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Nikolaos Georgakis, Evangelia Chronopoulou, Maria Anna Gad, Dimitrios Skliros, Rodica Efrose, Emmanouil Flemetakis, Nikolaos E Labrou
Haloalkanes are acutely toxic to animals and humans and their toxic effects are mainly observed in the liver, kidneys and central nervous system. In the present work, the haloalkane dehalogenase from Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii (DrlA) was characterized. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis and enzyme activity assays revealed that the DrlA gene expression in R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii is induced by 1,2-dibromoethane (1,2-DBE) during the early exponential phase. The gene of the enzyme was isolated, cloned and expressed in E...
June 20, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
Dong Li, Xiao Chang, John J Connolly, Lifeng Tian, Yichuan Liu, Elizabeth J Bhoj, Nora Robinson, Debra Abrams, Yun R Li, Jonathan P Bradfield, Cecilia E Kim, Jin Li, Fengxiang Wang, James Snyder, Maria Lemma, Cuiping Hou, Zhi Wei, Yiran Guo, Haijun Qiu, Frank D Mentch, Kelly A Thomas, Rosetta M Chiavacci, Roger Cone, Bingshan Li, Patrick A Sleiman, Hakon Hakonarson
We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of anorexia nervosa (AN) using a stringently defined phenotype. Analysis of phenotypic variability led to the identification of a specific genetic risk factor that approached genome-wide significance (rs929626 in EBF1 (Early B-Cell Factor 1); P = 2.04 × 10(-7); OR = 0.7; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.61-0.8) with independent replication (P = 0.04), suggesting a variant-mediated dysregulation of leptin signaling may play a role in AN...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
Brandon Frenz, Alexandra C Walls, Edward H Egelman, David Veesler, Frank DiMaio
Accurate atomic modeling of macromolecular structures into cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) maps is a major challenge, as the moderate resolution makes accurate placement of atoms difficult. We present Rosetta enumerative sampling (RosettaES), an automated tool that uses a fragment-based sampling strategy for de novo model completion of macromolecular structures from cryo-EM density maps at 3-5-Å resolution. On a benchmark set of nine proteins, RosettaES was able to identify near-native conformations in 85% of segments...
June 19, 2017: Nature Methods
Silvia Musio, Massimo Costanza, Pietro Luigi Poliani, Elena Fontana, Manuela Cominelli, Gabriella Abolafio, Lawrence Steinman, Rosetta Pedotti
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of targeting the high-affinity receptor for immunoglobulin E (FcεRI), that plays a central role in allergic responses and is constitutively expressed on mast cells and basophils, in clinical disease and autoimmune T-cell response in experimental MS. METHODS: Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) was induced in C57BL/6 mice by immunization with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein 35-55. Anti-FcεRI α-chain antibody was administered intraperitoneally...
May 2017: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
Patrick Löffler, Samuel Schmitz, Enrico Hupfeld, Reinhard Sterner, Rainer Merkl
Computational protein design (CPD) is a powerful technique to engineer existing proteins or to design novel ones that display desired properties. Rosetta is a software suite including algorithms for computational modeling and analysis of protein structures and offers many elaborate protocols created to solve highly specific tasks of protein engineering. Most of Rosetta's protocols optimize sequences based on a single conformation (i. e. design state). However, challenging CPD objectives like multi-specificity design or the concurrent consideration of positive and negative design goals demand the simultaneous assessment of multiple states...
June 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
Fu-Rui Liang, Yue-Hui Hong, Cong-Cong Ye, Hailin Deng, Jian-Ping Yuan, Yun-Fang Hao, Jiang-Hai Wang
Cathepsin L (CatL) has been widely known for its involvement in the innate immunity. However, it still remains poorly understand how CatL modulates the immune system of teleosts. Moreover, the CatL of Nile tilapia (NtCatL) has not been cloned or characterized. In this study, the gene encoding NtCatL was cloned, and was characterized by bioinformatics analysis, heterologous expression and protease activity assay. The coding sequence of NtCatL is 1017 bp in length and encodes 338 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular weight of 38...
June 7, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Rosetta Nicastro, Martin Desseilles, Paco Prada, Sébastien Weibel, Nader Perroud, Marianne Gex-Fabry
The current study aims at documenting the psychometric properties of the Subjective Distress Associated with Adult ADHD-Self-Report (SDAAA-SR), a newly developed instrument for the assessment of psychological suffering in ADHD adults. The SDAAA-SR was administered to 247 students and 142 ADHD adults. Factor structure, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, convergent validity and discriminant validity were assessed. Sensitivity to change was examined in a subsample of 25 ADHD patients who participated in a 1-year therapy...
June 10, 2017: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
B Marty, K Altwegg, H Balsiger, A Bar-Nun, D V Bekaert, J-J Berthelier, A Bieler, C Briois, U Calmonte, M Combi, J De Keyser, B Fiethe, S A Fuselier, S Gasc, T I Gombosi, K C Hansen, M Hässig, A Jäckel, E Kopp, A Korth, L Le Roy, U Mall, O Mousis, T Owen, H Rème, M Rubin, T Sémon, C-Y Tzou, J H Waite, P Wurz
The origin of cometary matter and the potential contribution of comets to inner-planet atmospheres are long-standing problems. During a series of dedicated low-altitude orbits, the Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis (ROSINA) on the Rosetta spacecraft analyzed the isotopes of xenon in the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The xenon isotopic composition shows deficits in heavy xenon isotopes and matches that of a primordial atmospheric component. The present-day Earth atmosphere contains 22 ± 5% cometary xenon, in addition to chondritic (or solar) xenon...
June 9, 2017: Science
Ralph A Bradshaw, William Mobley, Robert A Rush
Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a protein whose importance to research and its elucidation of fundamental mechanisms in cell and neurobiology far outstrips its basic physiological roles. It was the first of a broad class of cell regulators, largely acting through autocrine and paracrine interactions which will be described herein. It was of similar significance in establishing the identity and unique roles of neurotrophic factors in the development and maintenance of the peripheral and central nervous systems...
May 26, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jan Deca, Andrey Divin, Pierre Henri, Anders Eriksson, Stefano Markidis, Vyacheslav Olshevsky, Mihály Horányi
Using a 3D fully kinetic approach, we disentangle and explain the ion and electron dynamics of the solar wind interaction with a weakly outgassing comet. We show that, to first order, the dynamical interaction is representative of a four-fluid coupled system. We self-consistently simulate and identify the origin of the warm and suprathermal electron distributions observed by ESA's Rosetta mission to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and conclude that a detailed kinetic treatment of the electron dynamics is critical to fully capture the complex physics of mass-loading plasmas...
May 19, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Frank DiMaio
Molecular replacement (MR), a method for solving the crystallographic phase problem using phases derived from a model of the target structure, has proven extremely valuable, accounting for the vast majority of structures solved by X-ray crystallography. However, when the resolution of data is low, or the starting model is very dissimilar to the target protein, solving structures via molecular replacement may be very challenging. In recent years, protein structure prediction methodology has emerged as a powerful tool in model building and model refinement for difficult molecular replacement problems...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Yurong Qu, Yuan Zhan, Shen Yang, Xusheng Qiu, Lei Tan, Yingjie Sun, Chunchun Meng, Cuiping Song, Shengqing Yu, Chan Ding
High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a key member of the "danger associated molecular patterns" (DAMPs), which can localize in various compartments of the cell, and plays important roles in systemic inflammation. In the present study, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specifically against chicken HMGB1 were generated. The open reading frame of chicken HMGB1 was amplified by RT-PCR and cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pET-28a to construct a recombinant plasmid pET-chHMGB1. The recombinant chicken HMGB1 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta under IPTG induction and then purified by Ni-NTA Purification System...
June 1, 2017: Monoclonal Antibodies in Immunodiagnosis and Immunotherapy
Geraint H Jones, Matthew M Knight, Alan Fitzsimmons, Matt G G T Taylor
The European Space Agency's Rosetta mission ended operations on 30 September 2016 having spent over 2 years in close proximity to its target comet, 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Shortly before this, in summer 2016, a discussion meeting was held to examine how the results of the mission could be framed in terms of cometary and solar system science in general. This paper provides a brief history of the Rosetta mission, and gives an overview of the meeting and the contents of this associated special issue.This article is part of the themed issue 'Cometary science after Rosetta'...
July 13, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
M G G T Taylor, N Altobelli, B J Buratti, M Choukroun
The international Rosetta mission was launched in 2004 and consists of the orbiter spacecraft Rosetta and the lander Philae. The aim of the mission is to map the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko by remote sensing, and to examine its environment in situ and its evolution in the inner Solar System. Rosetta was the first spacecraft to rendezvous with and orbit a comet, accompanying it as it passes through the inner Solar System, and to deploy a lander, Philae, and perform in situ science on the comet's surface...
July 13, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Michael F A'Hearn
We outline the key questions about comets that must be answered in order to understand cometary formation in the context of the protoplanetary disc and the role of comets in the formation and evolution of the solar system. We then discuss the new understanding of comets from Rosetta and from other recent advances, including work presented by others at the discussion meeting. Finally, we suggest some key directions for future projects to better address the above questions.This article is part of the themed issue 'Cometary science after Rosetta'...
July 13, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
D H Wooden, H A Ishii, M E Zolensky
Comet dust is primitive and shows significant diversity. Our knowledge of the properties of primitive cometary particles has expanded significantly through microscale investigations of cosmic dust samples (anhydrous interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), chondritic porous (CP) IDPs and UltraCarbonaceous Antarctic micrometeorites, Stardust and Rosetta), as well as through remote sensing (Spitzer IR spectroscopy). Comet dust are aggregate particles of materials unequilibrated at submicrometre scales. We discuss the properties and processes experienced by primitive matter in comets...
July 13, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Henry H Hsieh
In this review presented at the Royal Society meeting, 'Cometary science after Rosetta', I present an overview of studies of small solar system objects that exhibit properties of both asteroids and comets (with a focus on so-called active asteroids). Sometimes referred to as 'transition objects', these bodies are perhaps more appropriately described as 'continuum objects', to reflect the notion that rather than necessarily representing actual transitional evolutionary states between asteroids and comets, they simply belong to the general population of small solar system bodies that happen to exhibit a continuous range of observational, physical and dynamical properties...
July 13, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Karl Battams, Matthew M Knight
We present a summary of the more than 3000 sungrazing and near-Sun comets discovered in coronagraph images returned by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), since its launch in December 1995. We address each of the four main populations of objects observed by SOHO: Kreutz (sungrazing) group, Meyer group, Marsden and Kracht (96P-family) group and non-group comets. Discussions for each group include basic properties, discovery statistics and morphological appearance. In addition to updating the community on the status of the discoveries by SOHO, we also show that the rate of discovery of Kreutz sungrazers has probably remained static since approximately 2003 and we report on the first likely fragmentation pair observed within the Meyer group...
July 13, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Karl-Heinz Glassmeier
The Rosetta mission provides an unprecedented possibility to study the interaction of comets with the solar wind. As the spacecraft accompanies comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko from its very low-activity stage through its perihelion phase, the physics of mass loading is witnessed for various activity levels of the nucleus. While observations at other comets provided snapshots of the interaction region and its various plasma boundaries, Rosetta observations allow a detailed study of the temporal evolution of the innermost cometary magnetosphere...
July 13, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Martin Hilchenbach, Henning Fischer, Yves Langevin, Sihane Merouane, John Paquette, Jouni Rynö, Oliver Stenzel, Christelle Briois, Jochen Kissel, Andreas Koch, Rita Schulz, Johan Silen, Nicolas Altobelli, Donia Baklouti, Anais Bardyn, Herve Cottin, Cecile Engrand, Nicolas Fray, Gerhard Haerendel, Hartmut Henkel, Herwig Höfner, Klaus Hornung, Harry Lehto, Eva Maria Mellado, Paola Modica, Lena Le Roy, Sandra Siljeström, Wolfgang Steiger, Laurent Thirkell, Roger Thomas, Klaus Torkar, Kurt Varmuza, Boris Zaprudin
The in situ cometary dust particle instrument COSIMA (COmetary Secondary Ion Mass Analyser) onboard ESA's Rosetta mission has collected about 31 000 dust particles in the inner coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko since August 2014. The particles are identified by optical microscope imaging and analysed by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. After dust particle collection by low speed impact on metal targets, the collected particle morphology points towards four families of cometary dust particles...
July 13, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
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