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Ergogenic aids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29889868/increasing-effort-without-noticing-a-randomized-controlled-pilot-study-about-the-ergogenic-placebo-effect-in-endurance-athletes-and-the-role-of-supplement-salience
#1
Ellen K Broelz, Sebastian Wolf, Patrick Schneeweiss, Andreas M Niess, Paul Enck, Katja Weimer
PURPOSE: Previous research shows that endurance performance can be enhanced by placebo ergogenic aids. This study investigates the ergogenic placebo response, which we define as an increase in objective and physiological effort without an increase in subjective effort, in competitive cyclists. The primary objective of this study is to explore the role of supplement salience in the ergogenic placebo response, while the secondary aim is to assess whether believing to have taken an inactive placebo supplement attenuates the desired ergogenic effect...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29876876/the-effect-of-acute-caffeine-ingestion-on-endurance-performance-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
REVIEW
Kyle Southward, Kay J Rutherfurd-Markwick, Ajmol Ali
BACKGROUND: Caffeine is a widely used ergogenic aid with most research suggesting it confers the greatest effects during endurance activities. Despite the growing body of literature around the use of caffeine as an ergogenic aid, there are few recent meta-analyses that quantitatively assess the effect of caffeine on endurance exercise. OBJECTIVES: To summarise studies that have investigated the ergogenic effects of caffeine on endurance time-trial performance and to quantitatively analyse the results of these studies to gain a better understanding of the magnitude of the ergogenic effect of caffeine on endurance time-trial performance...
June 6, 2018: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29795732/acute-specific-effects-of-caffeine-containing-energy-drink-on-different-physical-performances-in-resistance-trained-men
#3
Camilla Astley, Diego B Souza, Marcos D Polito
Caffeine containing energy drink (ED) is frequently used as ergogenic aid, but its effect on performance need more investigation. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the effects of acute ingestion of an ED on the physical performance of resistance-trained men subjected to successive tests in the same experimental protocol. Fifteen resistance-trained males (21.0 ± 0.3 yrs; 177.4 ± 1.8 cm; 79.6 ± 1.8 kg) ingested 2.5 mg caffeine per kg of body weight (619.5 ± 14.6 mL of ED) or a placebo in a double-blind randomized cross-over design...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771966/the-effect-of-chronic-progressive-dose-sodium-bicarbonate-ingestion-on-crossfit-like-performance-a-double-blind-randomized-cross-over-trial
#4
Krzysztof Durkalec-Michalski, Emilia E Zawieja, Tomasz Podgórski, Igor Łoniewski, Bogna E Zawieja, Marta Warzybok, Jan Jeszka
BACKGROUND: Sodium bicarbonate (SB) has been proposed as an ergogenic aid, as it improves high-intensity and resistance exercise performance. However, no studies have yet investigated SB application in CrossFit. This study examined the effects of chronic, progressive-dose SB ingestion on CrossFit-like performance and aerobic capacity. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, cross-over trial, 21 CrossFit-trained participants were randomly allocated to 2 groups and underwent 2 trials separated by a 14-day washout period...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743825/creatine-electrolyte-supplementation-improves-repeated-sprint-cycling-performance-a-double-blind-randomized-control-study
#5
Daniel L Crisafulli, Harsh H Buddhadev, Lorrie R Brilla, Gordon R Chalmers, David N Suprak, Jun G San Juan
Background: Creatine supplementation is recommended as an ergogenic aid to improve repeated sprint cycling performance. Furthermore, creatine uptake is increased in the presence of electrolytes. Prior research examining the effect of a creatine-electrolyte (CE) supplement on repeated sprint cycling performance, however, did not show post-supplementation improvement. The purpose of this double blind randomized control study was to investigate the effect of a six-week CE supplementation intervention on overall and repeated peak and mean power output during repeated cycling sprints with recovery periods of 2 min between sprints...
2018: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718795/dietary-flavanols-a-review-of-select-effects-on-vascular-function-blood-pressure-and-exercise-performance
#6
Yousef A Al-Dashti, Roberta R Holt, Charles L Stebbins, Carl L Keen, Robert M Hackman
An individual's diet affects numerous physiological functions and can play an important role in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. Epidemiological and clinical studies suggest that dietary flavanols can be an important modulator of vascular risk. Diets and plant extracts rich in flavanols have been reported to lower blood pressure, especially in prehypertensive and hypertensive individuals. Flavanols may act in part through signaling pathways that affect vascular function, nitric oxide availability, and the release of endothelial-derived relaxing and constricting factors...
May 2, 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574606/effectiveness-of-psycho-physiological-portable-devices-to-analyse-effect-of-ergogenic-aids-in-military-population
#7
Montaña Diaz-Manzano, José Juan Robles-Pérez, Ketty Herrera-Mendoza, Beliña Herrera-Tapias, Jesús Fernández-Lucas, Susana Aznar-Lain, Vicente Javier Clemente-Suárez
Caffeine is one of the ergogenic substances most used by warfighters in current operation areas, but the effect on the organic response and operational performed is already poor knowledge. This research aimed to study the acute effect of 400 mg of caffeine monohydrate on the psycho-physiological response and rifle marksmanship of warfighters during a close quarter combat simulation. We analysed parameter of heart rate, blood lactate, cortical arousal, state anxiety and marksmanship of 20 Spanish Army veteran warfighters before and after a close quarter combat simulation in a double-blind procedure, also a correlation analysis was conducted between all the study variables...
March 24, 2018: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534031/l-carnitine-supplementation-in-recovery-after-exercise
#8
REVIEW
Roger Fielding, Linda Riede, James P Lugo, Aouatef Bellamine
Given its pivotal role in fatty acid oxidation and energy metabolism, l-carnitine has been investigated as ergogenic aid for enhancing exercise capacity in the healthy athletic population. Early research indicates its beneficial effects on acute physical performance, such as increased maximum oxygen consumption and higher power output. Later studies point to the positive impact of dietary supplementation with l-carnitine on the recovery process after exercise. It is demonstrated that l-carnitine alleviates muscle injury and reduces markers of cellular damage and free radical formation accompanied by attenuation of muscle soreness...
March 13, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529987/potential-benefits-of-dietary-nitrate-ingestion-in-healthy-and-clinical-populations-a-brief-review
#9
Sinead T J Mcdonagh, Lee J Wylie, Christopher Thompson, Anni Vanhatalo, Andrew M Jones
This article provides an overview of the current literature relating to the efficacy of dietary nitrate (NO3 - ) ingestion in altering aspects of cardiovascular and metabolic health and exercise capacity in healthy and diseased individuals. The consumption of NO3 - -rich vegetables, such as spinach and beetroot, have been variously shown to promote nitric oxide bioavailability, reduce systemic blood pressure, enhance tissue blood flow, modulate muscle O2 utilisation and improve exercise tolerance both in normoxia and in hypoxia, as is commonly observed in a number of disease states...
March 13, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527137/effects-of-caffeine-intake-on-muscle-strength-and-power-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
REVIEW
Jozo Grgic, Eric T Trexler, Bruno Lazinica, Zeljko Pedisic
Background: Caffeine is commonly used as an ergogenic aid. Literature about the effects of caffeine ingestion on muscle strength and power is equivocal. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to summarize results from individual studies on the effects of caffeine intake on muscle strength and power. Methods: A search through eight databases was performed to find studies on the effects of caffeine on: (i) maximal muscle strength measured using 1 repetition maximum tests; and (ii) muscle power assessed by tests of vertical jump...
2018: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431536/multi-day-pomegranate-extract-supplementation-decreases-oxygen-uptake-during-submaximal-cycling-exercise-but-co-supplementation-with-n-acetylcysteine-negates-the-effect
#11
Emma M Crum, Matthew J Barnes, Stephen R Stannard
Pomegranate extract (POMx) has been suggested as an ergogenic aid, due to its rich concentration of polyphenols, which are proposed to enhance nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, thereby improving the efficiency of oxygen usage and consequently, endurance exercise performance. Although acute POMx supplementation improves aerobic exercise performance in untrained individuals, trained athletes appear to require chronic supplementation for a similar effect. Further, the combination of POMx with a thiol antioxidant may prove more effective than POMx alone, due to the protective effects of thiols on NO...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345532/ischemic-pre-conditioning-does-not-influence-maximal-sprint-acceleration-performance
#12
Kyle M A Thompson, Alanna K Whinton, Shane Ferth, Lawrence L Spriet, Jamie F Burr
Ischemic pre-conditioning (IPC) was initially developed to protect the myocardium from ischemia through altered cardiocyte metabolism. Due to the observed effects on metabolism and oxygen kinetics, IPC gained interest as a potential ergogenic aid in sport. Limited research evaluating the effects of IPC on maximal short-duration activities has been performed and of the existing literature, mixed outcomes resulting from intra-subject variation may have clouded the efficacy of this technique for enhancing sprint performance...
January 18, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280665/use-of-nutritional-supplements-and-ergogenic-aids-in-professional-tennis-players
#13
Álvaro López-Samanes, Víctor Moreno-Pérez, Mark S Kovacs, Jesús G Pallarés, Ricardo Mora-Rodríguez, Juan F Ortega
INTRODUCTION: Nutritional supplements and ergogenic aids (NS&EA) are used between training/matches with the goal of enhancing tennis performance. Scientific literature about prevalence and use of NS&EA in professional tennis players is scarce. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to describe the NS&EA used by professional tennis players during a season. METHODS: Using a validated self-administered questionnaire, 62 professional male and 9 professional female tennis players (11% in their gender specific top 100 tennis world ranking (i...
November 17, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210957/the-physiological-and-performance-effects-of-caffeine-gum-consumed-during-a-simulated-half-time-by-professional-academy-rugby-union-players
#14
Russell M, Reynolds N A, Crewther B T, Cook C J, Kilduff L
Despite the prevalence of caffeine as an ergogenic aid, few studies have examined the use of caffeinated gums, especially during half-time in team sports. The physiological (blood lactate, salivary hormone concentrations) and performance (repeated sprints, cognitive function) effects of consuming caffeine gum during a simulated half-time were examined. Professional academy rugby union players (n=14) completed this double-blind, randomized, counterbalanced study. Following pre-exercise measurements , players chewed a placebo (PL) gum for five min before a standardized warm-up and completing repeated sprint testing (RSSA1)...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148629/carbohydrate-mouth-rinse-improves-cycling-performance-carried-out-until-the-volitional-exhaustion
#15
Bruno Bavaresco Gambassi, Ylana Gomes de Santana Barros Leal, Edson R Pinheiro Dos Anjos, Bruna A Antonelli, Daniela C Gomes Gonçalves E Silva, Iracema H Pires de Mélo Montenegro, Rita di Cássia de Oliveira Angelo, Isis S Correia Moura, Paulo A Schwingel
BACKGROUND: Carbohydrates (CHO) are among the most investigated nutritional ergogenic aids, and may be consumed in different forms, e.g., mouth rinse with carbohydrate solution (MRCS). In this sense, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of MRCS on the performance of physically active individuals undergoing a physical exercise session carried out until the volitional exhaustion. METHODS: This is a counter-balanced randomized study, with a double-blind design...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140142/coffee-ingestion-enhances-one-mile-running-race-performance
#16
Neil D Clarke, Darren L Richardson, James Thie, Richard Taylor
PURPOSE: Caffeine, often in the form of coffee, is frequently supplemented by athletes in an attempt to facilitate improved performance during exercise. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of coffee ingestion as an ergogenic aid prior to a one-mile (1609 m) race. METHODS: In a double-blind, randomised, crossover, placebo-controlled design 13 trained male runners completed a one-mile race 60 minutes following the ingestion of 0.09 g·kg(-1) coffee (COF), 0...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117104/current-status-of-legislation-on-dietary-products-for-sportspeople-in-a-european-framework
#17
REVIEW
José Miguel Martínez-Sanz, Isabel Sospedra, Eduard Baladía, Laura Arranz, Rocío Ortiz-Moncada, Angel Gil-Izquierdo
The consumption of nutritional ergogenic aids is conditioned by laws/regulations, but standards/regulations vary between countries. The aim of this review is to explore legislative documents that regulate the use of nutritional ergogenic aids intended for sportspeople in a Spanish/European framework. A narrative review has been developed from official websites of Spanish (Spanish Agency of the Consumer, Food Safety, and Nutrition) and European (European Commission and European Food Safety Authority) bodies...
November 8, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101174/dietary-nitrate-supplementation-in-cardiovascular-health-an-ergogenic-aid-or-exercise-therapeutic
#18
Mary N Woessner, Luke C McIlvenna, Joaquin Ortiz de Zevallos, Christopher J Neil, Jason D Allen
Oral consumption of inorganic nitrate, which is abundant in green leafy vegetables and roots, has been shown to increase circulating plasma nitrite concentration, which can be converted to nitric oxide in low oxygen conditions. The associated beneficial physiological effects include a reduction in blood pressure, modification of platelet aggregation, and increases in limb blood flow. There have been numerous studies of nitrate supplementation in healthy recreational and competitive athletes; however, the ergogenic benefits are currently unclear due to a variety of factors including small sample sizes, different dosing regimens, variable nitrate conversion rates, the heterogeneity of participants' initial fitness levels, and the types of exercise tests used...
February 1, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097038/impact-of-the-calcium-form-of-%C3%AE-hydroxy-%C3%AE-methylbutyrate-upon-human-skeletal-muscle-protein-metabolism
#19
D J Wilkinson, T Hossain, M C Limb, B E Phillips, J Lund, J P Williams, M S Brook, J Cegielski, A Philp, S Ashcroft, J A Rathmacher, N J Szewczyk, K Smith, P J Atherton
BACKGROUND & AIMS: β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) is purported as a key nutritional supplement for the preservation of muscle mass in health, disease and as an ergogenic aid in exercise. Of the two available forms of HMB (calcium (Ca-HMB) salt or free acid (FA-HMB)) - differences in plasma bioavailability have been reported. We previously reported that ∼3 g oral FA-HMB increased muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and reduced muscle protein breakdown (MPB). The objective of the present study was to quantify muscle protein metabolism responses to oral Ca-HMB...
October 6, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042830/evaluation-of-the-effects-of-two-doses-of-alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine-on-physical-and-psychomotor-performance
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Lena Marcus, Jason Soileau, Lawrence W Judge, David Bellar
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have suggested that alpha glycerylphosphorylcholine (A-GPC) may be an effective ergogenic aid. The present study was designed to assess the efficacy of two doses of A-GPC in comparison to placebo and caffeine for increasing countermovement jump performance, isometric strength, and psychomotor function. METHODS: Forty-eight healthy, college aged males volunteered for the present study and underwent baseline assessment of countermovement jump (CMJ), isometric mid thigh pull (IMTP), upper body isometric strength test (UBIST), and psychomotor vigilance (PVT)...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
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