson, Eric Nuermberger, Jacques H Grosset
The anti-leprosy drug clofazimine was recently repurposed as part of a newly endorsed short-course regimen for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. It also enables significant treatment-shortening when added to the first-line regimen for drug-susceptible tuberculosis in a mouse model. However, clofazimine causes dose- and duration-dependent skin discoloration in patients, and the optimal clofazimine dosing strategy in the context of the first-line regimen is unknown. We utilized a well-established mouse model to systematically address the impact of duration, dose, and companion drugs on the treatment-shortening activity of clofazimine in the first-line regimen...
May 7, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723371/effectiveness-of-the-retreatment-of-patients-with-multibacillary-leprosy-and-episodes-of-erythema-nodosum-leprosum-and-or-persistent-neuritis-a-single-center-experience
#8
Joel Carlos Lastória, Thaís Sampaio Corrêa de Almeida, Maria Stella de Mello Ayres Putinatti, Carlos Roberto Padovani
BACKGROUND: Erythema nodosum leprosum may appear before, during or after treatment of leprosy and is one of the main factors for nerve damage in patients. When it occurs or continues to occur after treatment, it may indicate disease recurrence and a new treatment may be instituted again. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the retreatment of patients with multibacillary leprosy who underwent standard treatment with multidrug therapy, but developed or continued to present reactions of erythema nodosum leprosum and/or neuritis 3-5 years after its end...
March 2018: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723368/atypical-crusted-scabies-in-a-patient-with-chronic-liver-disease-caused-by-hepatitis-b-and-d-viruses
#9
Mônica Santos, Gustavo Ávila Maquiné, Carolina Talhari, Antonio Pedro Mendes Schettini
Crusted scabies is a less common variant of scabies that is highly contagious, difficult to treat and involves infestation by Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis. The classical clinical presentation includes crusted, scaly and generally non-pruritic lesions usually located on the head, neck, palmar, plantar and periungual region. It was first described in Norway in 1848 in patients with leprosy who presented with crusted lesions. In this study, we report the case of a patient with crusted scabies with florid clinical manifestations and chronic liver disease due to hepatitis B and delta virus infection...
March 2018: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722023/discovery-of-four-exonic-and-one-intergenic-novel-susceptibility-loci-for-leprosy
#10
Z Wang, Z Mi, H Wang, L Sun, G Yu, X 'a Fu, C Wang, F Bao, Z Yue, Q Zhao, N Wang, X Cheng, H Liu, F Zhang
Seven new risk coding variants have been identified through an exome-wide association study (EWAS), which studied the contributions of protein-coding variants to leprosy susceptibility. But some potential susceptibility loci were not studied in the previous EWAS study because of the project consideration. Seventeen unstudied potential susceptibility loci of the previous EWAS were validated in 3,169 cases and 9,814 controls in this study. Four disease associated exonic loci were identified: rs671 in ALDH2 (P = 2...
May 3, 2018: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718382/mid-borderline-leprosy-masquerading-as-an-overlap-syndrome
#11
Manoj Pawar, Vijay Zawar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 27, 2018: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717136/ancient-dna-study-reveals-hla-susceptibility-locus-for-leprosy-in-medieval-europeans
#12
Ben Krause-Kyora, Marcel Nutsua, Lisa Boehme, Federica Pierini, Dorthe Dangvard Pedersen, Sabin-Christin Kornell, Dmitriy Drichel, Marion Bonazzi, Lena Möbus, Peter Tarp, Julian Susat, Esther Bosse, Beatrix Willburger, Alexander H Schmidt, Jürgen Sauter, Andre Franke, Michael Wittig, Amke Caliebe, Michael Nothnagel, Stefan Schreiber, Jesper L Boldsen, Tobias L Lenz, Almut Nebel
Leprosy, a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae), was very common in Europe till the 16th century. Here, we perform an ancient DNA study on medieval skeletons from Denmark that show lesions specific for lepromatous leprosy (LL). First, we test the remains for M. leprae DNA to confirm the infection status of the individuals and to assess the bacterial diversity. We assemble 10 complete M. leprae genomes that all differ from each other. Second, we evaluate whether the human leukocyte antigen allele DRB1*15:01, a strong LL susceptibility factor in modern populations, also predisposed medieval Europeans to the disease...
May 1, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706837/nuclear-whole-body-bone-scanning-for-leprosy
#13
Beuy Joob, Viroj Wiwanitkit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706348/missense-variants-in-hif1a-and-lacc1-contribute-to-leprosy-risk-in-han-chinese
#14
Dong Wang, Yu Fan, Mahadev Malhi, Rui Bi, Yong Wu, Min Xu, Xiu-Feng Yu, Heng Long, Yu-Ye Li, Deng-Feng Zhang, Yong-Gang Yao
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and genome-wide linkage studies (GWLSs) have identified numerous risk genes affecting the susceptibility to leprosy. However, most of the reported GWAS hits are noncoding variants and account for only part of the estimated heritability for this disease. In order to identify additional risk genes and map the potentially functional variants within the GWAS loci, we performed a three-stage study combining whole-exome sequencing (WES; discovery stage), targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS; screening stage), and refined validation of risk missense variants in 1,433 individuals with leprosy and 1,625 healthy control individuals from Yunnan Province, Southwest China...
May 3, 2018: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704447/spatial-analysis-of-reported-new-cases-and-local-risk-of-leprosy-in-hyper-endemic-situation-in-north-eastern-brazil
#15
Celivane Cavalcanti Barbosa, Cristine Vieira do Bonfim, Cintia Michele Gondim de Brito, Andrea Torres Ferreira, Vera Rejane do Nascimento Gregório, André Luiz Sá de Oliveira, José Luiz Portugal, Zulma Maria de Medeiros
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the spatial distribution of the incidence of leprosy and identify areas at risk for occurrences of hyper-endemic disease in northeastern Brazil. METHODS: Ecological study using municipalities as the analysis unit. Data on new cases of leprosy came from the Health Hazard Notification System (SINAN). This study focused on Pernambuco and covered the years 2005 to 2014. Indicators for monitoring were calculated per 100,000 inhabitants. The local empirical Bayes method was used to minimize rate variance and spatial autocorrelation maps were used for spatial pattern analysis (box maps and Moran maps)...
April 28, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687564/clinical-spectrum-and-quality-of-life-qol-in-patients-with-chronic-polyneuropathy-a-cross-sectional-study
#16
M S Panduranga, Deepti Vibha, Kameshwar Prasad, Achal Kumar Srivastava, Garima Shukla
Chronic polyneuropathy is a disabling condition of the peripheral nerves, characterized by symmetrical sensory motor symptoms and signs. There is paucity of studies on the etiological spectrum of polyneuropathy and its impact on quality of life. The present cross sectional study in a referral based tertiary care center in North India found diabetic neuropathy as the commonest cause (25.5%) amongst 212 patients with chronic polyneuropathy. Idiopathic axonal polyneuropathy was present in 14.2% patients. Leprosy presenting as confluent mononeuritis multiplex constituted 11...
April 23, 2018: Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System: JPNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686668/emerging-concepts-of-adaptive-immunity-in-leprosy
#17
REVIEW
Soumi Sadhu, Dipendra Kumar Mitra
Leprosy is a chronic intracellular infection caused by the acid-fast bacillus, Mycobacterium leprae . The disease chiefly affects the skin, peripheral nerves, mucosa of the upper respiratory tract, and the eyes. The damage to peripheral nerves results in sensory and motor impairment with characteristic deformities and disability. Presently, the disease remains concentrated in resource-poor countries in tropical and warm temperate regions with the largest number of cases reported from India. Even though innate immunity influences the clinical manifestation of the disease, it is the components of adaptive immune system which seem to tightly correlate with the characteristic spectrum of leprosy...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685413/a-cavernous-sinus-lesion-clinically-responsive-to-steroids
#18
M W Ruff, I D Carabenciov, D R Johnson, B E Pollock, J E Parisi, J P Klaas
Tolosa Hunt syndrome (THS) is characterized by painful ophthalmoplegia secondary to idiopathic granulomatous inflammation of the cavernous sinus. The characteristic finding on MRI is an enhancing T1 isointense and T2 hypo- or hyperintense cavernous sinus mass lesion, which may result in focal narrowing of the ipsilateral internal carotid artery. Although the incidence is quite rare, it is a common diagnostic consideration in cases that present with multiple cranial neuropathies. However, the differential diagnosis for a unilateral cavernous sinus lesion in adults is broad and includes neoplastic, inflammatory (such as sarcoidosis and immunoglobulin G4-related disease [IgG4-RD]), infectious etiologies (such as syphilis and leprosy), as well as vascular lesions...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685164/chemoprophylaxis-of-leprosy-with-rifampicin-in-contacts-of-multibacillary-patients-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Daiane Santos Dos Santos, Nádia Cristina Duppre, Euzenir Nunes Sarno, Roberta Olmo Pinheiro, Anna Maria Sales, José Augusto Da Costa Nery, Milton Ozório Moraes, Luiz Antônio Bastos Camacho
BACKGROUND: The annual new-case detection rate for leprosy, while generally stable over the last decade, shows that transmission rates have remained stagnant despite the successful worldwide administration of multidrug therapy since the 1980s. As such, novel control strategies are urgently needed. Focusing on managing leprosy patient contacts, the most susceptible to contracting the disease, has been seen as a potential strategy in limiting the spread of leprosy as shown by a number of recent epidemiological studies...
April 23, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671907/a-comprehensive-review-of-phytochemical-profile-bioactives-for-pharmaceuticals-and-pharmacological-attributes-of-azadirachta-indica
#20
REVIEW
Sumaira Saleem, Gulzar Muhammad, Muhammad Ajaz Hussain, Syed Nasir Abbas Bukhari
Azadirachta indica L. is a multipurpose medicinal tree of family Meliaceae. It occurs in tropical and semitropical regions of the world. Different parts of this miraculous tree are used to treat pyrexia, headache, ulcer, respiratory disorders, cancer, diabetes, leprosy, malaria, dengue, chicken pox, and dermal complications. The tree is popular for its pharmacological attributes such as hypolipidemic, antifertility, microbicidal, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, antipyretic, hypoglycemic, insecticidal, nematicidal, antiulcer, antioxidant, neuroprotective, cardioprotective, and antileishmaniasis properties...
April 19, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
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