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Pre-Test Probability

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905150/genetic-parameter-estimates-for-prenatal-and-postnatal-mortality-in-nellore-cattle
#1
L C Magalhães Silva, F Baldi, C Aboujaoude, G C Venturini, L G Albuquerque, M J R Paranhos da Costa
The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for prenatal (PRE) and postnatal (POS) mortality in Nellore cattle. A total of 13 141 (PRE) and 17 818 (POS) records from Nellore females were used. PRE and POS were recorded using binary scale scores: a score of '1' was given to calves that were born alive (PRE) and those that were alive at weaning (POS), and a score of '0' was given to calves that were not alive at or around birth (PRE), as well as to those weighed at birth but not at weaning (POS)...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Zeitschrift Für Tierzüchtung und Züchtungsbiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885441/bayesian-comparative-assessment-of-diagnostic-accuracy-of-low-dose-ct-scan-and-ultrasonography-in-the-diagnosis-of-urolithiasis-after-the-application-of-the-stone-score
#2
Laila Cochon, Jeffrey Smith, Amado Alejandro Baez
OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to assess the diagnostic quality of low-dose computed tomography (CT) when compared to ultrasound (US) in diagnosis of urolithiasis using STONE score as a predictor of pre-test probability and the Bayesian statistical model to calculate post-test probabilities (POST) for both diagnostic tests. METHODS: STONE score was used to form risk groups to obtain pre-test probabilities. Likelihood ratios (LR) were calculated from external data for low-dose CT and US...
November 25, 2016: Emergency Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883344/analysis-of-non-eeg-evidence-for-preparatory-activity-in-the-human-brain-pre-contraction-impedance-changes-in-skeletal-muscles
#3
Carl Shiffman
Precontraction impedance changes (PICs) are known to occur during isometric contractions of the human forearm finger flexors. Without reliance on electroencephalogical data these are construed as evidence for the construction of a 'template of instructions' in the brain for muscle contractions to be performed once a 'go' instruction is received, as widely expected from EEG measurements A model is proposed to explain earlier impedance results, based on a PIC-associated time-dependent inhibitory constraint and a modified role for the 'go' command...
November 24, 2016: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878048/validation-of-a-prediction-model-for-avoiding-post-chemotherapy-retroperitoneal-lymphadenectomy-in-patients-with-metastatic-nonseminomatous-germ-cell-cancer
#4
Nahid Punjani, Nicholas Power, James J Vanhie, Eric Winquist
INTRODUCTION: Post-chemotherapy residual masses (PCRMs) may contain persistent cancer or teratoma in more than 50% of patients with metastatic non-seminomatous germ cell tumours (mNSGCTs). Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) is curative, but controversy exists about selection criteria for surgery. A validated prediction model by Vergouwe et al (2007) based on over 1000 patients was evaluated at our centre. METHODS: mNSGCT patients treated with RPLND for PCRMs were identified from an electronic database...
August 2016: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866203/frontal-assessment-battery-as-a-useful-tool-to-differentiate-mild-cognitive-impairment-due-to-subcortical-ischemic-vascular-disease-from-alzheimer-disease
#5
Yen-Hsuan Hsu, Ching-Feng Huang, Chung-Ping Lo, Tzu-Lan Wang, Chi-Cheng Yang, Min-Chien Tu
BACKGROUND: Prominent executive dysfunction can differentiate vascular dementia from Alzheimer disease (AD). However, it is unclear whether the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) screening tool can differentiate subcortical ischemic vascular disease (SIVD) from AD at the pre-dementia stage. In addition, the neural correlates of FAB performance have yet to be clarified. METHODS: Patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to SIVD (MCI-V), MCI due to AD (MCI-A), and demographically matched controls completed the Mini-Mental State Examination, Taiwanese FAB (TFAB), Category Fluency, and Chinese Version of the Verbal Learning Test, and underwent magnetic resonance imaging...
2016: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865195/a-clinical-model-to-identify-patients-with-high-risk-plaque-by-coronary-computed-tomography-angiography
#6
Nobuo Tomizawa, Kodai Yamamoto, Yayoi Hayakawa, Shinichi Inoh, Takeshi Nojo, Sunao Nakamura
OBJECTIVES: Current clinical models predict the pre-test probability of obstructive coronary artery disease, but these models do not predict the presence of high-risk plaques. Thus the objective of this study was to propose a model to predict high-risk plaque assessed by coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography. METHODS: This study was a retrospective cross-sectional study. A clinical model was derived from 2392 patients and verified by 733 patients who underwent coronary CT suspected of coronary artery disease...
November 14, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847252/400-or-more-participants-needed-for-stable-contingency-table-estimates-of-clinical-prediction-rule-performance
#7
Peter Kent, Eleanor Boyle, Jennifer L Keating, Hanne B Albert, Jan Hartvigsen
OBJECTIVE: To quantify variability in the results of statistical analyses based on contingency tables and discuss the implications for the choice of sample size for studies that derive clinical prediction rules. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: An analysis of three pre-existing sets of large cohort data (n= 4,062 to 8,674) was performed. In each dataset, repeated random-sampling of various sample sizes, from n=100 up to n=2,000, was performed 100 times at each sample size and the variability in estimates of sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios, post-test probabilities, odds ratios and risk/prevalence ratios, for each sample size was calculated...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832559/balancing-the-risks-and-benefits-of-using-emergency-diagnostic-radiocontrast-studies-to-diagnose-life-threatening-illness-in-critically-ill-patients-a-decision-analysis
#8
K M Ho
Diagnosis of many life-threatening illnesses, including acute pulmonary embolism, aortic dissection, and ischaemic bowel disease, requires confirmatory radiological imaging with radiocontrast. It is well established that radiocontrast can induce acute kidney injury, especially in patients with pre-existing renal impairment. The decision to proceed with a radiological study with radiocontrast to confirm or exclude a life-threatening, but potentially reversible, illness in patients with renal impairment is difficult...
November 2016: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822562/detoxification-and-sensing-mechanisms-are-of-similar-importance-for-cd-resistance-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#9
Sarah A Winter, Ramona Dölling, Burkhard Knopf, Martha N Mendelski, Christoph Schäfers, Rüdiger J Paul
The present study employed mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to measure the internal cadmium concentrations (Cdint) in Caenorhabditis elegans to determine Cd uptake from a Cd-containing environment as well as Cd release under Cd-free conditions. To analyze the functional role of several ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters (e.g., HMT-1 and MRP-1) and phytochelatin synthase (PCS), we compared wild-type (WT) and different mutant strains of C. elegans. As a pre-test on selected mutant strains, several time-resolved experiments were performed to determine the survival rate and avoidance behavior of C...
October 2016: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816700/a-subnanomolar-concentration-of-pituitary-adenylate-cyclase-activating-polypeptide-pacap-pre-synaptically-modulates-glutamatergic-transmission-in-the-rat-hippocampus-acting-through-acetylcholine
#10
Pecoraro Valeria, Sardone Lara Maria, Chisari Mariangela, Licata Flora, Li Volsi Guido, Perciavalle Vincenzo, Ciranna Lucia, Costa Lara
The neuropeptide PACAP modulates synaptic transmission in the hippocampus exerting multiple effects through different receptor subtypes: the underlying mechanisms have not yet been completely elucidated. The neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) also exerts a well-documented modulation of hippocampal synaptic transmission and plasticity. Since PACAP was shown to stimulate ACh release in the hippocampus, we tested whether PACAP acting through ACh might indirectly modulate glutamate-mediated synaptic transmission at a pre- and/or at a post-synaptic level...
November 2, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812429/risk-and-clinical-predictors-of-osteoporotic-fracture-in-east-asian-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-a-population-based-cohort-study
#11
Ping-Hsueh Lee, Victor C Kok, Po-Liang Chou, Ming-Chang Ku, Yu-Ching Chen, Jorng-Tzong Horng
INTRODUCTION: Osteoporosis is becoming an impending epidemic in the Asia-Pacific region. The association between risk of osteoporotic fracture (OTPF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in East Asian patients is yet to be fully examined. We conducted a nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study of 98,700 patients aged ≥50 years with or without COPD using a national administrative claims dataset. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The patients were divided into COPD and comparison groups comprising 19,740 and 78,960 patients, respectively...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790968/pre-post-effect-sizes-should-be-avoided-in-meta-analyses
#12
P Cuijpers, E Weitz, I A Cristea, J Twisk
: Aims The standardised mean difference (SMD) is one of the most used effect sizes to indicate the effects of treatments. It indicates the difference between a treatment and comparison group after treatment has ended, in terms of standard deviations. Some meta-analyses, including several highly cited and influential ones, use the pre-post SMD, indicating the difference between baseline and post-test within one (treatment group). METHODS: In this paper, we argue that these pre-post SMDs should be avoided in meta-analyses and we describe the arguments why pre-post SMDs can result in biased outcomes...
October 28, 2016: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784509/retention-and-mortality-outcomes-from-a-community-supported-public-private-hiv-treatment-programme-in-myanmar
#13
Gitau Mburu, Aung Zayar Paing, Nwe Ni Myint, Win Di, Kaung Htet Thu, Mala Ram, Christopher J Hoffmann, Bangyuan Wang, Soe Naing
INTRODUCTION: There is a growing interest in the potential contribution the private sector can make towards increasing access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in low- and middle-income settings. This article describes a public-private partnership that was developed to expand HIV care capacity in Yangon, Myanmar. The partnership was between private sector general practitioners (GPs) and a community-based non-governmental organization (International HIV/AIDS Alliance). METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 2119 patient records dating from March 2009 to April 2015 was conducted...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771231/evaluating-strategies-to-improve-hiv-care-outcomes-in-kenya-a-modelling-study
#14
Jack J Olney, Paula Braitstein, Jeffrey W Eaton, Edwin Sang, Monicah Nyambura, Sylvester Kimaiyo, Ellen McRobie, Joseph W Hogan, Timothy B Hallett
BACKGROUND: With expanded access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa, HIV mortality has decreased, yet life-years are still lost to AIDS. Strengthening of treatment programmes is a priority. We examined the state of an HIV care programme in Kenya and assessed interventions to improve the impact of ART programmes on population health. METHODS: We created an individual-based mathematical model to describe the HIV epidemic and the experiences of care among adults infected with HIV in Kenya...
December 2016: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768204/in-vitro-performance-investigation-of-syncardia%C3%A2-freedom%C3%A2-driver-via-patient-simulator-mock-loop
#15
Riccardo Toninato, Silvia Scuri, Vincenzo Tarzia, Gino Gerosa, Francesca M Susin
PURPOSE: The gold standard therapy for patients with advanced heart failure is heart transplant. The gap between donors and patients in waiting lists promoted the development of circulatory support devices, such as the total artificial heart (TAH). Focusing on in vitro tests performed with CardioWest™ TAH (CW) driven by the SynCardia Freedom® portable driver (FD) the present study goals are: i) prove the reliability of a hydraulic circuit used as patient simulator to replicate a quasi-physiological scenario for various hydrodynamic conditions, ii) investigate the hydrodynamic performance of the CW FD, iii) help clinicians in possible interpretation of clinical cases outcomes...
November 29, 2016: International Journal of Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768141/factors-associated-with-post-traumatic-growth-quality-of-life-and-spiritual-well-being-in-outpatients-undergoing-bone-marrow-transplantation-a-pilot-study
#16
Shane Sinclair, Reanne Booker, Tak Fung, Shelley Raffin-Bouchal, Bert Enns, Kate Beamer, Naree Ager
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationships between spiritual, religious, and sociodemographic factors and post-traumatic growth, quality of life, and spiritual well-being in outpatients undergoing bone marrow and/or stem cell transplantation (BMSCT).
. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, descriptive, exploratory.
. SETTING: Outpatient bone marrow transplantation clinic at the Tom Baker Cancer Centre in Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
. SAMPLE: 100 patients (21 pre-BMSCT and 79 post-BMSCT) accrued consecutively via non-probability sampling...
November 1, 2016: Oncology Nursing Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760546/spatial-heterogeneity-can-undermine-the-effectiveness-of-country-wide-test-and-treat-policy-for-malaria-a-case-study-from-burkina-faso
#17
Denis Valle, Justin Millar, Punam Amratia
BACKGROUND: Considerable debate has arisen regarding the appropriateness of the test and treat malaria policy broadly recommended by the World Health Organization. While presumptive treatment has important drawbacks, the effectiveness of the test and treat policy can vary considerably across regions, depending on several factors such as baseline malaria prevalence and rapid diagnostic test (RDT) performance. METHODS: To compare presumptive treatment with test and treat, generalized linear mixed effects models were fitted to data from 6510 children under five years of age from Burkina Faso's 2010 Demographic and Health Survey...
October 19, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759887/optimizing-muscle-selection-for-electromyography-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#18
Suma Babu, Erik P Pioro, Jianbo Li, Yuebing Li
INTRODUCTION: We compared the yield of limb and thoracic paraspinal muscles for revealing lower motor neuron (LMN) dysfunction on electromyography (EMG) in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). METHODS: A retrospective review of 354 patients with clinically definite or probable ALS was performed. Seventeen limb muscles and thoracic paraspinal muscles were evaluated for the presence of both active and chronic denervation. RESULTS: Distal limb muscles showed the highest electrodiagnostic sensitivities of LMN dysfunction in ALS regardless of onset region and diagnostic certainty at the time of diagnosis...
October 19, 2016: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754717/the-influence-of-optical-coherence-tomography-measurements-of-retinal-nerve-fiber-layer-on-decision-making-in-glaucoma-diagnosis
#19
Lanxing Fu, Peter Aspinall, Gary Bennett, Jay Magidson, Andrew J Tatham
PURPOSE: To quantify the influence of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) on decision-making in patients with suspected glaucoma. METHODS: A prospective cross-sectional study involving 40 eyes of 20 patients referred by community optometrists due to suspected glaucoma. All patients had disc photographs and standard automated perimetry (SAP), and results were presented to 13 ophthalmologists who estimated pre-test probability of glaucoma (0-100%) for a total of 520 observations...
October 18, 2016: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750571/cognitive-deficits-post-traumatic-brain-injury-and-their-association-with-injury-severity-and-gray-matter-volumes
#20
Abigail Livny, Anat Biegon, Tammar Kushnir, Sagi Harnof, Chen Hoffmann, Eyal Fruchter, Mark Weiser
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is known to have a substantial, though highly variable, impact on cognitive abilities. Due to the wide range of cognitive abilities among healthy individuals, an objective assessment of TBI-related cognitive loss requires an accurate measurement of premorbid cognitive performance. To address this problem, we recruited 50 adults who sustained a TBI and had performed a cognitive baseline assessment in adolescence as part of the aptitude tests mandated by the Israeli Defense Forces...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
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