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Stem cells

Shuang Liu
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are multipotent stem cells that display the capacity to generate the tissue in which they reside. MSC have been used as progenitor cells to engineer cartilage implants that can be used to repair chondral and osteochondral lesions, or as trophic producers of bioactive factors to initiate endogenous regenerative activities in the arthritic joint. Targeted gene therapy might further enhance the capacity of MSC for chondrogenesis. By using a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein genomic manipulation technique, target-gene-modified MSC would be a promising therapeutic option for regeneration of diseased joints in the treatment of RA...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Shuang Liu
The shRNA-encoding lentivirus has been widely used for gene manipulation in preclinical studies. It is a powerful tool for gene transfer and shows promise in its ability to efficiently transduce immune cells and hematopoietic stem cells, which are the initial therapeutic target of autoimmune diseases, considering that gene manipulation of these cells is usually difficult to achieve using other techniques. In previous chapters, we have described how to produce concentrated shRNA-encoding lentiviral particles...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Shuang Liu
Lentiviral-mediated transfection technique is a powerful tool for gene modification in preclinical studies. By using this technique, the desired gene modification can be achieved easily in immune cells, nondividing and terminally differentiated cells, including hematopoietic stem cells, neurons, and even tumor cells, which other viral vectors cannot do. The main considerations of therapeutic gene delivery using a lentiviral system are the risk of insertional mutagenesis and the immune reaction elicited by infected cells...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Sílvia J Bidarra, Cristina C Barrias
Three-dimensional (3D) cell culture systems have gained increasing interest among the scientific community, as they are more biologically relevant than traditional two-dimensional (2D) monolayer cultures. Alginate hydrogels can be formed under cytocompatibility conditions, being among the most widely used cell-entrapment 3D matrices. They recapitulate key structural features of the natural extracellular matrix and can be bio-functionalized with bioactive moieties, such as peptides, to specifically modulate cell behavior...
September 23, 2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Mary C Morton, Victoria N Neckles, David M Feliciano
The neonatal subventricular zone (SVZ) is a neurogenic niche that contains neural stem cells (NSCs). NSCs release particles called extracellular vesicles (EVs) that contain biological material. EVs are transferred to cells, including immune cells in the brain called microglia. A standard approach to identify EV functions is to isolate and transplant EVs. Here, a detailed protocol is provided that will allow one to culture neonatal SVZ NSCs and to isolate, label, and transplant EVs. The protocol will permit careful and thorough examination of EVs in a wide range of physiological and pathophysiological conditions...
September 23, 2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
E A Langan, T Fink, R Paus
Chronic wounds remain a major unmet healthcare challenge, associated with substantial morbidity and economic costs. Therefore, novel treatment strategies and therapeutic approaches need to be urgently developed. Yet, despite the increasingly recognized importance of neurohormonal signaling in skin physiology, the neuroendocrine regulation of cutaneous wound healing has received surprisingly little attention. Human skin, and its appendages, locally express the pleiotropic neurohormone prolactin (PRL), which not only regulates lactation but also hair follicle cycling, angiogenesis, keratinocyte proliferation, and epithelial stem cell functions...
September 22, 2018: Archives of Dermatological Research
In Hwan Cho, Seong Jun Park, Si Hyung Lee, Seung Kwan Nah, Ha Yan Park, Jin Young Yang, Sanjar Batirovich Madrakhimov, Jungmook Lyu, Tae Kwann Park
To investigate the role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in the restoration of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived retinal pigment epithelium (hiPSC-RPE) after laser photocoagulation. After differentiation of RPE cells from hiPSCs, laser photocoagulation was performed. Activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling at days 1 and 5 after laser photocoagulation was evaluated by expression of β-catenin. Cell proliferation and alteration in cell-to-cell contact at day 5 after laser photocoagulation with or without Dickkopf-1 (Dkk-1) treatment were studied using ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) assay and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) expression analysis, respectively...
September 22, 2018: Lasers in Medical Science
Xiaoling Guo, Yong Chen, Weiping Ji, Xianwu Chen, Chao Li, Renshan Ge
As the theory of cancer stem cells (CSCs) is maturing, CSC-targeted therapy is emerging as an important therapeutic strategy and seeking the ideal method for rapid enrichment and purification of CSCs has become crucial. So far, based on the known CSC phenotypes and biological characteristics, the methods for enrichment CSCs mainly include low adhesion culture, low oxygen culture, chemotherapy drug stimulation and side population (SP) sorting but these methods cannot realize quick enrichment of the desired CSCs...
September 22, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Hyoe Komae, Minoru Ono, Tatsuya Shimizu
BACKGROUND: The development of regenerative medicine in recent years has been remarkable as tissue engineering technology and stem cell research have advanced. The ultimate goal of regenerative medicine is to fabricate human organs artificially. If fabricated organs can be transplanted medically, it will be the innovative treatment of diseases for which only donor organ transplantation is the definitive therapeutic method at present. SUMMARY: Our group has reported successful fabrication of thick functional myocardial tissue in vivo and in vitro by using cell sheet engineering technology which requires no scaffolds...
September 21, 2018: European Surgical Research. Europäische Chirurgische Forschung. Recherches Chirurgicales Européennes
Siegmund Lang, Markus Loibl, Marietta Herrmann
BACKGROUND: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) refers to an enriched platelet suspension in plasma. In addition to the clinical application of PRP in the context of various orthopedic diseases and beyond, PRP and platelet lysate (PL) have been in focus in the field of tissue engineering. In this review, we discuss the application of PRP as a cell culture supplement and as part of tissue engineering strategies, particularly emphasizing current hurdles and ambiguities regarding the efficacy of PRP in these approaches...
September 21, 2018: European Surgical Research. Europäische Chirurgische Forschung. Recherches Chirurgicales Européennes
D S Prabakaran, Sridhar Muthusami, T Sivaraman, Jae-Ran Yu, Woo-Yoon Park
Increasing evidence(s) suggests that cancer stem cells (CSC) in tumours contribute to radioresistance and recurrence. Notch plays an important role in the maintenance of CSC in many cancers including cervical cancer. Previously, we have reported the role of Fused Toes Homolog (FTS) in conferring radioresistance in cervical cancer cells in vitro and human subjects. The present study investigated the regulatory role of FTS in Notch signaling and maintenance of CSC upon irradiation of cervical cancer cells. The expression of Notch1, 2, 3, cleaved Notch1 and its downstream target Hes1, and spheroid formation was increased by irradiation...
September 20, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Erin E Hillhouse, Stéphanie Thiant, Moutuaata M Moutuou, Félix Lombard-Vadnais, Rachel Parat, Jean-Sébastien Delisle, Imran Ahmad, Denis-Claude Roy, Martin Guimond, Jean Roy, Sylvie Lesage
Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a major complication affecting 50 to 80% of long-term survivors of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Current cGVHD therapies are neither specific nor curative and patients are typically maintained for several months to years under immunosuppressive regimens that are associated with important side effects and increased susceptibility to life-threatening infections. As a result, continued investigation into the pathology of the disease and the search for novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies to treat cGVHD remains a high priority...
September 19, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Jessica Michaud Davis, Anastasia Ivanova, Yunro Chung, J Ryan Shaw, Kamakshi Rao, Jonathan PtachcinskidAndrew Sharf, Jonathan Serody, Paul Armistead, William A Wood, James Coghill, Katarzyna Jamieson, Benjamin G Vincent, Marcie Riches, Thomas Shea, Maurice Alexander
Targeted busulfan dosing helps to limit chemotherapy-related toxicity and optimize disease outcomes in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT). The objective of this study was to evaluate busulfan exposure from a pharmacokinetic (PK)-guided dosing strategy utilizing a test dose. This retrospective evaluation included adult patients who underwent HCT at our institution with busulfan-based myeloablative (> 9 mg/kg) conditioning from January 2014 through October 2015. A weight-based test dose of 0.8 mg/kg was used with PK assessments to predict area under the curve (AUCpred ) achieved with weight-based dosing, with a goal AUC of 4800 µM*min (AUCtarget )...
September 19, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Tania Jain, Mohamad Bassam Sonbol, Belal Firwana, Kantha R Kolla, Diana Almader-Douglas, Jeanne Palmer, Rafael Fonseca
Autologous stem cell transplantation (SCT) is the standard of care for all transplant eligible patients diagnosed with multiple myeloma (MM). Various studies have compared clinical outcomes with frontline SCT ("Early SCT") versus standard dose therapy (SDT) alone, with or without salvage SCT ("SDT/ late SCT"). In this meta-analysis, we compare overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS) outcomes with these two treatment approaches. Twelve studies were identified, including 3,633 patients, of which 1,811 received early SCT while 1,822 received SDT/ late SCT...
September 20, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Katharina Kriegsmann, Maurizio Wack, Petra Pavel, Anita Schmitt, Mark Kriegsmann, Thomas Bruckner, Carsten Müller-Tidow, Patrick Wuchter
Many transplant centers routinely collect one or more autologous peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) grafts in patients with hemato-oncological and autoimmune disorders. However, subsequent high-dose chemotherapy (HD-CHT) and autologous blood stem cell transplantation (ABSCT) are often not performed for a variety of reasons. Currently, little is known about the actual utilization rate of the stored PBSCs. We retrospectively analyzed the collection, storage and disposal practices of PBSC products from a large cohort of patients (n=1,020) with hematological, oncological and autoimmune disorders at our institution during a 12-year period...
September 19, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Laura N Zamproni, Marco A V M Grinet, Mayara T V V Mundim, Marcella B C Reis, Layla T Galindo, Fernanda R Marciano, Anderson O Lobo, Marimelia Porcionatto
Stem cell transplantation is a promising strategy to treat brain injuries. However, cell-based therapies are limited because poor local cell engraftment. Here, we present a polylactic acid (PLA) scaffold to support mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) delivery in stroke. We isolated bone marrow MSCs from adult C57/Bl6 mice, cultured them on PLA polymeric rough microfibrous (PRM) scaffolds obtained by rotary jet spinning, and transplanted over the brains of adult C57/Bl6 mice, carrying thermocoagulation-induced cortical stroke...
September 19, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Gabor J Tigyi, Junming Yue, Derek D Norman, Erzsebet Szabo, Andrea Balogh, Louisa Balazs, Guannan Zhao, Sue Chin Lee
The lipid mediator lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) in biological fluids is primarily produced by cleavage of lysophospholipids by the lysophospholipase D enzyme Autotaxin (ATX). LPA has been identified and abundantly detected in the culture medium of various cancer cell types, tumor effusates, and ascites fluid of cancer patients. Our current understanding of the physiological role of LPA established its role in fundamental biological responses that include cell proliferation, metabolism, neuronal differentiation, angiogenesis, cell migration, hematopoiesis, inflammation, immunity, wound healing, regulation of cell excitability, and the promotion of cell survival by protecting against apoptotic death...
September 16, 2018: Advances in Biological Regulation
Sumangala P Shetty, Paul R Copeland
Selenoproteins are an essential and unique group of proteins in which selenocysteine (Sec) is incorporated in response to a stop codon (UGA). Reprograming of UGA for Sec insertion in eukaryotes requires a cis-acting stem loop structure in the 3' untranslated region of selenoprotein mRNA and several trans-acting factors. Together these factors are sufficient for Sec incorporation in vitro, but the process is highly inefficient. An additional challenge is the synthesis of Selenoprotein P (SELENOP), which uniquely contains multiple UGA codons...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
Yang D Teng, Muhammad Abd-El-Barr, Lei Wang, Hadi Hajiali, Liqun Wu, Ross D Zafonte
Spinal cord astrocytomas (SCAs) have discernibly unique signatures in regards to epidemiology, clinical oncological features, genetic markers, pathophysiology, and research and therapeutic challenges. Overall, there are presently very limited clinical management options for high grade SCAs despite progresses made in validating key molecular markers and standardizing tumor classification. The endeavors were aimed to improve diagnosis, therapy design and prognosis assessment, as well as to define more effective oncolytic targets...
September 20, 2018: Experimental Neurology
Boaz Jurkowicz, Dad Abu-Bonsrah, Dongcheng Zhang, John Hutson, Sebastian King, Don Newgreen
BACKGROUND: Stem cell transplantation is a potential therapy for enteric neuropathies, including Hirschsprung disease. Proof-of-principle has been obtained using focal transplants into neonatal mouse colon. The challenge now is to deliver stem cells to a large surface area to reconstruct an enteric nerve plexus. One proposed method is serosal application using a polymer membrane. However, transserosal migration of stem cells has not been demonstrated in mature colon. This study aimed to develop an avian model to demonstrate stem cell migration across the intact serosa of mature colon...
September 2, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
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