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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937434/th17-response-of-borderline-lepromatous-leprosy-inhibits-rash-manifestation-of-dapsone-hypersensitivity-syndrome-case-report
#1
Tamara de Nardo Vanzela, Fred Bernardes Filho, Carlos Gustavo Wambier, Francesca Maia Faria, Norma Tiraboschi Foss, Marco Andrey Cipriani Frade
BACKGROUND: Dapsone hypersensitivity syndrome (DHS) is a rare, but potentially life-threatening reaction to dapsone. OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of immunological factors involved in the sparing of borderline-lepromatous (BL) leprosy patches by the severe exanthema related to DHS. METHODS: The authors describe a 19-year-old man with borderline-lepromatous leprosy with a recent diffuse rash, sparing only the hypochromic patches of leprosy, generalized lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, and jaundice 25 days after the start of multibacillary multidrug therapy...
September 11, 2017: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935761/impact-of-tnf-308-g-a-rs1800629-gene-polymorphism-in-modulation-of-leprosy-risk-a-reappraise-meta-analysis-of-14-case-control-studies
#2
Mohammed Y Areeshi, Raju K Mandal, Sajad Ahmad Dar, Arshad Jawed, Mohd Wahid, Mohtashim Lohani, Aditya K Panda, B N Mishra, Naseem Akhter, Shafiul Haque
Purpose: Earlier studies have shown that tumor necrosis factor ( TNF ) -308 G>A (rs1800629) gene polymorphism is implicated in the susceptibility to leprosy, but results were inconsistent. Methods: A meta-analysis of 14 studies involving 3327 leprosy cases and 3203 controls was performed to appraise the association of TNF -308 G>A polymorphism with leprosy using MEDLINE (PUBMED), EMBASE, and Google Scholar web-databases. Results: Overall, no significant association was observed in allelic (A vs. G: p=0...
September 21, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934421/a-zebrafish-model-of-mycobacterium-leprae-granulomatous-infection
#3
Cressida A Madigan, James Cameron, Lalita Ramakrishnan
Understanding the pathogenesis of leprosy granulomas has been hindered by a paucity of tractable experimental animal models. Mycobacterium leprae, which causes leprosy, grows optimally at approximately 30°C, so we sought to model granulomatous disease in the ectothermic zebrafish. We found that noncaseating granulomas develop rapidly and eventually eradicate infection. rag1 mutant zebrafish, which lack lymphocytes, also form noncaseating granulomas with similar kinetics, but these control infection more slowly...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930664/aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-controls-monocyte-differentiation-into-dendritic-cells-versus-macrophages
#4
Christel Goudot, Alice Coillard, Alexandra-Chloé Villani, Paul Gueguen, Adeline Cros, Siranush Sarkizova, Tsing-Lee Tang-Huau, Mylène Bohec, Sylvain Baulande, Nir Hacohen, Sebastian Amigorena, Elodie Segura
After entering tissues, monocytes differentiate into cells that share functional features with either macrophages or dendritic cells (DCs). How monocyte fate is directed toward monocyte-derived macrophages (mo-Macs) or monocyte-derived DCs (mo-DCs) and which transcription factors control these differentiation pathways remains unknown. Using an in vitro culture model yielding human mo-DCs and mo-Macs closely resembling those found in vivo in ascites, we show that IRF4 and MAFB were critical regulators of monocyte differentiation into mo-DCs and mo-Macs, respectively...
September 19, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930653/fishing-for-answers-in-human-mycobacterial-infections
#5
Miriam Bolz, Joel D Ernst
Two recent studies (Cambier et al., 2017; Madigan et al., 2017) reveal in vivo functions for specific phenolic glycolipids (PGLs) in the mycobacteria that cause tuberculosis or leprosy. M. tuberculosis (and M. marinum) PGL promotes bacterial spread to growth-permissive macrophages, while M. leprae PGL-1 induces macrophages to cause nerve demyelination characteristic of human leprosy.
September 19, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927812/bi-pssm-position-specific-scoring-matrix-based-intelligent-computational-model-for-identification-of-mycobacterial-membrane-proteins
#6
Muslim Khan, Maqsood Hayat, Sher Afzal Khan, Saeed Ahmad, Nadeem Iqbal
Mycobacterium is a pathogenic bacterium, which is a causative agent of tuberculosis (TB) and leprosy. These diseases are very crucial and become the cause of death of millions of people every year in the world. So, the characterize structure of membrane proteins of the protozoan play a vital role in the field of drug discovery because, without any knowledge about this Mycobacterium's membrane protein and their types, the scientists are unable to treat this pathogenic protozoan. So, an accurate and competitive computational model is needed to characterize this uncharacterized structure of mycobacterium...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910627/dancing-with-the-stars-phenolic-glycolipids-partners-with-macrophages
#7
Micah D Dunlap, Shabaana A Khader
How Mycobacterium leprae infection causes demyelination to mediate leprosy pathogenesis has been a long-standing question. In a recent Cell paper, Madigan et al. (2017) use a zebrafish model of M. leprae infection to show that infected macrophages patrol axons to trigger mitochondrial damage and induce demyelination of nerve cells.
September 13, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904702/-leprosy-in-children-in-the-region-of-thi%C3%A3-s-senegal-study-determining-whether-or-not-it-is-a-signal-of-recrudescence
#8
Pauline Dioussé, Haby Dione, Mariama Bammo, Ndiaga Gueye, Thierno Abdoul Aziz Diallo, Fatou Seck, Ramatoulaye Diagne Gueye, Mame Thierno Dieng, Fatma Sarr Fall, Moustapha Diop, Bernard Marcel Diop, Mamadou Mourtalla Ka
Leprosy is an infectious and transmissible disease. According to the WHO, the number of new cases of leprosy in children in Senegal has risen moderately since 2013. This study aimed to analyze the epidemiological, clinical, therapeutic and evolutionary features of leprosy in children in the geographical areas of two social rehabilitation villages in the region of Thiès. We conducted a retrospective study over a period of 3 years (2013-2015). All new cases of Hansen's disease aged 0 -15 years were included...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902294/oral-health-conditions-in-leprosy-cases-in-hyperendemic-area-of-the-brazilian-amazon
#9
Zilanda Martins de Almeida, Alberto Novaes Ramos, Marcos Túlio Raposo, Francisco Rogerlândio Martins-Melo, Cidia Vasconcellos
Leprosy is a hyperendemic chronic condition in the Rondônia State . Despite the significant impact of oral health on the quality of life and clinical evolution of leprosy patients, systematic evaluation of oral health status has been neglected. To analyze the dental-clinical profile, self-perceived oral health and dental health service access of leprosy cases in the municipality of Cacoal in Rondônia State , North Brazil, from 2001 to 2012. A descriptive, cross-sectional study design was performed based on dental evaluation and standardized structured instruments...
August 24, 2017: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902286/specific-antigen-serologic-tests-in-leprosy-implications-for-epidemiological-surveillance-of-leprosy-cases-and-household-contacts
#10
Ana Paula Mendes Carvalho, Angélica da Conceição Oliveira Coelho, Rodrigo Correa-Oliveira, Francisco Carlos Félix Lana
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of straightforward tests for field application and known biomarkers for predicting leprosy progression in infected individuals. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to analyse the response to infection by Mycobacterium leprae based on the reactivity of specific antigens: natural disaccharide linked to human serum albumin via an octyl (NDOHSA), a semisynthetic phenolic glycolipid-I (PGL-I); Leprosy Infectious Disease Research Institute Diagnostic-1 (LID-1) and natural disaccharide octyl - Leprosy Infectious Disease Research Institute Diagnostic-1 (NDOLID)...
September 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891259/mapping-biopsy-for-buruli-ulcer-self-medicated-with-occlusive-dressing
#11
Takuma Hayami, Toshifumi Takahashi, Takeshi Kato, Toshihiro Tanaka, Noriki Fujimoto
Buruli ulcer is the third most common mycobacterial infection next to tuberculosis and leprosy caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. Although it affects the skin, subcutaneous tissues, muscles and sometimes bones, there is no reliable evidence to determine the extent of debridement. We present here a case of Buruli ulcer treated successfully with a preoperative mapping biopsy procedure, which had been self-medicated with occlusive dressing. Because Buruli ulcer is accompanied by subtle pain, patients and clinicians tend to initially treat the ulcer with occlusive dressing therapy, which leads to the misdiagnosis of Buruli ulcer as a common bacterial infection only judging from bacterial culture of the surface of the ulcer...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885988/dapsone-induced-severe-cutaneous-adverse-drug-reactions-are-strongly-linked-with-hla-b-13-01-allele-in-the-thai-population
#12
Therdpong Tempark, Patompong Satapornpong, Pawinee Rerknimitr, Nontaya Nakkam, Niwat Saksit, Penpun Wattanakrai, Thawinee Jantararoungtong, Napatrupron Koomdee, Ajanee Mahakkanukrauh, Wichittra Tassaneeyakul, Sumitra Suttisai, Jirawat Pratoomwun, Jettanong Klaewsongkram, Ticha Rerkpattanapipat, Chonlaphat Sukasem
OBJECTIVES: A previous publication in Chinese leprosy patients showed that the HLA-B*13:01 allele is a strong genetic marker for dapsone-induced drug hypersensitivity reactions, however there are no data describing whether HLA-B*13:01 is a valid marker for prediction of dapsone-induced drug hypersensitivity reactions in other ethnicities or nonleprosy patients. The aim of this study is to investigate whether there is an association between HLA genotypes and dapsone-induced severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs) in nonleprosy patients...
September 6, 2017: Pharmacogenetics and Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882756/opening-a-can-of-worms-leprosy-reactions-and-complicit-soil-transmitted-helminths
#13
Deanna A Hagge, Pawan Parajuli, Chhatra B Kunwar, Divya R S J B Rana, Ruby Thapa, Kapil D Neupane, Peter Nicholls, Linda B Adams, Annemieke Geluk, Mahesh Shah, Indra B Napit
BACKGROUND: >94% of new annual leprosy cases are diagnosed in populations co-endemic for soil-transmitted helminths (STH). STH can profoundly dysregulate host immune responses towards Th2 bias, which can be restored over time after deworming. We hypothesize that STH co-infection is associated with leprosy reaction (denoted as simply "reaction" herein) occurrence within a co-endemic population. METHODS: A cohort study was performed on a cohort of Nepalese leprosy patients across treatment and diagnostic classifications who were screened by routine fecal smear microscopy and multiplex quantitative PCR (qPCR) for Ascaris lumbricoides (Al), Strongyloides stercoralis (Ss), Ancyclostoma duodenale (Ad) and Necator americanus (Na)...
September 1, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879146/trends-in-leprosy-case-detection-in-rwanda-1995-2011-analysis-of-17-years-of-laboratory-data
#14
Innocent Uwimana, Nestor Bizimungu, Fabrice Ingabire, Elyse Mukamukwiye, Odette Sharangabo, Semuto C Ngabonziza, Elaine Kamanzi
BACKGROUND: Leprosy, or Hansen's disease, is a chronic, infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. It remains one of the leading causes of deformity and physical disability. OBJECTIVE: We analysed laboratory records to assess trends in prevalence rates and case detection rates (CDRs) in Rwanda. METHODS: A retrospective review of detected leprosy cases from the records of the Rwanda National Reference Laboratory over a 17-year period (1995-2011) was conducted...
2017: African Journal of Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876410/cross-cultural-adaptation-of-the-emic-stigma-scale-for-people-with-leprosy-in-brazil
#15
Fabiane Frota da Rocha Morgado, Erika Maria Kopp Xavier da Silveira, Anna Maria Sales, Lilian Pinheiro Rodrigues do Nascimento, Euzenir Nunes Sarno, José Augusto da Costa Nery, Aldair J Oliveira, Ximena Illarramendi
OBJECTIVE: Describe the process of cross-cultural adaptation of the "Explanatory Model Interview Catalog - Stigma Scale" for people affected by leprosy in Brazil. METHODS: After being authorized by the author of the scale to use it in the national context, we initiated the five steps process of cross-cultural adaptation: (1) translation, (2) synthesis meeting, (3) back-translation, (4) committee of experts and (5) pre-test. The internal consistency of the scale was evaluated using Cronbach's alpha coefficient...
September 4, 2017: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875310/simultaneous-analysis-of-multiple-t-helper-subsets-in-leprosy-reveals-distinct-patterns-of-th1-th2-th17-and-tregs-markers-expression-in-clinical-forms-and-reactional-events
#16
Michelle de Campos Soriani Azevedo, Heloisa Marques, Larissa Sarri Binelli, Mariana Silva Vieira Malange, Amanda Carreira Devides, Eliane Aparecida Silva, Luciana Raquel Vincenzi Fachin, Cassio Cesar Ghidella, Cleverson Teixeira Soares, Gustavo Pompermaier Garlet, Patrícia Sammarco Rosa, Andrea de Farias Fernandes Belone, Ana Paula Favaro Trombone
Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. Previous studies have demonstrated that the difference among clinical forms of leprosy can be associated with the immune response of patients, mainly by T helper (Th) and regulatory T cells (Tregs). Then, aiming at clarifying the immune response, the expression of cytokines related to Th1, Th2, Th17 and Tregs profiles were evaluated by qPCR in 87 skin biopsies from leprosy patients. Additionally, cytokines and anti-PGL-1 antibodies were determined in serum by ELISA...
September 5, 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870564/evaluation-of-polymerase-chain-reaction-in-nerve-biopsy-specimens-of-patients-with-hansen-s-disease
#17
Vandana Tiwari, Kiranpreet Malhotra, Kainat Khan, Pradeep K Maurya, Ajai Kumar Singh, Anup Kumar Thacker, Nuzhat Husain, Dinkar Kulshreshtha
BACKGROUND: Pure neuritic variety of leprosy (PNL) presents as peripheral neuropathy with absent skin lesions and negative skin smears. Diagnosing PNL is an uphill task as most of these patients have nonspecific changes on nerve biopsy. In such circumstances, additional molecular diagnostic tools like polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has proven to be useful in diagnosing leprosy. The present study was planned to evaluate the role of PCR in nerve biopsy specimens of patients with PNL. METHODS: Patients attending the neuromuscular clinic from January 2013 to June 2014 with mononeuropathy multiplex underwent detailed diagnostic evaluation to ascertain the cause of neuropathy...
September 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870516/a-docking-model-of-dapsone-bound-to-hla-b-13-01-explains-the-risk-of-dapsone-hypersensitivity-syndrome
#18
Hideaki Watanabe, Yurie Watanabe, Yasuya Tashiro, Taisei Mushiroda, Takeshi Ozeki, Hideo Hashizume, Hirohiko Sueki, Toshinori Yamamoto, Naoko Utsunomiya-Tate, Hiroaki Gouda, Yoshio Kusakabe
BACKGROUND: Dapsone (4,4'-diaminodiphenylsulfone) has been widely used for the treatment of infections such as leprosy. Dapsone hypersensitivity syndrome (DHS) is a major side effect, developing in 0.5-3.6% of patients treated with dapsone, and its mortality rate is ∼10%. Recently, human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B*13:01 was identified as a marker of susceptibility to DHS. OBJECTIVES: To investigate why HLA-B*13:01 is responsible for DHS from a structural point of view...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866982/protein-profile-of-leprosy-patients-with-plantar-ulcers-from-the-eastern-amazon-region
#19
Marineia Porto de Oliveira, Jorge Rodrigues de Sousa, Rafael Silva de Araujo, Tinara Leila de Sousa Aarão, Juarez Antonio Simões Quaresma
BACKGROUND: Studies investigating the nutritional status of patients with leprosy and plantar ulcers are sparse. Therefore, the objective of this study was to describe the protein profile of leprosy patients with plantar ulcers from the Eastern Amazon region. METHODS: A case record form was created for 75 patients with leprosy (31 with plantar ulcers and 44 without plantar ulcers) with the following data: sociodemographic characteristics, clinical form of leprosy, presence or absence of plantar ulcers, and nutritional assessment using anthropometry consisting of the measurement of body mass index, arm circumference, arm muscle circumference, and triceps skinfold...
September 4, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865696/-nursing-perspective-on-the-care-of-people-with-leprosy-in-ivory-coast
#20
Dan Lecocq
Lucien Gbadié is a nurse at the Raoul-Follereau Institute in Adzopé, Ivory Coast. In this article, he describes how people with leprosy or Buruli ulcer are treated and supported.
August 2017: Revue de L'infirmière
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