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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829943/hbl1-is-a-human-long-noncoding-rna-that-modulates-cardiomyocyte-development-from-pluripotent-stem-cells-by-counteracting-mir1
#1
Juli Liu, Yang Li, Bo Lin, Yi Sheng, Lei Yang
Cardiogenesis processes in human and animals have differential dynamics, suggesting the existence of species-specific regulators during heart development. However, it remains a challenge to discover the human-specific cardiac regulatory genes, given that most coding genes are conserved. Here, we report the identification of a human-specific long noncoding RNA, Heart Brake LncRNA 1 (HBL1), which regulates cardiomyocyte development from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). Overexpression of HBL1 repressed, whereas knockdown and knockout of HBL1 increased, cardiomyocyte differentiation from hiPSCs...
August 21, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829785/dendrimer-doxorubicin-conjugates-exhibit-improved-anticancer-activity-and-reduce-doxorubicin-induced-cardiotoxicity-in-a-murine-hepatocellular-carcinoma-model
#2
Sibu P Kuruvilla, Gopinath Tiruchinapally, A Colleen Crouch, Mohamed E H ElSayed, Joan M Greve
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the 2nd leading cause of cancer-related deaths every year globally. The most common form of treatment, hepatic arterial infusion (HAI), involves the direct injection of doxorubicin (DOX) into the hepatic artery. It is plagued with limited therapeutic efficacy and the occurrence of severe toxicities (e.g. cardiotoxicity). We aim to improve the therapeutic index of DOX delivered via HAI by loading the drug onto generation 5 (G5) poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers targeted to hepatic cancer cells via N-acetylgalactosamine (NAcGal) ligands...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829764/rna-helicase-dhx15-acts-as-a-tumour-suppressor-in-glioma
#3
Shingo Ito, Hideto Koso, Kazuhiro Sakamoto, Sumiko Watanabe
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma is the most common form of malignant brain cancer and has a poor prognosis in adults. We identified Dhx15 as a candidate tumour suppressor gene in glioma by transposon-based mutagenesis. Dhx15 is an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent RNA helicase belonging to the DEAH-box (DHX) helicase family, but its role in cancer remains elusive. METHODS: DHX15 expression levels were examined in glioma cell lines. DHX15 functions were examined by gain- and loss-of-function analyses...
August 22, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829672/growth-differentiation-factor-11-does-not-mitigate-the-lethal-effects-of-total-abdominal-irradiation
#4
Sara Duhachek-Muggy, Kruttika Bhat, Erina Vlashi, Frank Pajonk
Total-body exposure to radiation causes widespread tissue injury. Damage to the hematopoietic and intestinal stem cell compartments is particularly lethal and mitigators of this damage are critical in providing effective treatment. Parabiosis radiation experiments, in which the vasculatures of two rodents are anastomosed prior to irradiation of one of the animals, have shown that there is a circulating factor that protects mice from radiation-induced intestinal death. Recently reported studies have suggested that growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) is responsible for the rejuvenation of stem cells observed in parabiosis experiments involving aging mice...
August 22, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829423/multi-photon-time-lapse-imaging-to-visualize-development-in-real-time-visualization-of-migrating-neural-crest-cells-in-zebrafish-embryos
#5
Antionette L Williams, Brenda L Bohnsack
Congenital eye and craniofacial anomalies reflect disruptions in the neural crest, a transient population of migratory stem cells that give rise to numerous cell types throughout the body. Understanding the biology of the neural crest has been limited, reflecting a lack of genetically tractable models that can be studied in vivo and in real-time. Zebrafish is a particularly important developmental model for studying migratory cell populations, such as the neural crest. To examine neural crest migration into the developing eye, a combination of the advanced optical techniques of laser scanning microscopy with long wavelength multi-photon fluorescence excitation was implemented to capture high-resolution, three-dimensional, real-time videos of the developing eye in transgenic zebrafish embryos, namely Tg(sox10:EGFP) and Tg(foxd3:GFP), as sox10 and foxd3 have been shown in numerous animal models to regulate early neural crest differentiation and likely represent markers for neural crest cells...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829422/development-of-a-refined-protocol-for-trans-scleral-subretinal-transplantation-of-human-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells-into-rat-eyes
#6
Cuiping Zhao, Nathan C Boles, Justine D Miller, Suzanne Kawola, Sally Temple, Richard J Davis, Jeffrey H Stern
Degenerative retinal diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are the leading cause of irreversible vision loss worldwide. AMD is characterized by the degeneration of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, which are a monolayer of cells functionally supporting and anatomically wrapping around the neural retina. Current pharmacological treatments for the non-neovascular AMD (dry AMD) only slow down the disease progression but cannot restore vision, necessitating studies aimed at identifying novel therapeutic strategies...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829419/in-vitro-differentiation-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-into-functional-cardiomyocyte-like-cells
#7
Peter Szaraz, Yarden S Gratch, Farwah Iqbal, Clifford L Librach
Myocardial infarction and the subsequent ischemic cascade result in the extensive loss of cardiomyocytes, leading to congestive heart failure, the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a promising option for cell-based therapies to replace current, invasive techniques. MSCs can differentiate into mesenchymal lineages, including cardiac cell types, but complete differentiation into functional cells has not yet been achieved. Previous methods of differentiation were based on pharmacological agents or growth factors...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829358/impact-of-platelet-rich-plasma-on-viability-and-proliferation-in-wound-healing-processes-after-external-radiation
#8
Yvonne Reinders, Oliver Felthaus, Gero Brockhoff, Fabian Pohl, Norbert Ahrens, Lukas Prantl, Frank Haubner
Platelet-rich plasma is a current subject of studies on chronic wound healing therapy due to possible pro-angiogenic effects. Microvascular compromise represents the major component in radiogenic wound healing complications. The effects of platelet-rich plasma on irradiated cells of the cutaneous wound healing process are poorly understood so far. In this study, the interaction of endothelial cells and adipose-derived stem cells in conjunction with treatment with platelet-rich plasma is investigated in the context of radiation effects...
August 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829353/chemokines-as-a-conductor-of-bone-marrow-microenvironment-in-chronic-myeloid-leukemia
#9
REVIEW
Naofumi Mukaida, Yamato Tanabe, Tomohisa Baba
All blood lineage cells are generated from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which reside in bone marrow after birth. HSCs self-renew, proliferate, and differentiate into mature progeny under the control of local microenvironments including hematopoietic niche, which can deliver regulatory signals in the form of bound or secreted molecules and from physical cues such as oxygen tension and shear stress. Among these mediators, accumulating evidence indicates the potential involvement of several chemokines, particularly CXCL12, in the interaction between HSCs and bone marrow microenvironments...
August 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828971/molecular-biomarkers-of-anaplastic-thyroid-carcinoma
#10
F Bozorg-Ghalati, M Hedayati
Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is the rarest but extremely aggressive thyroid cancer subtype. This neoplasia is composed of undifferentiated tumor cells with poor prognosis and resistant to common thyroid cancer therapy. Early stage identification of this cancer for prompt treatment is very vital. Presently, cytological evaluation of fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) which is known as invasive recognition assay, is the standard diagnostic method for the diagnosis of malignant thyroid tumors. Frequent studies have suggested that using the molecular biomarkers of thyroid cancer tissue alongside cytological examination, increase the accuracy of diagnostic tests...
August 21, 2017: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828736/hyperaccumulating-potential-of-bidens-pilosa-l-for-cd-and-elucidation-of-its-translocation-behavior-based-on-cell-membrane-permeability
#11
Huiping Dai, Shuhe Wei, Irena Twardowska, Ran Han, Lei Xu
Phytoremediation with the use of hyperaccumulating plant species to remove excess trace metals from contaminated soil and water is considered a cost-effective non-invasive technique. Over 400 plant taxa worldwide have been identified as natural hyperaccumulators, but only very few are reported to hyperaccumulate Cd. Bidens pilosa L. is a newly found, promising Cd hyperaccumulator, although its potential to accumulate Cd and mechanism of this process are not yet well known. This paper was aimed at exploring hyperaccumulation capacity of B...
August 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828692/systemic-inflammation-response-index-siri-cancer-stem-cells-and-survival-of-localised-gastric-adenocarcinoma-after-curative-resection
#12
Sen Li, Xiuwen Lan, Hongyu Gao, Zhiguo Li, Li Chen, Wenpeng Wang, Shubin Song, Yimin Wang, Chunfeng Li, Hongfeng Zhang, Yingwei Xue
PURPOSE: Systemic Inflammation Response Index (SIRI), based on peripheral neutrophil, monocyte, and lymphocyte counts, was recently developed and used as a marker to predict the survival of patients with malignant tumours. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) can contribute to gastric cancer progression and recurrence. It is not clear whether SIRI is associated with CSCs during gastric cancer development. METHODS: The SIRI was developed in a training cohort of 455 gastric cancer patients undergoing curative resection between 2007 and 2009, and validated in a validation cohort of 327 patients from 2010 to 2011...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828676/therapeutic-applications-of-extracellular-vesicles-perspectives-from-newborn-medicine
#13
Gareth R Willis, Stella Kourembanas, S Alex Mitsialis
With the advancements in antenatal steroid therapies and surfactant replacement, current clinical practices in neonatal intensive care units allow the survival of infants at very low gestational age. Despite these advances, there continues to be significant morbidity associated with extreme preterm birth that includes both short-term and long-term cardiorespiratory impairment. With no effective single therapy in preventing or treating developmental lung injuries, the need for new tools to treat and reduce risk of complications associated with extreme preterm birth is urgent...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828674/isolation-of-extracellular-vesicles-from-stem-cells
#14
Zixin Chen, Yongjun Li, Hong Yu, Yan Shen, Chengwei Ju, Genshan Ma, Yutao Liu, Il-Man Kim, Neal L Weintraub, Yaoliang Tang
Transplanted induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSC ) and embryonic stem cells (ESC) exhibit enhanced survival in ischemic tissues and promote survival of neighboring cells via paracrine effects. Recent studies indicate that stem cells can secrete extracellular vesicles (EV), which can shuttle noncoding RNA between cells and facilitate intercellular signaling and communication between donor stem cells and recipient tissues. Direct transplantation of IPSC -derived EV (IPSC -EV) is highly effective at promoting survival and preventing apoptosis of cardiomyocytes in a mouse model of acute myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (MI/R)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828642/detection-of-intrathrombotic-endothelial-progenitor-cells-and-its-application-to-thrombus-age-estimation-in-a-murine-deep-vein-thrombosis-model
#15
Mizuho Nosaka, Yuko Ishida, Akihiko Kimura, Hiroki Yamamoto, Takashi Kato, Yumi Kuninaka, Emi Shimada, Toshikazu Kondo
Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), a newly identified cell type, are bone marrow-derived progenitor cells that co-express stem cell markers and Flk-1 (one of the receptors for vascular endothelial growth factor). In this study, double-color immunofluorescence analysis was performed using anti-CD34 and anti-Flk-1 antibodies in order to examine the time-dependent intrathrombotic appearance of EPCs, using the thrombi of DVT model mice with different thrombus ages (1-21 days). In thrombus cross-section specimens with an age of less than 3 days, CD34+/Flk-1+ EPCs were not detected...
August 21, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828636/critical-periods-regulating-the-circuit-integration-of-adult-born-hippocampal-neurons
#16
REVIEW
Hannah Maria Jahn, Matteo Bergami
The dentate gyrus (DG) in the adult brain maintains the capability to generate new granule neurons throughout life. Neural stem cell-derived new-born neurons emerge to play key functions in the way information is processed in the DG and then conveyed to the CA3 hippocampal area, yet accumulating evidence indicates that both the maturation process and the connectivity pattern of new granule neurons are not prefigured but can be modulated by the activity of local microcircuits and, on a network level, by experience...
August 22, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828260/preparation-and-characteristics-of-gelatin-sponges-crosslinked-by-microbial-transglutaminase
#17
Haiyan Long, Kunlong Ma, Zhenghua Xiao, Xiaomei Ren, Gang Yang
Microbial transglutaminase (mTG) was used as a crosslinking agent in the preparation of gelatin sponges. The physical properties of the materials were evaluated by measuring their material porosity, water absorption, and elastic modulus. The stability of the sponges were assessed via hydrolysis and enzymolysis. To study the material degradation in vivo, subcutaneous implantations of sponges were performed on rats for 1-3 months, and the implanted sponges were analyzed. To evaluate the cell compatibility of the mTG crosslinked gelatin sponges (mTG sponges), adipose-derived stromal stem cells were cultured and inoculated into the scaffold...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828182/tendon-injuries-basic-science-and-new-repair-proposals
#18
REVIEW
Fan Wu, Michael Nerlich, Denitsa Docheva
Tendons connect muscles to bones, ensuring joint movement. With advanced age, tendons become more prone to degeneration followed by injuries. Tendon repair often requires lengthy periods of rehabilitation, especially in elderly patients. Existing medical and surgical treatments often fail to regain full tendon function.The development of novel treatment methods has been hampered due to limited understanding of basic tendon biology. Recently, it was discovered that tendons, similar to other mesenchymal tissues, contain tendon stem/progenitor cells (TSPCs) which possess the common stem cell properties...
July 2017: EFORT open reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828165/angiogenesis-status-in-patients-with-acute-myeloid-leukemia-from-diagnosis-to-post-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#19
REVIEW
M Mohammadi Najafabadi, K Shamsasenjan, P Akbarzadehalaleh
As already proven in solid tumors, increased angiogenesis leads to increased number of blood vessels, resulting in unfavorable outcomes and resistance to chemotherapy. It was previously thought that angiogenesis plays no role in the pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), due to the fact that AML is a liquid tumor. However, many studies have suggested that increased angiogenesis has important roles in patients with AML, including increased numbers of vessels in bone marrow and pro-angiogenic factors, as well as decreased anti-angiogenic factors...
2017: International Journal of Organ Transplantation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828021/effects-of-endothelial-and-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-improving-myocardial-function-in-a-sheep-animal-model
#20
Shahram Rabbani, Masoud Soleimani, Mohammad Sahebjam, Mohammad Imani, Seyed Mahdi Nassiri, Amir Atashi, Morteza Daliri Joupari, Ali Ghiaseddin, Mostafa Latifpour, Seyed Hossein Ahmadi Tafti
Background: Myocardial infarction is the main cause of death worldwide. Angiogenesis, a promising new therapy for the treatment of diffuse coronary artery disease, shows a poor response to conventional revascularization techniques. This study focused on improving myocardial function using endothelial cells (ECs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in a sheep animal model. Methods: Acute myocardial infarction was induced in 18 sheep (12 treated cases and 6 controls). Autologous MSCs and ECs were injected in the infarcted area and the border zone...
April 2017: Journal of Tehran Heart Center
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