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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332642/current-affairs-future-perspectives-of-tuberculosis-and-antitubercular-agents
#1
REVIEW
Jineetkumar Gawad, Chandrakant Bonde
Tuberculosis (TB) is the major threat for humans from past several decades. Even after advent of several antitubercular drugs, researchers are still struggling for the mycobacterial infections in humans are TB and leprosy. Chronic infections caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae. A particular problem with both of these organisms is that they can survive inside macrophages after phagocytosis, unless these cells are activated by cytokines produced by T-lymphocytes, because of this researchers are not yet succeeded in finding effective treatment on TB...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324959/surveillance-of-intradomiciliary-contacts-of-leprosy-cases-perspective-of-the-client-in-a-hyperendemic-municipality
#2
Helizandra Simoneti Bianchini Romanholo, Eliana Amorim de Souza, Alberto Novaes Ramos Júnior, Adélia Cileode Gomes Castelo Branco Kaiser, Ismália Oliveira da Silva, Aline Lima Brito, Cídia Vasconcellos
OBJECTIVE: To characterize approach methods for intradomiciliary contacts (IdC) of leprosy cases resident in Northern Brazil, during 2001-2012. METHOD: A cross-sectional and descriptive study in the state of Rondônia. Included IdC of leprosy cases diagnosed/reported in SINAN-Ministry of Health (MS), 2001-2012. A semi-structured instrument was applied to the IdCs, with six interventions: complete dermatological examination; complete neurological examination; BCG vaccination; instructions for return to the health unit; BCG guidance; and guidance to mobilize other contacts...
January 2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323094/lepromatous-leprosy-negative-images-giving-the-diagnostic-clue
#3
Swati Singla, Gaurav Singla, Kusum Gupta, Rashmi Arora, Ashish Kumar Mandal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320294/arresting-leprosy-therapeutic-outcomes-besides-cure
#4
Raúl Necochea López
This essay focuses on the use of the concept of "arrest" in Hansen's disease (leprosy) in the United States in the early to middle part of the 20th century, as well as the transformations the concept underwent with the arrival of sulfone drugs and the implications of these changes for patients and public health officers. An "arrest" was a therapeutic outcome characterized by a long course of treatment, noncontagiousness, a very small chance of reactivation, and a need for postdischarge maintenance that depended on sociomedical infrastructures beyond the clinic as well as self-imposed lifestyle limitations...
February 2018: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320287/leprosy-an-early-exemplar-of-the-transformation-of-20th-century-american-medicine
#5
George Weisz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319286/pure-neuritic-leprosy
#6
Patrizia Forgione, Gianfranco Barabino, Alberto Cavalchini, Andrea Clapasson, Lizia Reni, Aurora Parodi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311535/the-medicinal-usage-and-restriction-of-ginseng-in-britain-and-america-1660-1900
#7
Heasim Sul
This article demonstrates the medicinal usage of ginseng in the West from 1660 to 1914. Asian[Korea] ginseng was first introduced into England in the early 17th century, and North American ginseng was found in the early 18th century. Starting from the late 17th century doctors prescribed ginseng to cure many different kinds of ailments and disease such as: fatigue general lethargy, fever, torpidity, trembling in the joints, nervous disorder, laughing and crying hysteria, scurvy, spermatic vessel infection, jaundice, leprosy, dry gripes and constipation, strangury, yellow fever, dysentery, infertility and addictions of alcohol, opium and tobacco, etc...
December 2017: Ŭi Sahak
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311364/isg15-induced-il-10-is-a-novel-anti-inflammatory-myeloid-axis-disrupted-during-active-tuberculosis
#8
Paula Fernandes Dos Santos, Johan Van Weyenbergh, Murilo Delgobo, Daniel de Oliveira Patricio, Brian J Ferguson, Rodrigo Guabiraba, Tim Dierckx, Soraya Maria Menezes, André Báfica, Daniel Santos Mansur
IFN-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) deficiency in humans leads to severe IFNopathies and mycobacterial disease, the latter being previously attributed to its extracellular cytokine-like activity. In this study, we demonstrate a novel role for secreted ISG15 as an IL-10 inducer, unique to primary human monocytes. A balanced ISG15-induced monocyte/IL-10 versus lymphoid/IFN-γ expression, correlating with p38 MAPK and PI3K signaling, was found using targeted in vitro and ex vivo systems analysis of human transcriptomic datasets...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305545/the-repetitive-element-rlep-is-a-highly-specific-target-for-the-detection-of-mycobacterium-leprae
#9
S Braet, K Vandelannoote, C J Meehan, A N Brum Fontes, E Hasker, P S Rosa, N Lucena-Silva, L Rigouts, P N Suffys, B C De Jong
Leprosy, caused by Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae), is a mutilating and highly stigmatized disease that still affects hundreds of thousands of new patients annually.….
January 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300747/household-expenditure-on-leprosy-outpatient-services-in-the-indian-health-system-a-comparative-study
#10
Anuj Tiwari, Pramilesh Suryawanshi, Akash Raikwar, Mohammad Arif, Jan Hendrik Richardus
BACKGROUND: Leprosy is a major public health problem in many low and middle income countries, especially in India, and contributes considerably to the global burden of the disease. Leprosy and poverty are closely associated, and therefore the economic burden of leprosy is a concern. However, evidence on patient's expenditure is scarce. In this study, we estimate the expenditure in primary care (outpatient) by leprosy households in two different public health settings. METHODOLOGY / PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a cross-sectional study, comparing the Union Territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli with the Umbergaon block of Valsad, Gujrat, India...
January 4, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289558/retrospective-active-case-finding-in-cambodia-an-innovative-approach-to-leprosy-control-in-a-low-endemic-country
#11
Thomas Fürst, Arielle Cavaliero, Sambath Lay, Chrystel Dayer, Chan Saren, Ajda Smrekar, So Visal, Tanja Barth-Jaeggi, Peter Steinmann
Currently, leprosy control relies on the clinical diagnosis of leprosy and the subsequent administration of multidrug therapy (MDT). However, many health workers are not familiar with the cardinal signs of leprosy, particularly in low-endemic settings including Cambodia. In response, a new approach to early diagnosis was developed in the country, namely retrospective active case finding (RACF) through small mobile teams. In the frame of RACF, previously diagnosed leprosy patients are traced and their contacts screened through "drives"...
December 28, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283461/a-pathway-based-association-analysis-identified-fmnl1-map3k14-as-susceptibility-genes-for-leprosy
#12
Huimin Zhang, Zhenzhen Wang, Xi'an Fu, Yonghu Sun, Zihao Mi, Gongqi Yu, Lele Sun, Na Wang, Chuan Wang, Qing Zhao, Qing Pan, Zhenhua Yue, Hong Liu, Furen Zhang
The nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB) plays a pivotal role in controlling both innate and adaptive immunity and regulates the expressions of many immunological mediators. Abundant evidences have showed that the importance of NF-κB pathway in the host immune responses against Mycobacterium leprae in the development of leprosy. However, no particular association study between leprosy and NF-κB pathway related gene polymorphisms was reported. Here, we performed a large scale and two-stage candidate association study to investigate the association between 94 NF-κB pathway related genes and leprosy...
December 28, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283038/humanitarian-quarantine-in-practice-medicine-religion-and-leprosy-in-new-caledonia
#13
Ingrid J Sykes
Medicine and religion worked in close synchronisation during the leprosy outbreak of New Caledonia (1890-1950). Once isolation of leprosy-affected people became mandatory doctors and missionaries came together to promote a particular form of medical practice that tied charitable zeal with cutting-edge medical research, developing a sophisticated set of medical practices that catered for the soul as well as the body. Such practices went hand-in-hand with ideas developed by doctors in the earlier stages of the epidemic about the way in which the disease had entered the Kanak (local Melanesian) population...
December 2017: Anthropology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282397/swan-neck-deformity-mimicking-claw-hand-caused-by-arthritis-in-leprosy
#14
Hendra Gunawan, Nia Srie Haryati, Oki Suwarsa
Swan neck deformity is a hyperextension of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints and flexion of the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joints. Claw hand is a hyperextension of the metacarpal joints and flexion of the PIP joints, accompanied by reduced motor strength. A 23-year-old female, who was released from leprosy treatment, presented with a bend of the second to fifth fingers of both hands. There was hyperextension of the PIP joints and flexion of the DIP joints from the second to fifth fingers of both hands, thickening of the ulnar nerves, and hypoesthesia without motor impairment of the fourth and fifth fingers of both hands...
September 2017: Case Reports in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279264/incidence-of-mycobacterial-disorders-in-indian-adult-male-service-population-followed-for-over-two-decades
#15
K V S Hari Kumar, S K Patnaik
BACKGROUND: The comprehensive epidemiology of mycobacterial disorders is scarce from our country. The incidence of Tuberculosis (TB) and Leprosy in a cohort of military personnel followed for a long duration was evaluated in this study. METHODS: The data for this descriptive epidemiologic study was derived from the electronic medical records (EMR) data of the service personnel enrolled between 1990 and 2015. They were recruited between the ages of 17 and 18 years in good health and their morbidity data was derived from the medical records...
December 23, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279044/evaluation-of-16s-rrna-qpcr-for-detection-of-mycobacterium-leprae-dna-in-nasal-secretion-and-skin-biopsy-samples-from-multibacillary-and-paucibacillary-leprosy-cases
#16
Lívia Érika Carlos Marques, Cristiane Cunha Frota, Josiane da Silva Quetz, Alexandre Havt Bindá, Rosa Maria Salane Mota, Maria Araci de Andrade Pontes, Heitor de Sá Gonçalves, Carl Kendall, Ligia Regina Franco Sansigolo Kerr
Mycobacterium leprae bacilli are mainly transmitted by the dissemination of nasal aerosols from multibacillary (MB) patients to susceptible individuals through inhalation. The upper respiratory tract represents the main entry and exit routes of M. leprae. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in detecting M. leprae in nasal secretion (NS) and skin biopsy (SB) samples from MB and paucibacillary (PB) cases. Fifty-four NS samples were obtained from leprosy patients at the Dona Libânia National Reference Centre for Sanitary Dermatology in Ceará, Brazil...
December 26, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278562/disfiguring-facial-lesions-and-loss-of-sensation
#17
Marleen Hundemer, Claire Ramsay Wan
Hansen disease (leprosy) continues to be prevalent in some regions of Africa, Asia, and South America, and each year 100 to 300 cases are reported in the United States, especially in immigrants and patients exposed to armadillos. Treatment depends on patient presentation. Hansen disease remains highly stigmatized, though it is now clear that it is not readily transmitted through casual physical contact.
January 2018: JAAPA: Official Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261639/active-leprosy-neuritis-detected-on-fdg-pet-ct
#18
Shambo Guha Roy, Girish Kumar Parida, Sarthak Tripathy, Chandan J Das, Rakesh Kumar
Uses of FDG PET/CT have been previously documented in multiple series in peripheral nerve pathologies, including neurolymphomatosis, peripheral nerve sheath tumor, and plexopathies. We present the case of a 24-year-old man with leprosy neuritis who underwent FDG PET/CT. We suggest that FDG PET/CT can be used as an adjunct tool to monitor neuritis in leprosy patients.
December 19, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260666/leprosy-in-nonimmigrant-canadian-man-without-travel-outside-north-america-2014
#19
Paul E Bonnar, Natalie P Cunningham, Andrea K Boggild, Noreen M Walsh, Rahul Sharma, Ian R C Davis
In Canada, Hansen disease (leprosy) is rare and not considered in diagnoses for nonimmigrant patients. We report Mycobacterium leprae infection in a Canadian man whose sole travel was to Florida, USA. The M. leprae isolate was identified as armadillo-associated genotype 3I-2-v1. Travelers to the southern United States should avoid contact with armadillos.
January 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250112/early-human-migrations-ca-13-000-years-ago-or-postcontact-europeans-for-the-earliest-spread-of-mycobacterium-leprae-and-mycobacterium-lepromatosis-to-the-americas
#20
REVIEW
Samuel Mark
For over a century, it has been widely accepted that leprosy did not exist in the Americas before the arrival of Europeans. This proposition was based on a combination of historical, paleopathological, and representational studies. Further support came from molecular studies in 2005 and 2009 that four Mycobacterium leprae single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and then 16 SNP subtypes correlated with general geographic regions, suggesting the M. leprae subtypes in the Americas were consistent with European strains...
2017: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
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