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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915387/the-translational-potential-of-human%C3%A2-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-for-clinical-neurology-the-translational-potential-of-hipscs-in-neurology
#1
REVIEW
Helen Devine, Rickie Patani
The induced pluripotent state represents a decade-old Nobel prize-winning discovery. Human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are generated by the nuclear reprogramming of any somatic cell using a variety of established but evolving methods. This approach offers medical science unparalleled experimental opportunity to model an individual patient's disease "in a dish." HiPSCs permit developmentally rationalized directed differentiation into any cell type, which express donor cell mutation(s) at pathophysiological levels and thus hold considerable potential for disease modeling, drug discovery, and potentially cell-based therapies...
December 3, 2016: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915186/role-of-the-purinergic-signaling-in-epilepsy
#2
REVIEW
Marek Cieślak, Andrzej Wojtczak, Michał Komoszyński
Adenine nucleotides and adenosine are signaling molecules that activate purinergic receptors P1 and P2. Activation of A1 adenosine receptors has an anticonvulsant action, whereas activation of A2A receptors might initiate seizures. Therefore, a significant limitation to the use of A1 receptor agonists as drugs in the CNS might be their peripheral side effects. The anti-epileptic activity of adenosine is related to its increased concentration outside the cell. This increase might result from the inhibition of the equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs)...
September 22, 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915167/examining-fkbp5-mrna-expression-in-human-ipsc-derived-neural-cells
#3
Richard Lieberman, Henry R Kranzler, Eric S Levine, Jonathan Covault
In peripheral blood leukocytes, FKBP5 mRNA expression is upregulated following glucocorticoid receptor activation. The single nucleotide polymorphism rs1360780 in FKBP5 is associated with psychiatric illness and has functional molecular effects. However, examination of FKBP5 regulation has largely been limited to peripheral cells, which may not reflect regulation in neural cells. We used 27 human induced pluripotent stem cell lines (iPSCs) derived from 20 subjects to examine FKBP5 mRNA expression following GR activation...
November 24, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915139/impairment-of-fetal-hematopoietic-stem-cell-function-in-the-absence-of-fancd2
#4
Sakiko Suzuki, Ronny R Racine, Nathan A Manalo, Sharon B Cantor, Glen D Raffel
Fanconi Anemia (FA), results from mutations in genes necessary for DNA damage repair and often leads to progressive bone marrow failure. Although the exhaustion of the bone marrow leads to cytopenias in FA patients as they age, evidence from human FA and mouse model fetal livers suggests hematopoietic defects originate in utero which may lead to deficient seeding of the bone marrow. To address this possibility, we examined the consequences of loss of Fancd2, a central component of the FA pathway. Examination of E14...
November 30, 2016: Experimental Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915123/in-vitro-assessment-of-deferoxamine-on-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-from-tumor-and-bone-marrow
#5
Guoping Wang, Guobo Shen, Tao Yin
Deferoxamine (DFO), an iron chelator, is commonly used to remove excess iron from the body. DFO has also been demonstrated to have anti-tumor effect. However, there is no available report on the effect of deferoxamine on mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). In this study, we first isolated tumor-associated MSCs (TAMSCs) from EG-7 tumors, which were positive for CD29, CD44, CD73, CD90 and CD105. Ex vivo cultured stem cells derived from tumor and bone marrow compartment were exposed to DFO. We demonstrated that DFO had growth-arresting and apoptosis-inducing effect on TAMSCs and bone marrow MSCs (BMMSCs)...
November 23, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915086/metabolism-and-neurogenesis
#6
REVIEW
Marlen Knobloch, Sebastian Jessberger
The generation of neurons in the developing and adult mammalian brain by neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) depends on a tight control of NSPC activity and neuronal differentiation that is regulated by a plethora of intrinsic and extrinsic molecular cues. Besides well-studied morphogenic signaling pathways and transcriptional codes that govern the distinct developmental steps from the dividing NSPC to a functional neuron, a critical role of cellular metabolism to determine the functional properties of NSPCs and newborn neurons has been recently identified...
December 1, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915031/acid-ceramidase-deficiency-is-characterized-by-a-unique-plasma-cytokine-and-ceramide-profile-that-is-altered-by-therapy
#7
Shaalee Dworski, Ping Lu, Aneal Khan, Bruno Maranda, John J Mitchell, Rossella Parini, Maja Di Rocco, Boris Hugle, Makoto Yoshimitsu, Bo Magnusson, Balahan Makay, Nur Arslan, Norberto Guelbert, Karoline Ehlert, Andrea Jarisch, Janet Gardner-Medwin, Rawane Dagher, Maria Teresa Terreri, Charles Marques Lorenco, Lilianna Barillas-Arias, Pranoot Tanpaiboon, Alexander Solyom, James S Norris, Xingxuan He, Edward H Schuchman, Thierry Levade, Jeffrey A Medin
Acid Ceramidase Deficiency (Farber Disease, FD) is an ultra-rare Lysosomal Storage Disorder that is poorly understood and often misdiagnosed as Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA). Hallmarks of FD are accumulation of ceramides, widespread macrophage infiltration, splenomegaly, and lymphocytosis. The cytokines involved in this abnormal hematopoietic state are unknown. There are dozens of ceramide species and derivatives, but the specific ones that accumulate in FD have not been investigated. We used a multiplex assay to analyze cytokines and mass spectrometry to analyze ceramides in plasma from patients and mice with FD, controls, Farber patients treated by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), JIA patients, and patients with Gaucher disease...
November 30, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915022/concentration-dependent-survival-and-neural-differentiation-of-murine-embryonic-stem-cells-cultured-on-polyethylene-glycol-dimethacrylate-hydrogels-possessing-a-continuous-concentration-gradient-of-n-cadherin-derived-peptide-his-ala-val-asp-lle
#8
Hyun Ju Lim, Matthew C Mosley, Yuki Kurosu, Laura A Smith Callahan
: N-cadherin cell-cell signaling plays a key role in the structure and function of the nervous system. However, few studies have incorporated bioactive signaling from n-cadherin into tissue engineering matrices. The present study uses a continuous gradient approach in polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate hydrogels to identify concentration dependent effects of n-cadherin peptide, His-Ala-Val-Asp-Lle (HAVDI), on murine embryonic stem cell survival and neural differentiation. The n-cadherin peptide was found to affect the expression of pluripotency marker, alkaline phosphatase, in murine embryonic stem cells cultured on n-cadherin peptide containing hydrogels in a concentration dependent manner...
November 30, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915020/multifunctions-of-dual-zn-mg-ion-co-implanted-titanium-on-osteogenesis-angiogenesis-and-bacteria-inhibition-for-dental-implants
#9
Yiqiang Yu, Guodong Jin, Yang Xue, Donghui Wang, Xuanyong Liu, Jiao Sun
In order to improve the osseointegration and long-term survival of dental implants, it is urgent to develop a multifunctional titanium surface which would simultaneously have osteogeneic, angiogeneic and antibacterial properties. In this study, a potential dental implant material-dual Zn/Mg ion co-implanted titanium (Zn/Mg-PIII) was developed via plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII). The Zn/Mg-PIII surfaces were found to promote initial adhesion and spreading of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs) via the upregulation of the gene expression of integrin α1 and integrin β1...
November 30, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914982/nanotopography-controls-cell-cycle-changes-involved-with-skeletal-stem-cell-self-renewal-and-multipotency
#10
Louisa C Y Lee, Nikolaj Gadegaard, María C de Andrés, Lesley-Anne Turner, Karl V Burgess, Stephen J Yarwood, Julia Wells, Manuel Salmeron-Sanchez, Dominic Meek, Richard O C Oreffo, Matthew J Dalby
In culture isolated bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (more precisely termed skeletal stem cells, SSCs) spontaneously differentiate into fibroblasts, preventing the growth of large numbers of multipotent SSCs for use in regenerative medicine. However, the mechanisms that regulate the expansion of SSCs, while maintaining multipotency and preventing fibroblastic differentiation are poorly understood. Major hurdles to understanding how the maintenance of SSCs is regulated are (a) SSCs isolated from bone marrow are heterogeneous populations with different proliferative characteristics and (b) a lack of tools to investigate SSC number expansion and multipotency...
November 24, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914902/ppar%C3%AE-%C3%AE-a-master-regulator-of-mesenchymal-stem-cell-functions
#11
Farida Djouad, Natacha Ipseiz, Patricia Luz-Crawford, Carina Scholtysek, Gerhard Krönke, Christian Jorgensen
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have emerged as key regulators of physiological and immunological processes. Recently, one of their members PPARβ/δ has been identified as major player in the maintenance of bone homeostasis, by promoting Wnt signalling activity in osteoblast and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). PPARβ/δ not only controls the fate of MSC but also regulates their immunosuppressive properties by directly modulating their NF-κB activity. In this review, we discuss how the regulation of PPARβ/δ provides an innovative strategy for an optimisation of MSC-based therapy...
November 30, 2016: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914827/inhibition-of-long-non-coding-rna-igf2as-protects-apoptosis-and-neuronal-loss-in-anesthetic-damaged-mouse-neural-stem-cell-derived-neurons
#12
Chengwei Song, Chengjun Song, Kui Chen, Xiangdong Zhang
BACKGROUND: In vitro culture of neural stem cell-derived neurons serves as an excellent model to study anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity. In our study, we examined the functional role of long non-coding RNA, IGF2AS, in regulating ketamine-induced neurotoxicity in murine neural stem cells. METHODS: Murine E18.5 brain-derived neural stem cells were cultured in vitro. During neural differentiation stage, ketamine-induced gene expression changes of IGF2 and IGF2AS were recorded by qRT-PCR...
November 30, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914820/cell-therapy-in-critical-limb-ischemia-a-comprehensive-analysis-of-two-cell-therapy-products
#13
Claire Tournois, Bernard Pignon, Marie-Antoinette Sevestre, Rida Al-Rifai, Valerie Creuza, Gaël Poitevin, Caroline François, Philippe Nguyen
BACKGROUND: Cell therapy has been proposed as a salvage limb procedure in critical limb ischemia (CLI). In spite of the fact that clinical trials found some efficacy, the mechanism of action remains elusive. The objective of this study was to characterize two autologous cell therapy products (CTPs) obtained from patients with advanced peripheral arterial disease. METHODS: Bone marrow (BM-CTPs) (n = 20) and CTPs obtained by non-mobilized cytapheresis (peripheral blood [PB]-CTPs) (n = 20) were compared...
November 30, 2016: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914742/influenza-virus-specific-antibody-dependent-cellular-cytoxicity-induced-by-vaccination-or-natural-infection
#14
Rory D de Vries, Nella J Nieuwkoop, Mark Pronk, Erwin de Bruin, Geert Leroux-Roels, Elisabeth G W Huijskens, Rob S van Binnendijk, Florian Krammer, Marion P G Koopmans, Guus F Rimmelzwaan
Influenza viruses are responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality during seasonal epidemics. Vaccination is the most effective method to prevent infection, however due to antigenic drift of the viral surface protein hemagglutinin (HA), annual influenza virus vaccination is required. In addition to seasonal viruses, certain (avian) influenza A viruses of other subtypes, like H5N1 or H7N9, cause sporadic zoonotic infections. Therefore, the availability of game-changing novel vaccines that induce "universal" immune responses to a wide variety of influenza A virus subtypes is highly desirable...
November 30, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914462/recombinant-mhc-tetramers-for-isolation-of-virus-specific-cd8-cells-from-healthy-donors-potential-approach-for-cell-therapy-of-posttransplant-cytomegalovirus-infection
#15
A S Vdovin, S Y Filkin, P R Yefimova, S A Sheetikov, N M Kapranov, Y O Davydova, E S Egorov, E G Khamaganova, M Y Drokov, L A Kuzmina, E N Parovichnikova, G A Efimov, V G Savchenko
Patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation have a high risk of cytomegalovirus reactivation, which in the absence of T-cell immunity can result in the development of an acute inflammatory reaction and damage of internal organs. Transfusion of the virus-specific donor T-lymphocytes represents an alternative to a highly toxic and often ineffective antiviral therapy. Potentially promising cell therapy approach comprises transfusion of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, specific to the viral antigens, immediately after their isolation from the donor's blood circulation without any in vitro expansion...
November 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914361/development-of-cxcr4-modulators-by-virtual-hts-of-a-novel-amide-sulfamide-compound-library
#16
Renren Bai, Qi Shi, Zhongxing Liang, Younghyoun Yoon, Yiran Han, Amber Feng, Shuangping Liu, Yoonhyeun Oum, C Chris Yun, Hyunsuk Shim
CXCR4 plays a crucial role in recruitment of inflammatory cells to inflammation sites at the beginning of the disease process. Modulating CXCR4 functions presents a new avenue for anti-inflammatory strategies. However, using CXCR4 antagonists for a long term usage presents potential serious side effect due to their stem cell mobilizing property. We have been developing partial CXCR4 antagonists without such property. A new computer-aided drug design program, the FRESH workflow, was used for anti-CXCR4 lead compound discovery and optimization, which coupled both compound library building and CXCR4 docking screens in one campaign...
November 24, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914254/glycosaminoglycans-gags-and-gag-mimetics-regulate-the-behavior-of-stem-cell-differentiation
#17
REVIEW
Mengmeng Wang, Xiaoli Liu, Zhonglin Lyu, Hao Gu, Dan Li, Hong Chen
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are linear sulfated polysaccharides that exist in most mammalian cells. By undergoing conjugation with various proteins, GAGs play important roles in a variety of bioactivities, including promoting stem cell differentiation. However, they have their own intrinsic disadvantages that limit their further applications for cell therapy and tissue engineering. Therefore, more and more GAG-mimetic materials have been studied as natural GAG analogs for emerging applications. This review explains the mechanism of how GAGs regulate stem cell differentiation and elaborates on the current progress of the applications of GAG-based materials on regulating stem cell differentiation...
November 20, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914252/synthesis-of-copper-containing-bioactive-glass-nanoparticles-using-a-modified-st%C3%A3-ber-method-for-biomedical-applications
#18
Kai Zheng, Xinyi Dai, Miao Lu, Norbert Hüser, Nicola Taccardi, Aldo R Boccaccini
Copper (Cu)-containing bioactive glasses (BGs) are attracting attention for bone regeneration and wound healing since they have bone-bonding capability and potential osteogenesis and angiogenesis properties. In this study, highly dispersed and spherical Cu-containing bioactive glass nanoparticles (Cu-BGNs) were successfully synthesized via a modified Stöber method. The content of incorporated Cu in the particles could be tailored by adjusting the amount of the added Cu precursor, a procedure that had no significant effects on the morphological and structural characteristics of the nanoparticles...
November 15, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914251/improved-rhbmp-2-function-on-mbg-incorporated-tio2-nanorod-films
#19
Fei Ge, Mengfei Yu, Cuixia Yu, Jun Lin, Wenjian Weng, Kui Cheng, Huiming Wang
In the process of biomaterials mediated bone regeneration, rhBMP-2 delivery at efficient dose in sustained kinetics is crucial for promoting cell osteogenic differentiation. Meanwhile, surface morphology of the biomaterials could regulate cellular responses as well as strengthen the rhBMP-2 interaction with cells for better bone induction. Herein, TiO2 nanorod films with varied mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG) incorporation amount were designed to strengthen the efficacy of rhBMP-2, basing on optimized loading/release behaviors and surface nanostructure cooperatively...
November 24, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914035/mobilization-of-peripheral-blood-stem-cells-and-changes-in-the-concentration-of-plasma-factors-influencing-their-movement-in-patients-with-panic-disorder
#20
Marcin Jabłoński, Jolanta Kucharska Mazur, Maciej Tarnowski, Barbara Dołęgowska, Daniel Pędziwiatr, Ewa Kubiś, Marta Budkowska, Daria Sałata, Justyna Pełka Wysiecka, Arkadiusz Kazimierczak, Artur Reginia, Mariusz Z Ratajczak, Jerzy Samochowiec
In this paper we examined whether stem cells and factors responsible for their movement may serve as new biological markers of anxiety disorders. The study was carried out on a group of 30 patients diagnosed with panic disorder (examined before and after treatment), compared to 30 healthy individuals forming the control group. We examined the number of circulating HSCs (hematopoetic stem cells) (Lin-/CD45 +/CD34 +) and HSCs (Lin-/CD45 +/AC133 +), the number of circulating VSELs (very small embryonic-like stem cells) (Lin-/CD45-/CD34 +) and VSELs (Lin-/CD45-/AC133 +), as well as the concentration of complement components: C3a, C5a and C5b-9, SDF-1 (stromal derived factor) and S1P (sphingosine-1-phosphate)...
December 2, 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
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