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Stem cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351119/biotechnology-and-consumer-decision-making
#1
Joanna K Sax
Society is facing major challenges in climate change, health care and overall quality of life. Scientific advances to address these areas continue to grow, with overwhelming evidence that the application of highly tested forms of biotechnology is safe and effective. Despite scientific consensus in these areas, consumers appear reluctant to support their use. Research that helps to understand consumer decision-making and the public’s resistance to biotechnologies such as vaccines, fluoridated water programs and genetically engineered food, will provide great social value...
2017: Seton Hall Law Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350987/the-super-elongation-complex-drives-neural-stem-cell-fate-commitment
#2
Kun Liu, Dan Shen, Jingwen Shen, Shihong M Gao, Bo Li, Chouin Wong, Weidong Feng, Yan Song
Asymmetric stem cell division establishes an initial difference between a stem cell and its differentiating sibling, critical for maintaining homeostasis and preventing carcinogenesis. Yet the mechanisms that consolidate and lock in such initial fate bias remain obscure. Here, we use Drosophila neuroblasts to demonstrate that the super elongation complex (SEC) acts as an intrinsic amplifier to drive cell fate commitment. SEC is highly expressed in neuroblasts, where it promotes self-renewal by physically associating with Notch transcription activation complex and enhancing HES (hairy and E(spl)) transcription...
March 27, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350984/autophagy-it-s-in-your-blood
#3
Sergei Doulatov, George Q Daley
Autophagy, a central pathway for cellular homeostasis, plays diverse roles in development, cancer, aging, and neurodegeneration. In a new report in Nature, Ho et al. (2017) show that autophagy is essential for maintaining the replicative quiescence of hematopoietic stem cells throughout life by limiting the number of active mitochondria.
March 27, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350981/asymmetric-notch-amplification-to-secure-stem-cell-identity
#4
Anthony M Rossi, Claude Desplan
Stem cells self-renew and produce progenitors with limited proliferative potential. Reporting in Developmental Cell, Liu et al. (2017) demonstrate that in some neural stem cells, Notch activity is asymmetrically amplified by a positive feedback loop with the super elongation complex (SEC) to quickly differentiate between stem cells and progenitors.
March 27, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350969/mechanisms-of-spontaneous-pacing-sa-nodal-cells-neonatal-cardiomyocytes-and-human-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes
#5
Martin Morad, Xiaohua Zhang
The sino-atrial node is the primary site from which the mammalian heart is paced, but the mechanisms underlying the pacemaking still remain clouded. It is generally believed that the hyperpolarization-activated current I<sub><i>f</i></sub>, encoded by Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) genes, contributes significantly to pacing, which in tandem with inward current generated by efflux of Ca<sup>2+</sup> via the Na<sup>+</sup>-Ca<sup>2+</sup> exchanger (NCX), resulting from the released Ca<sup>2+</sup>, mediates the diastolic depolarization...
March 28, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350968/induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes-cardiac-applications-opportunities-and-challenges
#6
Adrien Moreau, Mohamed Boutjdir, Mohamed Chahine
Chronic diseases are the primary cause of mortality worldwide, accounting for 67% of deaths. One of the major challenges in developing new treatments is the lack of understanding of the exact underlying biological and molecular mechanisms. Chronic cardiovascular diseases are the single most common cause of death worldwide, and sudden deaths due to cardiac arrhythmias account for approximately 50% of all such cases. Traditional genetic screening for genes involved in cardiac disorders is laborious and frequently fails to detect the mutation that explains or causes the disorder...
March 28, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350958/photo-controlled-sirna-delivery-and-biomarker-triggered-aiegen-emission-by-upconversion-nayf4-yb-3-tm-3-sio2-nanoparticles-for-inducing-and-monitoring-stem-cell-differentiation
#7
Jinming Li, Chris Wai Tung Leung, Dexter Siu Hong Wong, Jianbin Xu, Rui Li, Yueyue Zhao, Chris Yu Yee Yung, Engui Zhao, Benzhong Tang, Liming Bian
Controlling differentiation of stem cell and monitoring the cell differentiation has attracted much research interest since the discovery of stem cells. In this regard, a novel and personalized near-infrared (NIR) light-activated nanoplatform is obtained by encapsulating the photoactivated caged compound (DMNPE/siRNA) and combining a MMP13 cleavaged imaging peptide-tetrapheny-lethene (TPE) unit conjugated with the mesoporous silica coated upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) for the remote control of cell differentiation and simultaneously for real-time monitoring of differentiation...
March 28, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350951/novel-osteobiologics-and-biomaterials-in-the-treatment-of-spinal-disorders
#8
Wellington K Hsu, Christina L Goldstein, Mohammed F Shamji, Sam K Cho, Paul M Arnold, Michael G Fehlings, Tom E Mroz
Spinal osteobiologics have evolved substantially in this century after the development of many product categories such as growth factors, allograft, and stem cells. The indications for the use of novel biologics within spine surgery are rapidly expanding as the mechanism of each is elucidated. While the knowledge base of bone morphogenetic protein increases with each subsequent year, the application of new nanotechnology and cell-based strategies are being reported. This review will discuss the most recent data in novel osteobiologics, and where we could use future study...
March 1, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350945/intervertebral-disk-degeneration-and-repair
#9
James Dowdell, Mark Erwin, Theodoe Choma, Alexander Vaccaro, James Iatridis, Samuel K Cho
Intervertebral disk (IVD) degeneration is a natural progression of the aging process. Degenerative disk disease (DDD) is a pathologic condition associated with IVD that has been associated with chronic back pain. There are a variety of different mechanisms of DDD (genetic, mechanical, exposure). Each of these pathways leads to a final common result of unbalancing the anabolic and catabolic environment of the extracellular matrix in favor of catabolism. Attempts have been made to gain an understanding of the process of IVD degeneration with in Vitro studies...
March 1, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350869/in-vitro-skin-models-to-study-epithelial-regeneration-from-the-hair-follicle
#10
Nkemcho Ojeh, Baki Akgül, Marjana Tomic-Canic, Mike Philpott, Harshad Navsaria
The development of dermal equivalents (DEs) for the treatment of burns has contributed toward efficient wound closure. A collagen-glycosaminoglycan DE (C-GAG) grafted with hair follicles converted a full-thickness wound to partial-thickness resulting in complete wound closure and restored hair. In this study we compared the ability of both intact pilosebaceous units (PSU) or truncated hair follicles (THF) to regenerate a multilayered epidermis in vitro when implanted into de-epidermalized dermis (DED) or C-GAG with the epidermis generated in vivo using C-CAG...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350860/uniquely-altered-transcripts-are-associated-with-immune-preservation-in-hiv-infection
#11
Michelle Zanoni, Ítalo Karmann Aventurato, James Hunter, Maria Cecilia Araripe Sucupira, Ricardo Sobhie Diaz
The mechanisms underlying host HIV control hold much promise in the search for a functional HIV cure. We investigated the host genomic signatures in elite controllers or rapid progressors following recent infection and the correlates of immune reconstitution during combination antiretroviral therapy. We characterized the HIV-specific longitudinal host transcriptional response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from elite controllers, rapid progressors, immune responders and non-responders using a RT-qPCR array in a cohort of recently HIV-infected Brazilian individuals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350842/combination-of-mesenchymal-stem-cell-injection-with-icariin-for-the-treatment-of-diabetes-associated-erectile-dysfunction
#12
Xiyou Wang, Chuanhai Liu, Yong Xu, Ping Chen, Yue Shen, Yansheng Xu, Yubo Zhao, Weihao Chen, Xinyu Zhang, Yun Ouyang, Yi Wang, Changliang Xie, Maojun Zhou, Cuilong Liu
The present study was aimed to examine whether icariin, a traditional Chinese medicine, could improve therapeutic effects of adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) for diabetes-associated erectile dysfunction (DMED). DMED were induced in rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin and confirmed by erectile function measurement. Then, rats of diabetic ED were randomly divided to receive the treatment of saline, ADSCs, icariin or ADSCs combined with icariin respectively. Compared with the treatment by ADSCs or icariin alone, intracavernosum injection of ADSCs combined with the following daily gastric gavage of icariin significantly augmented the value of ICP and ICP/MAP (p<0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350815/-the-evil-virus-cell-students-knowledge-and-beliefs-about-viruses
#13
Uwe K Simon, Sonja M Enzinger, Andreas Fink
Education about virus biology at school is of pivotal interest to raise public awareness concerning means of disease transmission and, thus, methods to prevent infection, and to reduce unnecessary antibiotic treatment due to patient pressure on physicians in case of viral diseases such as influenza. This study aimed at making visible the knowledge of Austrian high school and university students with respect to virus biology, virus structure and health-education issues. The data presented here stem from comprehensive questionnaire analyses, including the task to draw a virus, from a cross-sectional study with 133 grade 7 and 199 grade 10 high school students, and 133 first-year biology and 181 first-year non-biology university students...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350803/pharmacogenomic-identification-of-small-molecules-for-lineage-specific-manipulation-of-subventricular-zone-germinal-activity
#14
Kasum Azim, Diane Angonin, Guillaume Marcy, Francesca Pieropan, Andrea Rivera, Vanessa Donega, Claudio Cantù, Gareth Williams, Benedikt Berninger, Arthur M Butt, Olivier Raineteau
Strategies for promoting neural regeneration are hindered by the difficulty of manipulating desired neural fates in the brain without complex genetic methods. The subventricular zone (SVZ) is the largest germinal zone of the forebrain and is responsible for the lifelong generation of interneuron subtypes and oligodendrocytes. Here, we have performed a bioinformatics analysis of the transcriptome of dorsal and lateral SVZ in early postnatal mice, including neural stem cells (NSCs) and their immediate progenies, which generate distinct neural lineages...
March 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350670/discussion-regeneration-of-vascularized-corticocancellous-bone-and-diploic-space-using-muscle-derived-stem-cells-a-translational-biologic-alternative-for-healing-critical-bone-defects
#15
Dre M Irizarry, Derrick C Wan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350669/discussion-regeneration-of-vascularized-corticocancellous-bone-and-diploic-space-using-muscle-derived-stem-cells-a-translational-biologic-alternative-for-healing-critical-bone-defects
#16
Matthew P Murphy, Charles K F Chan, Michael T Longaker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350668/regeneration-of-vascularized-corticocancellous-bone-and-diploic-space-using-muscle-derived-stem-cells-a-translational-biologic-alternative-for-healing-critical-bone-defects
#17
Denver Lough, Edward Swanson, Nikolai A Sopko, Christopher Madsen, Devin Miller, Howard Wang, Qiongyu Guo, Srinivas M Sursala, Anand R Kumar
BACKGROUND: Regeneration of functional bone substrate remains a priority in reconstructive surgery especially for patients suffering from complex skeletal defects. Efforts to develop implantable osteoinductive constructs and novel osteoconductive materials remain at the forefront of industry forces and product line development. Despite advancement in clinical practice and bone biology, cancellous autograft remains the gold standard for procedures requiring osteogenic mechanisms of healing...
April 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350664/human-adipose-derived-stem-cells-labeled-with-plasmonic-gold-nanostars-for-cellular-tracking-and-photothermal-cancer-cell-ablation
#18
Ronnie L Shammas, Andrew M Fales, Bridget M Crawford, Amy J Wisdom, Gayathri R Devi, David A Brown, Tuan Vo-Dinh, Scott T Hollenbeck
BACKGROUND: Gold nanostars are unique nanoplatforms that can be imaged in real time and transform light energy into heat to ablate cells. Adipose-derived stem cells migrate toward tumor niches in response to chemokines. The ability of adipose-derived stem cells to migrate and integrate into tumors makes them ideal vehicles for the targeted delivery of cancer nanotherapeutics. METHODS: To test the labeling efficiency of gold nanostars, undifferentiated adipose-derived stem cells were incubated with gold nanostars and a commercially available nanoparticle (Qtracker), then imaged using two-photon photoluminescence microscopy...
April 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350663/the-combination-of-tissue-dissection-and-external-volume-expansion-generates-large-volumes-of-adipose-tissue
#19
Yunfan He, Ziqing Dong, Gan Xie, Tao Zhou, Feng Lu
BACKGROUND: Noninvasive external volume expansion device has been applied to stimulate nonsurgical breast enlargement in clinical settings. Although previous results demonstrate the capacity of external volume expansion to increase the number of adipocytes, this strategy alone is insufficient to reconstruct soft-tissue defects or increase breast mass. The authors combined a minimally invasive tissue dissection method with external volume expansion to generate large volumes of adipose tissue...
April 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350553/impact-of-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-on-the-hiv-reservoir-and-immune-response-in-three-hiv-infected-individuals
#20
K K Koelsch, T A Rasmussen, W J Hey-Nguyen, C Pearson, Y Xu, M Bailey, K H Marks, S C Sasson, M S Taylor, R Tantau, S Obeid, B Milner, C O Morrissey, A N Pinto, K Suzuki, M P Busch, S M Keating, P Kaiser, S Yukl, J K Wong, B M Hiener, S Palmer, J Zaunders, J J Post, D J Chan, S Avery, S T Milliken, A D Kelleher, S R Lewin, D A Cooper
BACKGROUND: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can lead to significant changes to the HIV reservoir and HIV immune responses, indicating that further characterisation of HIV infected patients undergoing HSCT is warranted. METHODS: We studied three patients who underwent HSCT after either reduced intensity conditioning or myeloablative conditioning regimen. We measured HIV antigens and antibodies (Ag/Ab), HIV specific CD4+ T cell responses, HIV RNA and DNA in plasma, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), isolated CD4+ T cells from peripheral blood and lymph node cells...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
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