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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905631/-notes-for-a-history-of-hygiene-taken-from-the-bible
#1
Walter Ledermann
Reading once more the Gospels, we found a discussion between Jesus and the Pharisee about the hand washing, this golden rule of medicine, and then, with the help of Thomas Mann, we began a search for other notes on hygiene in the Bible. For the return from Egypt to the Promised Land, Moses established several rules for his people, some of them disguised as religious principles, concerning elimination of excreta, healthy and poisonous foods, isolation in case of contagious diseases (leprosy, gonorrhea), decontamination of clothes and houses, and many others that now seem to us ahead his time...
August 2016: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904201/localized-glistening-nodules-of-the-right-ear-a-rare-de-novo-occurrence-of-histoid-leprosy
#2
Aditya Kumar Bubna
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Indian Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904174/on-the-history-of-classification-in-dermatology
#3
Amiya Kumar Mukhopadhyay
Since the early days of cutaneous medicine, naming of the entities had remained a confusing subject. Earlier texts of all ancient civilisations are almost similar in this topic The Biblical controversy regarding the actual translational meaning of the original Hebrew term Zara 'at has become a centre of controversy amongst many research scholars of the medical history. Similar debate exists about the Ayurvedic term Kustha---- whether it meant leprosy or stood for a number of skin affliction is a matter of controversy...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899559/division-of-labor-among-mycobacterium-smegmatis-rnase-h-enzymes-rnase-h1-activity-of-rnha-or-rnhc-is-essential-for-growth-whereas-rnhb-and-rnha-guard-against-killing-by-hydrogen-peroxide-in-stationary-phase
#4
Richa Gupta, Debashree Chatterjee, Michael S Glickman, Stewart Shuman
RNase H enzymes sense the presence of ribonucleotides in the genome and initiate their removal by incising the ribonucleotide-containing strand of an RNA:DNA hybrid. Mycobacterium smegmatis encodes four RNase H enzymes: RnhA, RnhB, RnhC and RnhD. Here, we interrogate the biochemical activity and nucleic acid substrate specificity of RnhA. We report that RnhA (like RnhC characterized previously) is an RNase H1-type magnesium-dependent endonuclease with stringent specificity for RNA:DNA hybrid duplexes. Whereas RnhA does not incise an embedded mono-ribonucleotide, it can efficiently cleave within tracts of four or more ribonucleotides in duplex DNA...
November 28, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896890/diterpenes-as-lead-molecules-against-neglected-tropical-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Marcus Vinícius Oliveira Barros de Alencar, João Marcelo de Castro E Sousa, Hercília Maria Lins Rolim, Maria das Graças Freire de Medeiros, Gilberto Santos Cerqueira, Fernanda Regina de Castro Almeida, Antônia Maria das Graças Lopes Citó, Paulo Michel Pinheiro Ferreira, José Arimatéia Dantas Lopes, Ana Amélia de Carvalho Melo-Cavalcante, Md Torequl Islam
Nowadays, neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are reported to be present everywhere. Poor and developing areas in the world have received great attention to NTDs. Drug resistance, safety profile, and various challenges stimulate the search for alternative medications. Plant-based drugs are viewed with great interest, as they are believed to be devoid of side effects. Diterpenes, a family of essential oils, have showed attractive biological effects. A systematic review of the literature was carried out to summarize available evidences of diterpenes against NTDs...
November 29, 2016: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891740/minocycline-successfully-treats-exaggerated-granulomatous-hypersensitivity-reaction-to-mw-immunotherapy
#6
Keshavamurthy Vinay, Tarun Narang, Uma N Saikia, Muthu Sendhil Kumaran, Sunil Dogra
Mycobacterium W (Mw) vaccine has been found to be effective in the treatment of leprosy and warts. Despite increasing use of Mw immunotherapy, data on its safety is limited. We report a series of eight patients who developed persisting injection site granulomatous reaction following Mw immunotherapy and were successfully treated with minocycline. Eight patients with persistent nodular swelling at the site of Mw injections were identified. Seven of them had received Mw immunotherapy for cutaneous warts and one for verrucous epidermal nevus...
November 28, 2016: Dermatologic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891733/generalized-granulomatous-dermatitis-following-mycobacterium-w-mw-immunotherapy-in-lepromatous-leprosy
#7
Geeti Khullar, Tarun Narang, Uma Nahar Saikia, Sunil Dogra
Mycobacterium w (Mw) vaccine is a heat-killed suspension derived from a nonpathogenic, cultivable, atypical mycobacterium named Mycobacterium indicus pranii. Mw immunotherapy has been reported to be efficacious as an adjunct to multidrug therapy multibacillary regimen in leprosy patients with high bacillary index. Cutaneous reactions are predominant adverse effects associated with the administration of vaccines. Cutaneous adverse effects ascribed to Mw vaccine are generally limited to the site of injection...
November 28, 2016: Dermatologic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891436/platelet-rich-plasma-efficacy-in-treating-trophic-ulcers-in-leprosy
#8
V Anandan, W Afthab Jameela, P Saraswathy, S Sarankumar
INTRODUCTION: Trophic ulcers secondary to leprosy pose a great stigma to the patients and remain a challenge to the treating dermatologists. The discovery of Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) with its favourable role in wound healing is a boon for the patients. PRP introduces the growth factors directly into the wound and aids in rapid healing. AIM: To study the efficacy and safety of PRP in the healing of trophic ulcers secondary to Hansen's disease in a tertiary care centre in Southern India...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891346/evaluation-of-fluorescent-staining-for-diagnosis-of-leprosy-and-its-impact-on-grading-of-the-disease-comparison-with-conventional-staining
#9
Deepa Sowkur Anandarama Adiga, Surekha B Hippargi, Gururaja Rao, Debarshi Saha, Bheemrao Ramling Yelikar, Mahesh Karigoudar
INTRODUCTION: Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae). Histopathological examination of skin lesion is the gold standard for diagnosis. We evaluated the possible role of fluorescent microscopy in this direction which is increasingly used for rapid screening. AIM: To compare the efficacy of auramine rhodamine stain with Ziehl-Neelsen and modified Fite-faraco staining in diagnosing M. leprae in tissue sections. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental, cross-sectional and retrospective study conducted for 4 years...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888674/qpcr-detection-of-mycobacterium-leprae-in-biopsies-and-slit-skin-smear-of-different-leprosy-clinical-forms
#10
Michelle de Campos Soriani Azevedo, Natália Mortari Ramuno, Luciana Raquel Vincenzi Fachin, Mônica Tassa, Patrícia Sammarco Rosa, Andrea de Faria Fernandes Belone, Suzana Madeira Diório, Cleverson Teixeira Soares, Gustavo Pompermaier Garlet, Ana Paula Favaro Trombone
Leprosy, whose etiological agent is Mycobacterium leprae, is a chronic infectious disease that mainly affects the skin and peripheral nervous system. The diagnosis of leprosy is based on clinical evaluation, whereas histopathological analysis and bacilloscopy are complementary diagnostic tools. Quantitative PCR (qPCR), a current useful tool for diagnosis of infectious diseases, has been used to detect several pathogens including Mycobacterium leprae. The validation of this technique in a robust set of samples comprising the different clinical forms of leprosy is still necessary...
November 23, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885973/leprosy-trends-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-mumbai-india-from-2008-to-2015
#11
Thirumugam Muthuvel, Petros Isaakidis, Hemant Deepak Shewade, Lucy Kattuppara, Rajbir Singh, Srinivas Govindarajulu
BACKGROUND: Leprosy remains an important cause of preventable disabilities. After the advent of multidrug therapy, new leprosy cases have come down dramatically. Despite this achievement, India, which contributes 60% of the global leprosy burden, faces some challenges to eliminate the disease, including active transmission in the community and delayed diagnosis of leprosy patients. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study were 1) to determine sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of newly diagnosed adults and children (less than 15 years) with leprosy and their trends over time (2008-2015) and 2) to describe the profile of surgical procedures among leprosy patients registered for reconstructive surgeries during 2006-2015...
2016: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876828/common-variants-in-the-parl-and-pink1-genes-increase-the-risk-to-leprosy-in-han-chinese-from-south-china
#12
Dong Wang, Deng-Feng Zhang, Jia-Qi Feng, Guo-Dong Li, Xiao-An Li, Xiu-Feng Yu, Heng Long, Yu-Ye Li, Yong-Gang Yao
Leprosy is a chronic infectious and neurological disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, an unculturable pathogen with massive genomic decay and dependence on host metabolism. We hypothesized that mitochondrial genes PARL and PINK1 would confer risk to leprosy. Thirteen tag SNPs of PARL and PINK1 were analyzed in 3620 individuals with or without leprosy from China. We also sequenced the entire exons of PARL, PINK1 and PARK2 in 80 patients with a family history of leprosy by using the next generation sequencing technology (NGS)...
November 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872935/the-social-transformation-of-singapore-medicine-through-55-years-of-the-smj
#13
Ee Heok Kua, Jade Phek Hui Kua
The Singapore Medical Journal (SMJ) has in the past 55 years reflected the phenomenal socioeconomic progress of Singapore. Publications in the pre-independent years were mainly on diseases like cholera, diphtheria, leprosy, tetanus and worm infestation. In the new millennium, the research papers included molecular genetics, health economics, obesity, Internet medicine, cancer, cosmetic surgery and palliative medicine. The annual SMA Lecture published in the SMJ provides an ethical compass for doctors to remind them of primum non nocere...
November 2016: Singapore Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869920/-description-of-duplicate-records-held-on-the-notifiable-diseases-information-system-brazil-2008-2009
#14
Sérgio Henrique Almeida da Silva, Jurema Corrêa da Mota, Raulino Sabino da Silva, Mônica Rodrigues Campos, Joyce Mendes de Andrade Schramm
OBJECTIVE: to describe the proportion of duplicate records held on the Brazilian Notifiable Diseases Information System, 2008-2009. METHODS: identification of duplicate records of dengue, leprosy, visceral leishmaniasis and cutaneous leishmaniasis, meningitis and tuberculosis was conducted using Reclink III(r); the proportion of duplicate records was calculated by geographical region, state and municipal population size categories. RESULTS: visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and meningitis had higher proportions of duplicate notification (5...
July 2016: Epidemiologia e Servicos de Saude: Revista do Sistema Unico de Saude do Brasil
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859670/leprosy-reactions-in-post-elimination-stage-the-bangladesh-experience
#15
Mohammad Rafiqul Mowla, Shamim Ara, Afm Mizanur Rahman, Sanai Prue Tripura, Sujat Paul
BACKGROUND: Leprosy reactions are immunologically mediated conditions and a major cause of disability before, during and after multidrug therapy. Little data has been published on the epidemiology of leprosy reactions in Bangladesh. OBJECTIVES: To describe the pattern and prevalence of leprosy reactions in the post elimination stage. METHODS: A descriptive retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out in Chittagong Medical College Hospital using the registered records of patients the periods between 2004 and 2013...
November 15, 2016: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857475/significance-of-color-doppler-imaging-in-leprosy
#16
Yashant Aswani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Indian Journal of Radiology & Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856491/excavating-the-surface-associated-and-secretory-proteome-of-mycobacterium-leprae-for-identifying-vaccines-and-diagnostic-markers-relevant-immunodominant-epitopes
#17
Aarti Rana, Shweta Thakur, Nupur Bhardwaj, Devender Kumar, Yusuf Akhter
For centuries Mycobacterium leprae, etiological agent of leprosy, has been afflicting mankind regardless of extensive use of live attenuated vaccines and antibiotics. Surface-associated and secretory proteins (SASPs) are attractive targets against bacteria. We have integrated biological knowledge with computational approaches and present a proteome-wide identification of SASPs. We also performed computational assignment of immunodominant epitopes as coordinates of prospective antigenic candidates in most important class of SASPs, the outer membrane proteins (OMPs)...
November 16, 2016: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856484/leprosy-post-exposure-prophylaxis-lpep-programme-study-protocol-for-evaluating-the-feasibility-and-impact-on-case-detection-rates-of-contact-tracing-and-single-dose-rifampicin
#18
Tanja Barth-Jaeggi, Peter Steinmann, Liesbeth Mieras, Wim van Brakel, Jan Hendrik Richardus, Anuj Tiwari, Martin Bratschi, Arielle Cavaliero, Bart Vander Plaetse, Fareed Mirza, Ann Aerts
INTRODUCTION: The reported number of new leprosy patients has barely changed in recent years. Thus, additional approaches or modifications to the current standard of passive case detection are needed to interrupt leprosy transmission. Large-scale clinical trials with single dose rifampicin (SDR) given as post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) to contacts of newly diagnosed patients with leprosy have shown a 50-60% reduction of the risk of developing leprosy over the following 2 years. To accelerate the uptake of this evidence and introduction of PEP into national leprosy programmes, data on the effectiveness, impact and feasibility of contact tracing and PEP for leprosy are required...
November 17, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854511/a-negative-feedback-loop-between-autophagy-and-immune-responses-in-mycobacterium-leprae-infection
#19
Yuelong Ma, Li Zhang, Jie Lu, Tiejun Shui, Jia Chen, Jun Yang, Joanna Yuan, Yeqiang Liu, Degang Yang
The obligate intracellular bacterium Mycobacterium leprae is the causative agent of leprosy and primarily infects macrophages, leading to irreversible nerve damage and deformities. So far, the underlying reasons allowing M. leprae to persist and propagate in macrophages, despite the presence of cellular immunity, are still a mystery. Here, we investigated the role of autophagy, a cellular process that degrades cytosolic materials and intracellular pathogens, in M. leprae infection. We found that live M. leprae infection of macrophages resulted in significantly elevated autophagy level...
November 17, 2016: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853198/infection-red-squirrels-get-leprosy
#20
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 16, 2016: Nature
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