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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647179/euphorbia-neriifolia-l-review-on-botany-ethnomedicinal-uses-phytochemistry-and-biological-activities
#1
REVIEW
Prashant Y Mali, Shital S Panchal
The present review is intended to provide information on botany, ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and biological activities of various parts of Euphorbia neriifolia (E. neriifolia). E. neriifolia has several ethnomedicinal uses. The latex of E. neriifolia is used as laxative, purgative, rubefacient, carminative and expectorant as well as in treatment of whooping cough, gonorrhoea, leprosy, asthma, dyspepsia, jaundice, enlargement of the spleen, tumours, stone in the bladder, abdominal troubles and leucoderma...
May 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645166/epidemiological-and-clinical-characteristics-of-children-and-adolescents-with-leprosy-admitted-over-16%C3%A2-years-at-a-rural-hospital-in-ethiopia-a-retrospective-analysis
#2
José M Ramos, Sonia Ortiz-Martínez, Deriba Lemma, Matheus M Petros, Carmen Ortiz-Martínez, Abraham Tesfamariam, Francisco Reyes, Isabel Belinchón
Aim: To analyse differences in children and adolescents aged ≤18 years admitted to the leprosy ward in a rural Ethiopian hospital >16 years. Methods: We retrospectively collected data from leprosy admission registry books on patients with leprosy who were admitted to a referral hospital from September 2000 to September 2016. Results: There were 2129 admissions for leprosy during the study period: 180 (8.4%) patients were s ≤ 18 years old...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636650/the-formation-of-lipid-droplets-favors-intracellular-mycobacterium-leprae-survival-in-sw-10-non-myelinating-schwann-cells
#3
Song-Hyo Jin, Sung-Kwan An, Seong-Beom Lee
Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease that is caused by the obligate intracellular pathogen Mycobacterium leprae (M.leprae), which is the leading cause of all non-traumatic peripheral neuropathies worldwide. Although both myelinating and non-myelinating Schwann cells are infected by M.leprae in patients with lepromatous leprosy, M.leprae preferentially invades the non-myelinating Schwann cells. However, the effect of M.leprae infection on non-myelinating Schwann cells has not been elucidated. Lipid droplets (LDs) are found in M...
June 21, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633333/anti-natural-octyl-disaccharide-leprosy-idri-diagnostic-ndo-lid-antibodies-as-indicators-of-leprosy-reactions-and-neuritis
#4
Héctor Serrano-Coll, Mónica Muñoz, Juan Camilo Beltrán, Malcolm S Duthie, Nora Cardona-Castro
Background: Leprosy is a complex infectious and neurological disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. Nerve damage is related to immunological hypersensitivity responses known as leprosy reactions (LRs). Diagnostic tools to predict LRs are not available. We hypothesized that natural octyl disaccharide-leprosy IDRI diagnostic (NDO-LID) would be helpful as an indicator of LRs and neuritis. Methods: To assess the utility of NDO-LID in indicating reactions, ELISA were used to detect specific antibodies in serum samples from 80 Colombian leprosy patients (40 with and 40 without history of LRs)...
March 1, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623172/the-armadillo-factor-lepromatous-leprosy
#5
Laura C Cleary, Smitha Suraj, David Haburchak, Jake E Turrentine
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 13, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617800/whole-genome-sequencing-distinguishes-between-relapse-and-reinfection-in-recurrent-leprosy-cases
#6
Mariane M A Stefani, Charlotte Avanzi, Samira Bührer-Sékula, Andrej Benjak, Chloé Loiseau, Pushpendra Singh, Maria A A Pontes, Heitor S Gonçalves, Emerith M Hungria, Philippe Busso, Jérémie Piton, Maria I S Silveira, Rossilene Cruz, Antônio Schetinni, Maurício B Costa, Marcos C L Virmond, Suzana M Diorio, Ida M F Dias-Baptista, Patricia S Rosa, Masanori Matsuoka, Maria L F Penna, Stewart T Cole, Gerson O Penna
BACKGROUND: Since leprosy is both treated and controlled by multidrug therapy (MDT) it is important to monitor recurrent cases for drug resistance and to distinguish between relapse and reinfection as a means of assessing therapeutic efficacy. All three objectives can be reached with single nucleotide resolution using next generation sequencing and bioinformatics analysis of Mycobacterium leprae DNA present in human skin. METHODOLOGY: DNA was isolated by means of optimized extraction and enrichment methods from samples from three recurrent cases in leprosy patients participating in an open-label, randomized, controlled clinical trial of uniform MDT in Brazil (U-MDT/CT-BR)...
June 15, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602616/salivary-anti-pgl-1-igm-may-indicate-active-transmission-of-mycobacterium-leprae-among-young-people-under-16-years-of-age
#7
Alexandre Casimiro de Macedo, José Evandro Cunha, Juliana Navarro Ueda Yaochite, Clodis Maria Tavares, Aparecida Tiemi Nagao-Dias
Considering that the main route of Mycobacterium leprae transmission is the upper respiratory tract, detection of salivary antibodies can be a useful tool for diagnosing early infection. The study aimed to analyze salivary anti-PGL-1 IgA and IgM antibodies in 169 children aged 4-16 years old, who lived nearby or inside the house of multibacillary or paucibacillary leprosy patients in two endemic cities in Alagoas State - Brazil. Salivary anti-PGL-1 antibodies were quantified by modified ELISA method. The frequency of contact and clinical form of the index case were significantly associated with salivary antibodies levels...
June 8, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598451/role-of-s-100-immunostain-as-an-auxiliary-diagnostic-aid-in-leprosy
#8
R Dhakhwa, S Acharya, S Pradhan, S B Shrestha, T Itoh
INTRODUCTION: Histopathologic diagnosis of leprosy is difficult when Bacillary Index (BI) is zero and neural involvement are not easily identifiable on routine Hematoxylin and Eosin stain. This study was undertaken to study the role of S-100 immunostaining in demonstrating different patterns of nerve involvement in various types of leprosy. METHODS: Thirty one skin biopsies with clinico-histopathologic diagnoses of leprosy over a period of two years were included in the study...
January 2017: JNMA; Journal of the Nepal Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596321/india-resurrects-forgotten-leprosy-vaccine
#9
Sanjay Kumar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 9, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594117/serum-anti-phenolic-glycolipid-1-iga-correlates-to-igm-isotype-in-leprosy-patients-a-possible-candidate-for-seroepidemiological-surveys
#10
Alexandre C de Macedo, Juliana A Guimarães, Raphael O Rodrigues, Thiago D V Araújo, Clodis M Tavares, Paula B Cabral, Maria Isabel de Moraes-Pinto, Aparecida T Nagao-Dias
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare serum anti-phenolic glycolipid-1 IgA, IgG, and IgM levels in leprosy patients and controls. METHOD: Analysis of anti-PGL-1 IgA, IgG, or IgM in serum samples from multibacillary (MB, n=32) and paucibacillary (PB, n=22) leprosy patients, and in non-endemic controls (n=17), using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: A strong correlation between serum IgM and IgA isotypes was found (r=...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592626/longitudinal-ip-10-serum-levels-are-associated-with-the-course-of-disease-activity-and-remission-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#11
Anouk van Hooij, Debbie M Boeters, Elisa M Tjon Kon Fat, Susan J F van den Eeden, Paul L A M Corstjens, Annette H M van der Helm-van Mil, Annemieke Geluk
Although Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, persistent autoimmune disease 10-15% of the RA patients achieve sustained disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARD)-free remission over time. Biological mechanisms underlying the resolution of persistent inflammation in RA are yet unidentified and prognostic markers are lacking.It is well established that increased serum levels of IFN-γ-induced protein 10 (IP-10) are associated with (acute) increased inflammatory responses (e.g. in leprosy). In order to assess the potential of IP-10 as a diagnostic tool for inflammatory episodes in RA, we performed a retrospective study and assessed IP-10 levels in longitudinally banked serum samples of patients upon first diagnosis of RA...
June 7, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592223/feline-leprosy-due-to-mycobacterium-lepraemurium
#12
Carolyn R O'Brien, Richard Malik, Maria Globan, George Reppas, Christina McCowan, Janet A Fyfe
OBJECTIVES: This paper, the second in a series of three on 'feline leprosy', provides a detailed description of disease referable to Mycobacterium lepraemurium, the most common cause of feline leprosy worldwide. METHODS: Cases were sourced retrospectively and prospectively for this observational study, describing clinical, geographical and molecular microbiological data for cats definitively diagnosed with M lepraemurium infection. RESULTS: A total of 145 cases of feline leprosy were scrutinised; 114 'new' cases were sourced from the Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory records, veterinary pathology laboratories or veterinarians, and 31 cases were derived from six published studies...
July 2017: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591402/towards-leprosy-elimination-by-2020-forecasts-of-epidemiological-indicators-of-leprosy-in-corrientes-a-province-of-northeastern-argentina-that-is-a-pioneer-in-leprosy-elimination
#13
Elisa Petri de Odriozola, Ana María Quintana, Victor González, Roque Antonio Pasetto, María Eugenia Utgés, Octavio Augusto Bruzzone, María Rosa Arnaiz
BACKGROUND: Corrientes, a province of northeastern Argentina with endemic leprosy, has improved its epidemiological indicators, however, a study of the dynamics over time is lacking. OBJECTIVES: We analysed data of 1308 leprosy patients between 1991 to 2014, and the forecast for 2020. METHODS: Descriptive statistics and stepwise Bayesian model selection were performed. Forecasts were made using the median of 100,000 projections using the parameters calculated via Monte Carlo methods...
June 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576432/anticeramide-antibody-and-butyrylcholinesterase-in-peripheral-neuropathies
#14
Aparna Sykam, V R Gutlapalli, Sandeep P Tenali, A K Meena, Priscilla Chandran, Sujai Suneetha, Lavanya M Suneetha
Ceramide is a glycosphingolipid, a component of nerve and non neuronal cell membrane and plays a role in maintaining the integrity of neuronal tissue. Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) is a multifunctional enzyme, its involvement in neurodegenerative diseases has been well established. Anticeramide antibody (Ab-Cer) and enzyme BChE have been implicated in peripheral neuropathies. The present study investigates whether there is an association between Ab-Cer and BChE activities and peripheral neuropathies. Patients included: human immunodeficiency virus associated peripheral neuropathy (HIV-PN, n=39), paucibacillary leprosy (PB-L, n=36), multibacillary leprosy (MB-L, n=52), diabetic neuropathy (DN, n=22), demyelinating sensory motor polyneuropathy (DSMN, n=13) and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP, n=10)...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574007/interpreting-data-in-policy-control-the-case-of-leprosy
#15
EDITORIAL
Graham F Medley, Ron E Crump, Diana N J Lockwood
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571290/leprosy-in-an-eight-year-old-child-an-exceptional-case-with-unusual-oral-manifestation
#16
Mayuri Jain
Leprosy is a contagious and granulomatous disease which is caused by Mycobacterium leprae. The incubation period for leprosy is five to seven years and it can take as long as about 30 years before signs and symptoms of leprosy develop in some patients. It is a chronic systemic disease which mostly affects the skin and peripheral nerves. It has been seen that indeterminate leprosy is the most common type seen in childhood followed by tuberculoid variant. Borderline lepromatous and lepromatous leprosy are only occasionally encountered in children and rarely affects the oral cavity...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570932/cytokines-as-biomarkers-to-monitoring-the-impact-of-multidrug-therapy-in-immune-response-of-leprosy-patients
#17
Fábio Cassirer-Costa, Nayara I Medeiros, Ana T Chaves, Sandra Lyon, Jordana G A Coelho-Dos-Reis, Atvaldo F Ribeiro-Junior, Rodrigo Correa-Oliveira, Manoel O C Rocha, Juliana A S Gomes
Leprosy or Hansen's disease is a chronic infectious disease of the skin and nerves, caused by the intracellular bacilli Mycobacterium leprae. It is characterized by a spectrum of clinical forms depending on the host's immune response to M. leprae. Patients with tuberculoid (TT) leprosy have strong cell-mediated immunity (CMI) with elimination of the bacilli, whereas patients with lepromatous (LL) leprosy exhibit defective CMI to M. leprae. Despite advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of leprosy and the development of new therapeutic strategies, there is a need for the identification of biomarkers which be used for early diagnosis and to discrimination between different forms of the disease, as prognostic markers...
May 29, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570560/qpcr-high-resolution-melt-analysis-for-drug-susceptibility-testing-of-mycobacterium-leprae-directly-from-clinical-specimens-of-leprosy-patients
#18
Sergio Araujo, Luiz Ricardo Goulart, Richard W Truman, Isabela Maria B Goulart, Varalakshmi Vissa, Wei Li, Masanori Matsuoka, Philip Suffys, Amanda B Fontes, Patricia S Rosa, David M Scollard, Diana L Williams
BACKGROUND: Real-Time PCR-High Resolution Melting (qPCR-HRM) analysis has been recently described for rapid drug susceptibility testing (DST) of Mycobacterium leprae. The purpose of the current study was to further evaluate the validity, reliability, and accuracy of this assay for M. leprae DST in clinical specimens. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The specificity and sensitivity for determining the presence and susceptibility of M. leprae to dapsone based on the folP1 drug resistance determining region (DRDR), rifampin (rpoB DRDR) and ofloxacin (gyrA DRDR) was evaluated using 211 clinical specimens from leprosy patients, including 156 multibacillary (MB) and 55 paucibacillary (PB) cases...
June 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566085/prevalence-of-autoantibodies-against-cellular-antigens-in-patients-with-hiv-and-leprosy-coinfection-in-the-amazon-region
#19
Clea Nazaré Carneiro Bichara, Carlos David Araújo Bichara, Camila Tostes, Marinete Marins Povoa, Juarez Antonio Simões Quaresma, Marília Brasil Xavier
BACKGROUND: Infectious agents can activate self-reactive T cells. In general, infections trigger various mechanisms, including a lack of auto-tolerance, induction of costimulatory molecules on antigen presenting cells, and molecular simulation, in addition to cross-reactions between microbial antigens and self-antigens. HIV and leprosy coinfections lead to self-immunity with the production of autoantibodies. However, not enough data on the immune behaviour associated with this coinfection are available...
June 1, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562770/paracoccidioidomycosis-with-sarcoid-like-lesions-a-diagnostic-challenge
#20
Marilda Aparecida Milanez Morgado de Abreu, Joel Carlos Lastória, Antonio Luiz de Arruda Mattos, Maurício Mota de Avelar Alchorne
Clinical presentation of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) can be diverse. Morphology and quantity of skin lesions depends on interactions between host immunity and fungus virulence. Diagnosis can be a challenge considering that this fungus has low virulence and some individuals have immunity to microorganism, which results in well-marked granulomas without visible microorganisms. We report herein a clinical presentation of sarcoid-like PCM, initially diagnosed as tuberculoid leprosy. This rare type of PCM is often mistaken for other types of chronic granulomatous diseases...
March 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
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