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M K Chaitanya Mannava, Kuthuru Suresh, Manish Kumar Bommaka, Durga Bhavani Konga, Ashwini Nangia
Curcumin is a natural compound present in Indian spice turmeric. It has diverse pharmacological action but low oral solubility and bioavailability continue to limit its use as a drug. With the aim of improving the bioavailability of Curcumin (CUR), we evaluated Curcumin-Pyrogallol (CUR-PYR) cocrystal and Curcumin-Artemisinin (CUR-ART) coamorphous solid. Both of these solid forms exhibited superior dissolution and pharmacokinetic behavior compared to pure CUR, which is practically insoluble in water. CUR-ART coamorphous solid showed two fold higher bioavailability than CUR-PYR cocrystal (at 200 mg/kg oral dose)...
January 9, 2018: Pharmaceutics
M A Niyas, Remya Ramakrishnan, Vishnu Vijay, Mahesh Hariharan
Among the various donor-acceptor (D-A) charge transfer cocrystals investigated in the past few decades, tetrathiafulvalene-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F.Q, popularly known as TTF.TCNQ) based cocrystals have fascinated materials chemists owing to its packing and exceptional properties. Here, crystallographic information files of eighteen F.Q based cocrystals were extracted from Cambridge Structural Database and classified into Class 1 (D on D and A on A segregated stacks; F.Q, F1.Q - F6.Q and F.Q1), Class 2 (-A-D-A-D-A-D- mixed stacks; F6a...
January 3, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Pengfei Zhou, Yuru Liang, Hao Zhang, Hao Jiang, Kechang Feng, Pan Xu, Jie Wang, Xiaoming Wang, Kuiling Ding, Cheng Luo, Mingming Liu, Yang Wang
A diverse of chiral β-lactam bridged analogues of combretastatin A-4 (CA-4), 3-substituted 1,4-diaryl-2-azetidinones, were asymmetrically synthesized and biologically evaluated, leading to identify a number of potent anti-proliferative compounds represented by 14b and 14c with IC50 values of 0.001-0.021 μM, against four human cancer cell lines (A2780, Hela, SKOV-3 and MDA-MB-231). Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies on all stereoisomers of 14b and 14c revealed that the absolute configurations of the chiral centers at 3- and 4-position were critically important for the activity and generally a trans configuration between the "A" and "B" rings is optimal...
December 7, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Chengyu Liu, Zhengsheng Liu, Yuejie Chen, Zhen Chen, Huijun Chen, Yipshu Pui Feng Qian
The aim of this paper was to compare the in vitro dissolution and in vivo bioavailability of three solubility enhancement technologies for β-lapachone (LPC), a poorly water soluble compound with extremely high crystallization propensity. LPC cocrystal was prepared by co-grinding LPC with resorcinol. LPC crystalline and amorphous solid dispersions (CSD and ASD) were obtained by spray drying with Poloxamer 188 and HPMC-AS, respectively. The cocrystal structure was solved by single crystal x-ray diffraction. All formulations were characterized by WAXRD, DSC, POM and SEM...
January 2, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Muhammad Umer Faroque, Sajida Noureen, Maqsood Ahmed, Muhammad Nawaz Tahir
The crystal structure of the cocrystal salt form of the antimalarial drug pyrimethamine with 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid in methanol [systematic name: 2,4-diamino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-6-ethylpyrimidin-1-ium 2,4-dihydroxybenzoate methanol monosolvate, C12H14ClN4+·C7H5O4-·CH3OH] has been studied using X-ray diffraction data collected at room temperature. The crystal structure was refined using the classical Independent Atom Model (IAM) and the Multipolar Atom Model by transferring electron-density parameters from the ELMAM2 database...
January 1, 2018: Acta Crystallographica. Section C, Structural Chemistry
Bozumeh Som, Jessica R Shue, Mark D Smith, Linda S Shimizu
Molecular salts, often observed as cocrystals, play an important role in the fields of pharmaceutics and materials science, where salt formation is used to tune the properties of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and improve the stability of solid-state materials. Salt formation via a proton-transfer reaction typically alters hydrogen-bonding motifs and influences supramolecular assembly patterns. We report here the molecular salts formed by the pyridyl bis-urea macrocycle 3,5,13,15,21,22-hexaazatricyclo[15...
January 1, 2018: Acta Crystallographica. Section C, Structural Chemistry
Wilhelm Maximilian Hützler, Michael Bolte
Doubly and triply hydrogen-bonded supramolecular synthons are of particular interest for the rational design of crystal and cocrystal structures in crystal engineering since they show a high robustness due to their high stability and good reliability. The compound 5-methyl-2-thiouracil (2-thiothymine) contains an ADA hydrogen-bonding site (A = acceptor and D = donor) if the S atom is considered as an acceptor. We report herein the results of cocrystallization experiments with the coformers 2,4-diaminopyrimidine, 2,4-diamino-6-phenyl-1,3,5-triazine, 6-amino-3H-isocytosine and melamine, which contain complementary DAD hydrogen-bonding sites and, therefore, should be capable of forming a mixed ADA-DAD N-H...
January 1, 2018: Acta Crystallographica. Section C, Structural Chemistry
Hiroyuki Yamashita, Changquan Calvin Sun
PURPOSE: The use of soluble cocrystals is a promising strategy for delivering poorly soluble drugs. However, precipitation of poorly soluble crystal form during dissolution hinders the successful tablet development of cocrystals. This work was aimed to understand the mechanisms for improving dissolution performance of a soluble cocrystals by using excess coformer. METHODS: A highly soluble carbamazepine (CBZ) cocrystal with- glutaric acid (GLA) was studied. Impact of excess GLA on solubility and intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR) was assessed...
December 29, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
Agnieszka Sokal, Edyta Pindelska
The properties of many drugs which have been available on the pharmaceutical market for a long time still need to be improved. Cocrystals are the solid state drug modification which can improve such properties as low solubility, stability and mechanical properties (e.g. compressibility). In this paper examples how to use cocrystals to modify properties of API (Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient) will be reported. Additionally, in this review the way from an idea of the new cocrystal to drug dosage form registration will be shortly described...
December 26, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
James I Robinson, Euan W Baxter, Robin L Owen, Maren Thomsen, Darren C Tomlinson, Mark P Waterhouse, Stephanie J Win, Joanne E Nettleship, Christian Tiede, Richard J Foster, Raymond J Owens, Colin W G Fishwick, Sarah A Harris, Adrian Goldman, Michael J McPherson, Ann W Morgan
Protein-protein interactions are essential for the control of cellular functions and are critical for regulation of the immune system. One example is the binding of Fc regions of IgG to the Fc gamma receptors (FcγRs). High sequence identity (98%) between the genes encoding FcγRIIIa (expressed on macrophages and natural killer cells) and FcγRIIIb (expressed on neutrophils) has prevented the development of monospecific agents against these therapeutic targets. We now report the identification of FcγRIIIa-specific artificial binding proteins called "Affimer" that block IgG binding and abrogate FcγRIIIa-mediated downstream effector functions in macrophages, namely TNF release and phagocytosis...
December 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
David Walsh, Dolores R Serrano, Zelalem Ayenew Worku, Brid A Norris, Anne Marie Healy
Spray drying is a well-established scale-up technique for the production of cocrystals. However, to the best of our knowledge, the effect of introducing a third component into the feed solution during the spray drying process has never been investigated. Cocrystal formation in the presence of a third component by a one-step spray drying process has the potential to reduce the number of unit operations which are required to produce a final pharmaceutical product (e.g. by eliminating blending with excipient)...
December 11, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Lingjie Sun, Weigang Zhu, Fangxu Yang, Baili Li, Xiaochen Ren, Xiaotao Zhang, Wenping Hu
Organic cocrystals, formed by a combination of electron-rich donors and electron-poor acceptors, play an important role in tailoring the optoelectronic properties of molecular materials. Charge transfer interactions in cocrystals not only endow them with an ordered three-dimensional (3D) supramolecular network in different constituent units, but also render them ideal scaffolds to control the intermolecular interactions in multicomponent solids. In this perspective, we firstly introduce preparation methods, molecular packing modes and charge transfer in organic cocrystals...
December 13, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Caiyan Wang, Qian Jia, Jianhua Zeng, Ran Chen, Wei Xie
The wyosine derivatives present at position 37 in transfer RNAs (tRNAs) are critical for reading frame maintenance. The methyltransferase Trm5a from Pyrococcus abyssi (PaTrm5a) plays a key role in this hypermodification process in generating m1G37 and imG2, two products of the wyosine biosynthetic pathway, through two methyl transfers to distinct substrates, but the mechanism is currently unknown. We report two cocrystal structures of PaTrm5a in complex with tRNAPhe and reveal the structural basis for substrate recognition, which was supported by in vitro activity assays...
December 2017: Science Advances
Dolores R Serrano, David Walsh, Peter O'Connell, Naila A Mugheirbi, Zelalem Ayenew Worku, Francisco Bolas-Fernandez, Carolina Galiana, Maria Auxiliadora Dea-Ayuela, Anne Marie Healy
Engineering of pharmaceutical cocrystals is an advantageous alternative to salt formation for improving the aqueous solubility of hydrophobic drugs. Although, spray drying is a well-established scale-up technique in the production of cocrystals, several issues can arise such as sublimation or stickiness due to low glass transition temperatures of some organic molecules, making the process very challenging. Even though, fluidised bed spray coating has been successfully employed in the production of amorphous drug-coated particles, to the best of our knowledge, it has never been employed in the production of cocrystals...
November 28, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Hao Zhang, Ying Zhu, Ning Qiao, Yang Chen, Linghuan Gao
In this study, we attempted to prepare carbamazepine (CBZ) cocrystal through the solution method in ethanol-water solvent mixture (volume ratio 1:1) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) solution. Nicotinamide (NIC) and saccharin (SAC) were selected as cocrystal coformers. Cocrystal screening products were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), and Powder X-ray Diffraction (PXRD) techniques. Characterization results show that in ethanol-water solvent mixture, pure CBZ-NIC cocrystal can be prepared, while CBZ-SAC cocrystal cannot be obtained...
December 1, 2017: Pharmaceutics
Gui-Yun Hang, Wen-Li Yu, Tao Wang, Jin-Tao Wang, Zhen Li
In this article, different CL-20/FOX-7 cocrystal models were established by the substitution method based on the molar ratios of CL-20:FOX-7. The structures and comprehensive properties, including mechanical properties, stabilities, and energy density, of different cocrystal models were obtained and compared with each other. The main aim was to estimate the influence of molar ratios on properties of cocrystal explosives. The molecular dynamics (MD) simulation results show that the cocrystal model with molar ratio 1:1 has the best mechanical properties and highest binding energy, so the CL-20/FOX-7 cocrystal model is more likely to form in 1:1 M ratio...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
Gang Han, Qi-Fa Li, Rui-Jun Gou, Shu-Hai Zhang, Fu-de Ren, Li Wang, Rong Guan
A 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) /1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazacyclooctane (HMX)-isopropanol (IPA) interfacial model was constructed to investigate the effect of temperature on cocrystal morphology. A constant volume and temperature molecular dynamics (NVT-MD) simulation was performed on the interfacial model at various temperatures (295-355 K, 20 K intervals). The surface electrostatic potential (ESP) of the CL-20/HMX cocrystal structure and IPA molecule were studied by the B3LYP method at 6-311++G (d, p) level...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
Ziling Luo, Tomislav Friščić, Rustam Z Khaliullin
Selective binding of steroid molecules is of paramount importance for designing drugs that can target the biological pathways of only individual steroids. From this perspective, it is remarkable that progesterone (PRO) and pregnenolone (PRE), two structurally similar steroids, demonstrate a dramatically different propensity to interact with aromatic molecules. It has been recently reported that, in solid-state cocrystallization, PRO forms cocrystals with a wide variety of aromatic systems whereas PRE cocrystallizes only with a few...
November 29, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Saleem Iqbal, Dhanabalan Anantha Krishnan, Krishnasamy Gunasekaran
Protein kinases are ubiquitously expressed as Serine/Threonine kinases, and play a crucial role in cellular activities. Protein kinases have evolved through stringent regulation mechanisms. Protein kinase are also involved in tauopathy, thus are important targets for developing Anti-Alzheimer's disease compounds. Structures with an indole scaffold turned out to be potent new leads. With the aim of developing new inhibitors for human protein kinase C, here we report the generation of four point 3D geometric featured pharmacophore model...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Alexander Doemling, Markella Konstantinidou, Tryfon Zarganes-Tzitzikas, Katarzyna Magiera, Tad A Holak
The PD-1/PD-L1 axis has emerged as a significant target in cancer immunotherapy. Current medications include monoclonal antibodies, which have shown impressive clinical results in the treatment of several types of tumors. The cocrystal structure of human PD-1 and PD-L1 is expected to be a valuable starting point for the design of novel inhibitors, alongside with the recent crystal structures with monoclonal antibodies, small molecules and macrocycles.
November 27, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
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