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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344241/combined-pitavastatin-and-dacarbazine-treatment-activates-apoptosis-and-autophagy-resulting-in-synergistic-cytotoxicity-in-melanoma-cells
#1
Abeer Al-Qatati, Saeb Aliwaini
Melanoma is an aggressive skin cancer and its incidence is increasing faster than any other type of cancer. Whilst dacarbazine (DTIC) is the standard chemotherapy for metastatic melanoma, it has limited success. Statins, including pitavastatin, have been demonstrated to have a range of anti-cancer effects in a number of human cancer cell lines. The present study therefore explored the anti-cancer activity of combined DTIC and pitavastatin in A375 and WM115 human melanoma cells. Cell survival assays demonstrated that combined DTIC and pitavastatin treatment resulted in synergistic cell death...
December 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341524/-what-s-new-in-ambulatory-general-internal-medicine%C3%A2
#2
Annick Gerber, Camille Buffle Genecand, Thierry Mach, David Schrumpf, Ana Rita Forte Marques, Jean Dupraz, Thomas Schmid
Many treatments are used every day in general medicine without any evidence of their efficacy. This last year, three randomised studies tried to prove the clinical utility of chondroitin/glucosamine in arthritis, cranberry in urinary infections, and acupuncture in migraine. Screening and management of prostate cancer are still controversial. Two recent studies help us advising our patients on this difficult topic. Muscle side effects from statins are well known and have been widely relayed by the press these last years, although myopathies are rare in clinical trials...
January 17, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339119/targeting-of-stress-response-pathways-in-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-cancer
#3
REVIEW
Jaroslav Zelenka, Martina Koncošová, Tomáš Ruml
The hallmarks of tumor tissue are not only genetic aberrations but also the presence of metabolic and oxidative stress as a result of hypoxia and lactic acidosis. The stress activates several prosurvival pathways including metabolic remodeling, autophagy, antioxidant response, mitohormesis, and glutaminolysis, whose upregulation in tumors is associated with a poor survival of patients, while their activation in healthy tissue with statins, metformin, physical activity, and natural compounds prevents carcinogenesis...
January 12, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321482/enhanced-yap-expression-leads-to-egfr-tki-resistance-in-lung-adenocarcinomas
#4
Ting-Fang Lee, Yu-Chi Tseng, Phung Anh Nguyen, Yu-Chuan Li, Chao-Chi Ho, Cheng-Wen Wu
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation is prevalently expressed in lung adenocarcinoma cases and acts as one of the major driving oncogenes. EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been used in patients with EGFR-mutant as an effective targeted therapy in lung adenocarcinoma, but drug resistance and tumor recurrence inevitably occurs. Recently, Yes-associate protein (YAP) has been reported to promote multiple cancer cell properties, such as promoting cell proliferation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and drug resistance...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320955/therapeutic-roles-of-statins-in-gynecology-and-obstetrics-the-current-evidence
#5
Burak Zeybek, Maged Costantine, Gokhan S Kilic, Mostafa A Borahay
INTRODUCTION: Statins are a class of drugs, which act by inhibiting the rate-limiting enzyme of cholesterol biosynthesis (3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase). The inhibition of mevalonate synthesis leads to subsequent inhibition of downstream products of this pathway, which explains the pleiotropic effects of these agents in addition to their well-known lipid-lowering effects. Accumulating evidence suggests that statins might be beneficial in various obstetric and gynecologic conditions...
January 1, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311132/the-epidemiology-of-prostate-cancer
#6
Claire H Pernar, Ericka M Ebot, Kathryn M Wilson, Lorelei A Mucci
Prostate cancer is a major cause of disease and mortality among men, and each year 1.6 million men are diagnosed with and 366,000 men die of prostate cancer. In this review, we discuss the state of evidence for specific genetic, lifestyle, and dietary factors associated with prostate cancer risk. Given the biological heterogeneity of this cancer, we focus on risk factors for advanced or fatal prostate cancer. First, we provide descriptive epidemiology statistics and patterns for prostate cancer incidence and mortality around the world...
January 8, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309396/the-relationship-between-the-use-of-statins-and-mortality-severity-and-pancreatic-cancer-in-danish-patients-with-chronic-pancreatitis
#7
Ulrich C Bang, Tomohiro Watanabe, Flemming Bendtsen
OBJECTIVES: Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is associated with a shortened life expectancy. Statins have anti-inflammatory properties and we aimed to evaluate the association between the use of statins and the risk of death, progression of CP, and pancreatic cancer in patients with CP. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We carried out a nested case-cohort study and included patients with CP. We used claims of proton pump inhibitors as an active comparator. Patients with cirrhosis or cancer were excluded...
January 5, 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290960/lovastatin-induced-kruppel-like-factor-2-klf2-kruppel-like-factor-6-klf6-and-ras-homolog-family-member-b-rhob-genes-and-preferentially-led-to-viability-reduction-of-cisplatin-resistant-cells
#8
Chiho Koi, Hiroto Izumi, Tomoko Kurita, Thuy Thi Nguyen, Midori Murakami, Yukiko Yoshiura, Toru Hachisuga, Yasuo Morimoto
It was reported that statins, inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase that are used to prevent hypercholesterolemia, have antitumor activity in several cancers. In this study, we investigated the cell viability of statins in Cisplatin-resistant HCP4 and PCDP5 cells compared with their parent Hela and PC3 cells, respectively, and found that HCP4 and PCDP5 cells were 37-fold and 18-fold more resistant to Cisplatin but 13-fold and 7-fold more sensitive to Lovastatin by cell proliferation assay...
December 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282360/serum-cholesterol-and-risk-of-high-grade-prostate-cancer-results-from-the-reduce-study
#9
Juzar Jamnagerwalla, Lauren E Howard, Emma H Allott, Adriana C Vidal, Daniel M Moreira, Ramiro Castro-Santamaria, Gerald L Andriole, Michael R Freeman, Stephen J Freedland
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic evidence for a serum cholesterol-prostate cancer link is mixed. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is positively correlated with cholesterol, potentially increasing PSA-driven biopsy recommendations in men with high cholesterol, though biopsy compliance may be lower in men with comorbid conditions. These potential biases may affect PSA-driven biopsy rates and subsequent prostate cancer detection in men with high serum cholesterol. Our objective was to test the association between serum cholesterol and prostate cancer risk in men receiving PSA independent, study-mandated prostate biopsies...
December 27, 2017: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280915/bladder-cancer-risk-in-users-of-selected-drugs-for-cardiovascular-disease-prevention
#10
Valentina Guercio, Federica Turati, Cristina Bosetti, Jerry Polesel, Diego Serraino, Maurizio Montella, Massimo Libra, Antonio Galfano, Carlo La Vecchia, Alessandra Tavani
The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between bladder cancer risk and the use of selected drugs for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention, such as aspirin, statins, and calcium channel blockers (CCBs). We analyzed data from a multicentric case-control study carried out in Italy between 2003 and 2014, including 690 bladder cancer cases and 665 hospital controls. Odds ratios (ORs) of bladder cancer and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using unconditional multiple logistic regression models...
December 26, 2017: European Journal of Cancer Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279698/pazopanib-and-statin-induced-rhabdomyolysis
#11
Jennifer M Logue, Bahram Kiani, Rhonda L Bitting
Background: The VEGF inhibitor pazopanib is a widely used first-line therapy for the treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma. Potential drug-drug interactions and toxicities may be underrecognized. Case Presentation: A 73-year-old woman with metastatic renal cell carcinoma on treatment with pazopanib presented with progressive inability to ambulate. The initial concern was for metastasis to the spine. However, MRI of the spine revealed diffuse muscle edema with no metastatic deposits or lytic lesions...
September 2017: Case Reports in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273728/allopurinol-and-risk-of-benign-prostatic-hyperplasia-in-a-finnish-population-based-cohort
#12
Ville Kukko, Antti Kaipia, Kirsi Talala, Kimmo Taari, Teuvo L J Tammela, Anssi Auvinen, Teemu J Murtola
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome and obesity are linked with hyperuricemia, and it has also been proposed that oxidative stress associated with hyperuricemia may promote benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). However, it is currently unknown whether use of antihyperuricemic medication is associated with risk of developing BPH. We studied the association between BPH and use of antihyperuricemic allopurinol in a Finnish population-based cohort. METHODS: The study cohort consisted of 74,754 men originally identified for the Finnish Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (FinRSPC)...
December 22, 2017: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273074/use-of-prescription-drugs-and-risk-of-postoperative-red-blood-cell-transfusion-in-breast-cancer-patients-a-danish-population-based-cohort-study
#13
Anne Marie L Thomsen, Alma B Pedersen, Nickolaj R Kristensen, Bjarne Kuno Møller, Christian Erikstrup, Peer M Christiansen, Mette Nørgaard, Deirdre Cronin-Fenton
BACKGROUND: Several frequently used prescription drugs may affect bleeding risk. We investigated use of aspirin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and statins and risk of postoperative red blood cell transfusion in breast cancer patients. METHODS: Using Danish population-based registries, we identified a cohort of women who underwent surgery for primary breast cancer (n = 22,238) during 2005-2012 and ascertained their use of aspirin, NSAIDs, SSRIs, and statins...
December 22, 2017: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261726/statin-use-is-associated-with-improved-survival-in-ovarian-cancer-a-retrospective-population-based-study
#14
Alexandra Couttenier, Olivia Lacroix, Evelien Vaes, Chris R Cardwell, Harlinde De Schutter, Annie Robert
BACKGROUND: Preclinical in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that statins could exhibit anticancer properties in ovarian cancer. Similar effects have also been reported in observational studies but their results remain inconsistent and could be impaired by methodological limitations. This study aimed to investigate whether statin use is associated with improved survival in ovarian cancer patients at the Belgian population-level. METHODS: All patients with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer diagnosed between 2004 and 2012 were identified from the Belgian Cancer Registry...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260632/biologic-and-epidemiologic-evidence-assessing-if-statins-prevent-prostate-cancer
#15
David E Dawe, Salaheddin Mahmud
INTRODUCTION: During their lives, 1 in 8 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer. Several drugs have been shown to decrease prostate cancer risk, but have not been widely used in prostate cancer prevention because of concerns about side-effects and cost-effectiveness. Statins are indicated for prevention of cardiovascular disease, have an excellent benefit to risk profile, and some studies suggest that statins may reduce the risk of prostate cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a systematic search of Medline (Ovid), EMBASE (Ovid), and PubMed...
December 2017: Canadian Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259292/maintenance-use-of-aspirin-or-other-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-nsaids-and-prostate-cancer-risk
#16
Yuanjun Ma, Nele Brusselaers
BACKGROUND: Aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may have a preventive effect against prostate cancer. However, evidence is limited and still controversial, especially considering non-aspirin non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). METHODS: Swedish nationwide population-based cohort study including all long-term (≥180 days) adult male users of aspirin (n = 419,931) or NSAIDs (n = 223,437) followed from the first dispense date until the first cancer diagnosis, death or 31 December 2012, whichever occurred first...
December 19, 2017: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246227/statin-consumption-as-a-risk-factor-for-developing-colorectal-cancer-a-retrospective-case-study
#17
David Renman, Erik Lundberg, Ulf Gunnarsson, Karin Strigård
BACKGROUND: Statins are the backbone of lipid-lowering therapy and are among the most commonly prescribed drugs in the elderly population in Sweden today. Colorectal cancer is the second most common cancer in men and women, after prostate and breast cancer, respectively, with a median age of 72 years at diagnosis. Statins induce mitochondrial damage leading to accumulation of reactive oxygen species in the cell. Reactive oxygen species can cause mutations in mitochondrial as well as nuclear DNA leading to the development of cancer...
December 16, 2017: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238220/effect-of-statins-on-breast-cancer-recurrence-and-mortality-a-review
#18
REVIEW
Renae D Van Wyhe, Omar M Rahal, Wendy A Woodward
Statins, or 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, are medications that have been used for decades to lower cholesterol and to prevent or treat cardiovascular diseases. Since their approval by the US Food and Drug Administration in the 1980s, other potential uses for statins have been speculated on and explored. Basic science and clinical research suggest that statins are also effective in the management of breast cancer. Specifically, in various breast cancer cell lines, statins increase apoptosis and radiosensitivity, inhibit proliferation and invasion, and decrease the metastatic dissemination of tumors...
2017: Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238070/the-interplay-between-mutant-p53-and-the-mevalonate-pathway
#19
REVIEW
Alejandro Parrales, Elizabeth Thoenen, Tomoo Iwakuma
Missense mutations in the TP53 gene lead to accumulation of dysfunctional TP53 proteins in tumors, showing oncogenic gain-of-function (GOF) activities. Stabilization of mutant TP53 (mutp53) is required for the GOF; however, the mechanisms by which mutp53 promotes cancer progression and how mutp53 stability is regulated are not completely understood. Recent work from our laboratory has identified statins, inhibitors of the mevalonate pathway, as degraders of conformational mutp53. Specific reduction of mevalonate-5-phosphate (MVP), a metabolic intermediate in the mevalonate pathway, by statins or mevalonate kinase (MVK) knockdown triggers CHIP ubiquitin ligase-mediated degradation of conformational mutp53 by inhibiting interaction between mutp53 and DNAJA1, a Hsp40 family member...
December 13, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237705/cilia-loss-sensitizes-cells-to-transformation-by-activating-the-mevalonate-pathway
#20
Yue-Zhen Deng, Zhen Cai, Shuo Shi, Hao Jiang, Yu-Rong Shang, Ning Ma, Jing-Jing Wang, Dong-Xian Guan, Tian-Wei Chen, Ye-Fei Rong, Zhen-Yu Qian, Er-Bin Zhang, Dan Feng, Quan-Li Zhou, Yi-Nan Du, Dong-Ping Liu, Xing-Xu Huang, Lu-Ming Liu, Eugene Chin, Dang-Sheng Li, Xiao-Fan Wang, Xue-Li Zhang, Dong Xie
Although cilia loss and cell transformation are frequently observed in the early stage of tumorigenesis, the roles of cilia in cell transformation are unknown. In this study, disrupted ciliogenesis was observed in cancer cells and pancreatic cancer tissues, which facilitated oncogene-induced transformation of normal pancreatic cells (HPDE6C7) and NIH3T3 cells through activating the mevalonate (MVA) pathway. Disruption of ciliogenesis up-regulated MVA enzymes through β catenin-T cell factor (TCF) signaling, which synchronized with sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 2 (SREBP2), and the regulation of MVA by β-catenin-TCF signaling was recapitulated in a mouse model of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and human PDAC samples...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
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