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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913448/rapid-electrical-stimulation-increased-cardiac-apoptosis-through-disturbance-of-calcium-homeostasis-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes
#1
Le Geng, Zidun Wang, Chang Cui, Yue Zhu, Jiaojiao Shi, Jiaxian Wang, Minglong Chen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Heart failure induced by tachycardia, the most common arrhythmia, is frequently observed in clinical practice. This study was designed to investigate the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Rapid electrical stimulation (RES) at a frequency of 3 Hz was applied on human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) for 7 days, with 8 h/day and 24 h/day set to represent short-term and long-term tachycardia, respectively. Age-matched hiPSC-CMs without electrical stimulation or with slow electrical stimulation (1 Hz) were set as no electrical stimulation (NES) control or low-frequency electrical stimulation (LES) control...
June 15, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913410/incensole-acetate-prevents-beta-amyloid-induced-neurotoxicity-in-human-olfactory-bulb-neural-stem-cells
#2
Mohammed A El-Magd, Sara F Khalifa, Faisal Abdulrahman A Alzahrani, Abdelnaser A Badawy, Eman S El-Shetry, Lamess M Dawood, Mohammed M Alruwaili, Hedib A Alrawaili, Engi F Risha, Fathy M El-Taweel, Hany E Marei
β-Amyloid peptide (Aβ) is a potent neurotoxic protein associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) which causes oxidative damage to neurons. Incensole acetate (IA) is a major constituent of Boswellia carterii resin, which has anti-inflammatory and protective properties against damage of a large verity of neural subtypes. However, this neuroprotective effect was not studied on human olfactory bulb neural stem cells (hOBNSCs). Herein, we evaluated this effect and studied the underlying mechanisms. Exposure to Aβ25-35 (5 and 10 μM for 24 h) inhibited proliferation (revealed by downregulation of Nestin and Sox2 gene expression), and induced differentiation (marked by increased expression of the immature neuronal marker Map2 and the astrocyte marker Gfap) of hOBNSCs...
June 15, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913375/versatile-graphene-biosensors-for-enhancing-human-cell-therapy
#3
REVIEW
George M Vlăsceanu, Roxana-Maria Amărandi, Mariana Ioniță, Teddy Tite, Horia Iovu, Luisa Pilan, Jorge S Burns
Technological advances in engineering and cell biology stimulate novel approaches for medical treatment, in particular cell-based therapy. The first cell-based gene therapy against cancer was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Progress in cancer diagnosis includes a blood test detecting five cancer types. Numerous stem cell phase I/II clinical trials showing safety and efficacy will soon pursue qualifying criteria for advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP), aspiring to join the first stem-cell therapy approved by the European Medicines Agency...
May 1, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913222/a-multifunctional-multimaterial-system-for-on-demand-protein-release
#4
REVIEW
Deniz Ceylan Tuncaboylu, Fabian Friess, Christian Wischke, Andreas Lendlein
In order to provide best control of the regeneration process for each individual patient, the release of protein drugs administered during surgery may need to be timely adapted and/or delayed according to the progress of healing/regeneration. This study aims to establish a multifunctional implant system for a local on-demand release, which is applicable for various types of proteins. It was hypothesized that a tubular multimaterial container kit, which hosts the protein of interest as a solution or gel formulation, would enable on-demand release if equipped with the capacity of diameter reduction upon external stimulation...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913147/long-noncoding-rna-ancr-suppresses-bone-formation-of-periodontal-ligament-stem-cells-via-sponging-mirna-758
#5
Wei Peng, Wei Deng, Jing Zhang, Gengwang Pei, Qiong Rong, Shuangxi Zhu
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) were proposed to be important regulators influencing various differentiation processes. Yet, the molecular mechanisms of lncRNAs governing osteogenic differentiation of Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells (PDLSCs) remain unclear. Here, PDLSCs were isolated from normal periodontal ligament of human (PDL) whereas P-PDLSCs were isolated from periodontitis affected PDL. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed to examine the relative expression level of lncRNA-ANCR and of Osterix (OSX), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) as well as Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) in PDLSCs...
June 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913145/fibromodulin-modulates-myoblast-differentiation-by-controlling-calcium-channel
#6
Eun Ju Lee, Joo Hyun Nam, Inho Choi
Fibromodulin (FMOD) is a proteoglycan present in extracellular matrix (ECM). Based on our previous findings that FMOD controls myoblast differentiation by regulating the gene expressions of collagen type I alpha 1 (COL1α1) and integral membrane protein 2 A (Itm2a), we undertook this study to investigate relationships between FMOD and calcium channels and to understand further the mechanism by which they control myoblast differentiation. Gene expression studies and luciferase reporter assays showed FMOD affected calcium channel gene expressions by regulating calcium channel gene promoter, and patch-clamp experiments showed both L- and T-type calcium channel currents were almost undetectable in FMOD knocked down cells...
June 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913119/effect-of-tak1-on-osteogenic-differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-by-regulating-bmp-2-via-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-and-mapk-pathway
#7
Hongpeng Yang, Yue Guo, Dawei Wang, Xiaofei Yang, Chengzhi Ha
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the ability to differentiate into osteoblasts and chondrocytes. In vitro osteogenic differentiation is critical but the molecular mechanism has yet to be further clarified. The role of TGF-β activated kinase 1 (TAK1) in MSCs osteogenesis differentiation has not been reported. By adding si-TAK1 and rhTAK1, the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs was measured. Expression levels of the osteoblastic marker genes during osteogenic differentiation of MSCs were checked. As well as molecules involved in BMP and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways...
January 2, 2018: Organogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913074/rho-gtpases-and-their-downstream-effectors-in-megakaryocyte-biology
#8
Irina Pleines, Deya Cherpokova, Markus Bender
Megakaryocytes differentiate from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow. The transition of megakaryocytes to platelets is a complex process. Thereby, megakaryocytes extend proplatelets into sinusoidal blood vessels, where the proplatelets undergo fission to release platelets. Defects in platelet production can lead to a low platelet count (thrombocytopenia) with increased bleeding risk. Rho GTPases comprise a family of small signaling G proteins that have been shown to be master regulators of the cytoskeleton controlling many aspects of intracellular processes...
June 18, 2018: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912864/evolutionary-dynamics-of-paroxysmal-nocturnal-hemoglobinuria
#9
Nathaniel Mon Père, Tom Lenaerts, Jorge M Pacheco, David Dingli
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is an acquired clonal blood disorder characterized by hemolysis and a high risk of thrombosis, that is due to a deficiency in several cell surface proteins that prevent complement activation. Its origin has been traced to a somatic mutation in the PIG-A gene within hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). However, to date the question of how this mutant clone expands in size to contribute significantly to hematopoiesis remains under debate. One hypothesis posits the existence of a selective advantage of PIG-A mutated cells due to an immune mediated attack on normal HSC, but the evidence supporting this hypothesis is inconclusive...
June 18, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912663/stem-cell-therapy-using-bone-marrow-derived-mononuclear-cells-in-treatment-of-lower-limb-lymphedema-a-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#10
Ahmed Mohammed Ismail, Said M Abdou, Amira Y Abdelnaby, Mennat Allah Hamdy, Ayman A El Saka, Amr Gawaly
BACKGROUND: Up till now, there is no satisfactory treatment for lymphedema. The aim of this study is to evaluate stem cell therapy in lymphedema. METHODS AND RESULTS: This prospective randomized study includes 40 patients with chronic lymphedema divided randomly into two groups: group I (stem cell therapy group) and group II (control group). In group I, bone marrow was aspirated and mononuclear cells were separated and then transplanted into the patients. In group II, patients compression therapy alone was applied...
June 2018: Lymphatic Research and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912616/adipose-derived-stem-cell-derived-microvesicle-released-mir-210-promoted-proliferation-migration-and-invasion-of-endothelial-cells-by-regulating-runx3
#11
Zeqi Zheng, Lijuan Liu, Yuliang Zhan, Songping Yu, Ting Kang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the potential mechanism of miRNA released from adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC)-derived micro vesicle (MV) on the modulation of proliferation, migration and invasion of endothelial cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: miR-210 level was detected by qT-PCR. Alix, VEGF and RUNX3 expressions were detected by Western blot. The proliferation, migration and invasion of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were observed by MTT assay and Transwell assay...
June 18, 2018: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912438/an-oncolytic-measles-virus-sensitive-group-3-medulloblastoma-model-in-immune-competent-mice
#12
Sangeet Lal, Diego Carrera, Joanna J Phillips, William A Weiss, Corey Raffel
Background: Oncolytic measles virus (MV) is effective in xenograft models of many tumor types in immune-compromised mice. However, no murine cell line exists that is tumorigenic, grows in immune-competent mice, and is killed by MV. The lack of such a model prevents an examination of the effect of the immune system on MV oncotherapy. Methods: Cerebellar stem cells from human CD46-transgenic immunocompetent mice were transduced to express Sendai virus C-protein, murine C-Myc, and Gfi1b proteins...
June 14, 2018: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912360/expression-levels-of-brown-beige-adipocyte-related-genes-in-fat-depots-of-vitamin-a-restricted-fattening-cattle
#13
Hsuan-Ju Chen, Tsubasa Ihara, Hidetugu Yoshioka, Erina Itoyama, Shoko Kitamura, Hiroshi Nagase, Hiroaki Murakami, Yoichiro Hoshino, Masaru Murakami, Shozo Tomonaga, Tohru Matsui, Masayuki Funaba
Brown/beige adipocytes dissipate energy as heat. We previously showed that brown/beige adipocytes are present in white adipose tissue (WAT) of fattening cattle. The present study examined the effect of vitamin A restriction on mRNA expression of brown/beige adipocyte-related genes. In Japan, fattening cattle are conventionally fed a vitamin A-restricted diet to improve beef marbling. Twelve Japanese Black steers aged 10 months were fed control feed (n=6) or vitamin A-restricted feed (n=6) for 20 months. Subcutaneous WAT (scWAT) and mesenteric WAT (mesWAT) were collected, and mRNA expression levels of molecules related to function of brown/beige adipocytes (Ucp1, Cidea, Dio2, Cox7a and Cox8b) as well as transcriptional regulators related to brown/beige adipogenesis (Zfp516, Nfia, Prdm16, and Pgc-1α) were evaluated...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912317/microrna-590-5p-inhibits-intestinal-inflammation-by-targeting-yap
#14
Minhao Yu, Yang Luo, Zhijie Cong, Yifei Mu, Yier Qiu, Ming Zhong
Background/Aims: Hippo signaling is an evolutionarily conserved pathway that controls organ size by regulating cell proliferation, survival, apoptosis, and stem cell self-renewal. In addition, Hippo signaling is profoundly implicated in intestinal regeneration and cancer. However, its roles in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD) remain largely unexplored. Methods: Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to identify the deregulated molecules in Hippo signaling...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912196/trans-inner-cell-mass-injection-of-embryonic-stem-cells-leads-to-higher-chimerism-rates
#15
Gregory J Scott, Artiom Gruzdev, Thomas B Hagler, Manas K Ray
In an effort to increase efficiency in the creation of genetically modified mice via ES Cell methodologies, we present an adaptation to the current blastocyst injection protocol. Here we report that a simple rotation of the embryo, and injection through Trans-Inner cell mass (TICM) increased the percentage of chimeric mice from 31% to 50%, with no additional equipment or further specialized training. 26 different inbred clones, and 35 total clones were injected over a period of 9 months. There was no significant difference in either pregnancy rate or recovery rate of embryos between traditional injection techniques and TICM...
May 29, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912180/an-alternative-culture-method-to-maintain-genomic-hypomethylation-of-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells-using-mek-inhibitor-pd0325901-and-vitamin-c
#16
Cuiping Li, Weiyi Lai, Hailin Wang
Embryonic stem (ES) cells have the potential to differentiate into any of the three germ layers (endoderm, mesoderm, or ectoderm), and can generate many lineages for regenerative medicine. ES cell culture in vitro has long been the subject of widespread concerns. Classically, mouse ES cells are maintained in serum and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF)-containing medium. However, under serum/LIF conditions, cells show heterogeneity in morphology and the expression profile of pluripotency-related genes, and are mostly in a metastable state...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912041/cincinnati-protocol-for-preoperative-screening-and-donor-selection-for-ocular-surface-stem-cell-transplantation
#17
Albert Y Cheung, Enrica Sarnicola, Khaliq H Kurji, Amit Govil, Gautham Mogilishetty, Medi Eslani, Elizabeth Wright, Paul Brailey, Edward J Holland
PURPOSE: To describe our process for preoperative screening and donor selection for ocular surface stem cell transplantation (OSST). METHODS: A 7-year retrospective chart review was performed on limbal stem cell deficiency patients. The inclusion criterion was all patients who underwent an OSST procedure. The exclusion criterion was eyes with unilateral disease in which an autograft was performed. Data for human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing, virtual crossmatching, donor-specific antibody, and panel reactive antibody level were obtained...
June 14, 2018: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911902/cd133-beyond-a-cancer-stem-cell-biomarker
#18
Amir Barzegar Behrooz, Amir Syahir, Syahida Ahmad
CD133 (prominin-1), a pentaspan membrane glycoprotein, is one of the most well-characterized biomarkers used for the isolation of cancer stem cells (CSCs). The presence of CSCs is one of the main causes of tumor reversal and resilience. Accumulating evidence has shown that CD133 might be responsible for CSCs tumorigenesis, metastasis, and chemoresistance. It is now understood that CD133 interacts with the Wnt/β-catenin and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways. Moreover, CD133 can upregulate the expression of FLICE-like inhibitory protein (FLIP) in CD133-positive cells, inhibiting apoptosis...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Drug Targeting
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911897/per-and-polyfluoroalkyl-substances-impact-human-spermatogenesis-in-a-stem-cell-derived-model
#19
Alyse N Steves, Adam Turry, Brittany Gill, Danielle Clarkson-Townsend, Joshua M Bradner, Ian Bachli, W Michael Caudle, Gary W Miller, Anthony W S Chan, Charles A Easley
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) represent a highly ubiquitous group of synthetic chemicals used in products ranging from water and oil repellents and lubricants to firefighting foam. These substances can enter and accumulate in multiple tissue matrices in up to 100% of people assessed. Though animal models strongly identify these compounds as male reproductive toxicants, with exposed rodents experiencing declines in sperm count, alterations in hormones, and DNA damage in spermatids, among other adverse outcomes, human studies report conflicting conclusions as to the reproductive toxicity of these chemicals...
June 18, 2018: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911470/endothelial-cells-are-critical-regulators-of-iron-transport-in-a-model-of-the-human-blood-brain-barrier
#20
Brian Chiou, Emma H Neal, Aaron B Bowman, Ethan S Lippmann, Ian A Simpson, James R Connor
Iron delivery to the brain is essential for multiple neurological processes such as myelination, neurotransmitter synthesis, and energy production. Loss of brain iron homeostasis is a significant factor in multiple neurological disorders. Understanding the mechanism by which the transport of iron across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is regulated is crucial to address the impact of iron deficiency on brain development and excessive accumulation of iron in neurodegenerative diseases. Using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived brain endothelial cells (huECs) as a human BBB model, we demonstrate the ability of transferrin, hepcidin, and DMT1 to impact iron transport and release...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
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