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Leprosy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340061/venous-thrombo-embolism-thalidomide-leprosy
#1
Bharath A Chhabria, Ashok Kumar Pannu, Ashish Bhalla
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 11, 2017: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328616/borderline-tuberculoid-leprosy-masquerading-as-granuloma-annulare-a-clinical-and-histological-pitfall
#2
Tian Hao Zhu, Faranak Kamangar, Marc Silverstein, Maxwell A Fung
INTRODUCTION: Leprosy is a chronic granulomatous disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, an intracellular acid-fast bacillus that tends to infect the skin and peripheral nerves. Because of the wide array of cutaneous manifestation, diagnosis is not always straightforward, especially in nonendemic regions of the world such as the United States. CASE REPORT: The authors report an unusual case of borderline tuberculoid leprosy in an 80-year-old white woman from California...
April 2017: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327791/a-tale-of-two-neglected-tropical-infections-using-gis-to-assess-the-spatial-and-temporal-overlap-of-schistosomiasis-and-leprosy-in-a-region-of-minas-gerais-brazil
#3
David Alexander Phillips, José Antonio Ferreira, Deidra Ansah, Herica Sa Teixeira, Uriel Kitron, Thelma de Filippis, Marcelo H de Alcântara, Jessica K Fairley
BACKGROUND: Despite public health efforts to reduce the global burden of leprosy, gaps remain in the knowledge surrounding transmission of infection. Helminth co-infections have been associated with a shift towards the lepromatous end of the disease spectrum, potentially increasing transmission in co-endemic areas. OBJECTIVES: Using this biologically plausible association, we conducted a geographic information systems (GIS) study to investigate the spatial associations of schistosomiasis and leprosy in an endemic area of Minas Gerais (MG), Brazil...
April 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327786/polymorphisms-in-genes-tlr1-2-and-4-are-associated-with-differential-cytokine-and-chemokine-serum-production-in-patients-with-leprosy
#4
Nadja de Lima Santana, Jamile Leão Rêgo, Joyce Moura Oliveira, Lucas Frederico de Almeida, Marcos Braz, Lídia Maria Medeiros Machado, Paulo Roberto Lima Machado, Léa Cristina Castellucci
BACKGROUND: Leprosy or hansen's disease is a spectral disease whose clinical forms mostly depends on host's immune and genetic factors. Different Toll-like receptors (TLR) variants have been described associated with leprosy, but with some lack of replication across different populations. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the role of polymorphisms in genes TLR1, TLR2 and TLR4 and susceptibility to leprosy in a genetic case control study; to verify the association between genotypes of these markers and the immunological profile in the serum of patients with leprosy...
April 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327412/response-of-inos-and-its-relationship-with-il-22-and-stat3-in-macrophage-activity-in-the-polar-forms-of-leprosy
#5
Jorge Rodrigues de Sousa, Raphael Primo Martins de Sousa, Tinara Leila de Souza Aarão, Leonidas Braga Dias, Francisca Regina Oliveira Carneiro, Juarez Antonio Simões Quaresma
Leprosy is a chronic granulomatous infection that manifests as different clinical forms related to the immunological response. The aim of the study was to evaluated the response of IL-22, STAT3, CD68 and iNOS in leprosy skin lesions. The mean number IL-22 positive cells was 12.12±1.90 cells/field in the TT form and 31.31±2.91 cells/field in the LL form. STAT3 positive cells was 5.29±1.96 cells/field in the TT form, while this number was 11.13±3.48 cells/field in the LL form. The mean number of CD68 positive cells was 25...
March 18, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323068/vitamin-d-receptor-expression-and-hepcidin-levels-in-the-protection-or-severity-of-leprosy-a-systematic-review
#6
Ana Laura Grossi de Oliveira, Ana Thereza Chaves, Cristiane Alves Silva Menezes, Nathalia Sernizon Guimarães, Lilian Lacerda Bueno, Ricardo Toshio Fujiwara, Manoel Otávio da Costa Rocha
Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease whose disequilibrium in the host's genetic, immunological and clinical mechanisms lead to distinct manifestations defining the type of immunological response. This review focuses its attention on the influence of the Vitamin D Receptor and hepcidin expressions that can suggest the protection or severity of leprosy.
March 16, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321841/histoid-leprosy-a-retrospective-clinicopathological-study-from-central-nepal
#7
Mahesh Mathur, Ayush Jha, Ruprerna Joshi, Roshani Wagle
BACKGROUND: Histoid leprosy is a rare variant of lepromatous leprosy characterized by varied morphological and histopathological appearance while having a high bacillary load. These factors contribute to an ominous threat to the elimination status of leprosy, whereby these patients may act as a reservoir of infection. OBJECTIVE: To identify the clinicopathological characteristics of histoid leprosy in Chitwan, Nepal. METHODS: A retrospective hospital-based study spanning a period of 6 years was carried out at our department...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319279/borderline-lepromatous-leprosy-erythema-nodosum-leprosum-and-a-generalized-varicella-zoster-virus-infection
#8
Cornelis Kennedy, Bernard Naafs
We report the case of a thirty-year-old man with Mid-Borderline (BB) to Borderline Lepromatous Leprosy (BL) who was admitted to the hospital with blistering lesions on his upper and lower extremities. These lesions, which were partly filled with pus rapidly developed into erosions and ulcerations with hemorrhagic crusts. Other observations at time of admission included a tender erythematous plaque on his forehead, a drop foot on the right leg, muscle atrophy in both hands, a low grade fever, and pain and swelling in his right lower jaw...
March 20, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317806/mycobacterium-lepraemurium-uses-tlr-6-and-mr-but-not-lipid-rafts-or-dc-sign-to-gain-access-into-mouse-macrophages
#9
Mayra Silva-Miranda, Patricia Arce-Paredes, Oscar Rojas-Espinosa
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium lepraemurium (MLM), the etiologic agent of murine leprosy, is an intracellular parasite of macrophages; the mechanism used by this bacterium to enter macrophages is not known. The fate of the MLM phagosome inside macrophages is also unknown. This study was conducted to investigate how MLM enters macrophages and to define the maturation process of MLM phagosome inside macrophages. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Peritoneal macrophages were incubated in the presence of mannan-bovine serum albumin (BSA), and antibodies to known macrophage receptors, including, anti-FcγRIII/RII (anti-CD16/32), anti-CD35 (anti-CR1), anti-TLR2, anti-TLR4, anti-TLR6, anti-CD14, and anti-dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN)...
January 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317797/analysis-of-a-novel-multiplex-polymerase-chain-reaction-assay-as-a-sensitive-tool-for-the-diagnosis-of-indeterminate-and-tuberculoid-forms-of-leprosy
#10
V Sundeep Chaitanya, Luz Cuello, Madhusmita Das, A Sudharsan, Pavithrra Ganesan, K Kanmani, Lakshmi Rajan, Mannam Ebenezer
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Clinical diagnosis of indeterminate and tuberculoid leprosy is often difficult due to limited and confounding signs and symptoms. In the current study, we evaluated the utility of new multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using Mycobacterium leprae-specific DNA sequences in the pseudogene regions of ML1545, ML2180, and ML2179 for PCR-based diagnosis of indeterminate leprosy (IND) and leprosy cases across the immunological spectrum. The sensitivity was compared with that of RLEP PCR...
January 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315742/association-of-nitric-oxide-synthase2-gene-polymorphisms-with-leprosy-reactions-in-northern-indian-population
#11
Amit Dubey, Sanjay Kumar Biswas, Ekata Sinha, Joy Kumar Chakma, Raj Kamal, Mamta Arora, Harish Sagar, Mohan Natarajan, Sameer S Bhagyawant, Keshar Kunja Mohanty
The pathogen Mycobacterium leprae causes leprosy that affects mainly skin and nerves. Polymorphisms of certain genes are substantiated to be associated with the susceptibility/resistance to leprosy. The present investigation addressed the association of Nitric Oxide Synthase2 gene polymorphisms and leprosy in a population from northern part of India. A total of 323 leprosy cases and 288 healthy controls were genotyped for four NOS2 promoter variants (rs1800482, rs2779249, rs8078340 and rs2301369) using FRET technology in Real Time PCR...
March 16, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303962/identification-of-novel-chemotherapeutic-strategies-for-metastatic-uveal-melanoma
#12
Paolo Fagone, Rosario Caltabiano, Andrea Russo, Gabriella Lupo, Carmelina Daniela Anfuso, Maria Sofia Basile, Antonio Longo, Ferdinando Nicoletti, Rocco De Pasquale, Massimo Libra, Michele Reibaldi
Melanoma of the uveal tract accounts for approximately 5% of all melanomas and represents the most common primary intraocular malignancy. Despite improvements in diagnosis and more effective local therapies for primary cancer, the rate of metastatic death has not changed in the past forty years. In the present study, we made use of bioinformatics to analyze the data obtained from three public available microarray datasets on uveal melanoma in an attempt to identify novel putative chemotherapeutic options for the liver metastatic disease...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300899/leprosy-on-the-scalp
#13
Raila de Brito Macedo, Tárcio Santos, Paulyane Bezerra Sampaio Ramos, Daniela Mayumi Takano, Virgínia Sampaio Madeiro Leal
Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. This bacillus has a high predilection for skin and peripheral nerves. The scalp's anatomical properties do not favor the development of such mycobacterium. We report a case of leprosy with scalp involvement, a rare occurrence in our literature.
September 2016: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300896/lucio-s-phenomenon-exuberant-case-report-and-review-of-brazilian-cases
#14
Rafael Henrique Rocha, Paulo Sergio Emerich, Lucia Martins Diniz, Marcela Bahia Barretto de Oliveira, Aline Neves Freitas Cabral, Ana Cristina Vervloet do Amaral
Lucio's phenomenon is an uncommon reaction characterized by severe necrotizing cutaneous lesions that occurs in patients with Lucio's leprosy and lepromatous leprosy. It is considered by some authors as a variant of type 2 or 3 reaction. Death can occur because of blood dyscrasia or sepsis. Precipitating factors include infections, drugs and pregnancy. We report a 31-year-old female patient exhibiting both clinical and histopathological features of lepromatous leprosy and Lucio's phenomenon presenting favorable response to treatment...
September 2016: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285807/a-brighter-side-to-thalidomide-its-potential-use-in-immunological-disorders
#15
REVIEW
David Millrine, Tadamitsu Kishimoto
Thalidomide and its derivatives are immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) known for their sedative, teratogenic, anti-angiogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties. Commonly used in the treatment of cancers such as multiple myeloma and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), IMiDs have also been used in the treatment of an inflammatory skin pathology associated with Hansen's disease/leprosy. They have also shown promise in the treatment of autoimmune disorders including systemic lupus erythmatosus (SLE) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)...
March 9, 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285750/nerve-damage-in-young-patients-with-leprosy-diagnosed-in-an-endemic-area-of-the-brazilian-amazon-a-cross-sectional-study
#16
Sabrina Sampaio Bandeira, Carla Avelar Pires, Juarez Antonio Simões Quaresma
OBJECTIVE: To describe nerve damage and its association with clinical and epidemiologic characteristics in young patients with leprosy diagnosed in an endemic area of the Brazilian Amazon. STUDY DESIGN: All 45 patients with leprosy younger than 15 years of age and diagnosed at a health referral unit in northern Brazil were invited to participate in a cross-sectional, descriptive, analytical study. Subjects were submitted to a templated simple neurologic examination of the peripheral nerves and answered a structured questionnaire...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279460/forecasting-the-new-case-detection-rate-of-leprosy-in-four-states-of-brazil-a-comparison-of-modelling-approaches
#17
David J Blok, Ronald E Crump, Ram Sundaresh, Martial Ndeffo-Mbah, Alison P Galvani, Travis C Porco, Sake J de Vlas, Graham F Medley, Jan Hendrik Richardus
BACKGROUND: Brazil has the second highest annual number of new leprosy cases. The aim of this study is to formally compare predictions of future new case detection rate (NCDR) trends and the annual probability of NCDR falling below 10/100,000 of four different modelling approaches in four states of Brazil: Rio Grande do Norte, Amazonas, Ceará, Tocantins. METHODS: A linear mixed model, a back-calculation approach, a deterministic compartmental model and an individual-based model were used...
March 2017: Epidemics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279173/a-super-infection-in-the-cornea-caused-by-stemphylium-acremonium-and-%C3%AE-streptococcus
#18
Fumika Hotta, Hiroshi Eguchi, Keiko Nishimura, Masahiro Kogiso, Mayumi Ishimaru, Shunji Kusaka, Yoshikazu Shimomura, Takashi Yaguchi
BACKGROUND: Polymicrobial keratitis with fungus and bacteria can lead to blindness and is challenging to treat. Here, we introduce a case of fungal keratitis caused by two different strains in addition to definite bacterial super-infection caused by an α-Streptococcus sp., and describe the importance of microscopic examination. CASE PRESENTATION: A 74-year-old woman, who had a past history of infection with leprosy, presented with conjunctival hyperaemia, pain, and corneal opacity in her right eye...
March 9, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275081/characterization-of-mirnas-expression-profiles-and-identification-of-potential-biomarkers-in-leprosy
#19
Karina T O S Jorge, Renan P Souza, Marieta T A Assis, Marcelo G Araújo, Massimo Locati, Amélia M R Jesus, Ida M F D Baptista, Cristiano X Lima, Antônio L Teixeira, Mauro M Teixeira, Frederico M Soriani
Leprosy is an important cause of disability in the developing world. Early diagnosis is essential to allow cure and interrupt transmission of this infection. MiRNAs are important factors for host-pathogen interaction and they have been identified as biomarkers for various infectious diseases. The expression profile of 377 microRNAs were analyzed by TaqMan Low Density Array (TLDA) in skin lesions of tuberculoid and lepromatous leprosy patients, as well as skin specimens from healthy controls. In a second step, sixteen microRNAs were selected for validation experiments with qRT-PCR in skin samples from new individuals...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273974/primary-cutaneous-histoplasmosis-masquerading-as-lepromatous-leprosy
#20
Jenna Blah Bhattacharya, Poonam Rani, Radhika Aggarwal, Seema Kaushal
Histoplasmosis is a genus of dimorphic fungi having various varieties of which the commonest one causing infection is Histoplasma capsulatum known to cause histoplasmosis. It has a varied disease spectrum ranging from an acute infection to chronic disease especially in lungs, disseminated disease and cutaneous disorder. Histoplasma capsulatum usually causes subclinical infection and serious infections only manifest in immunocompromised patients. Frank cases of infection are seen in pulmonary histoplasmosis...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
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