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Pre-Test Probability

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318305/on-demand-driver-vigilance-enhancement-without-explicit-drowsiness-detection-further-analysis-of-the-pilot-study-results
#1
R Michael Van Auken, Brad K Hagoski, Dean P Chiang, Shane Chang
OBJECTIVE: A new active safety concept that engages the driver's psychosensory pain-processing mechanism to automatically trigger vigilance enhancement on-demand was proposed in Chang ( 2012 ). This concept is based on the hypothesis that a human's pain threshold will decline as he/she becomes drowsy, consequently triggering the vigilance enhancer. The objective of this pilot study was to develop methods to test this hypothesis, the results of which could lead to further refinement of the hypothesis and methods, with the ultimate goal of developing new active safety concepts that exploit the driver's endogenous psychosensory pain-processing mechanisms...
March 20, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318045/diagnosis-of-gastro-oesophageal-reflux-disease-is-enhanced-by-adding-oesophageal-histology-and-excluding-epigastric-pain
#2
N Vakil, M Vieth, B Wernersson, J Wissmar, J Dent
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in clinical practice is limited by the sensitivity and specificity of symptoms and diagnostic testing. AIM: To determine if adding histology as a criterion and excluding patients with epigastric pain enhances the diagnosis for GERD. METHODS: Patients with frequent upper gastrointestinal symptoms who had not taken a proton pump inhibitor in the previous 2 months and who had evaluable distal oesophageal biopsies were included (Diamond study: NCT00291746)...
March 20, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300770/transglycosylated-starch-improves-insulin-response-and-alters-lipid-and-amino-acid-metabolome-in-a-growing-pig-model
#3
Monica A Newman, Qendrim Zebeli, Eva Eberspächer, Dietmar Grüll, Timea Molnar, Barbara U Metzler-Zebeli
Due to the functional properties and physiological effects often associated with chemically modified starches, significant interest lies in their development for incorporation in processed foods. This study investigated the effect of transglycosylated cornstarch (TGS) on blood glucose, insulin, and serum metabolome in the pre- and postprandial phase in growing pigs. Eight jugular vein-catheterized barrows were fed two diets containing 72% purified starch (waxy cornstarch (CON) or TGS). A meal tolerance test (MTT) was performed with serial blood sampling for glucose, insulin, lipids, and metabolome profiling...
March 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294354/a-prospective-study-assessing-the-effect-of-coronal-tooth-structure-loss-on-the-outcome-of-root-canal-retreatment
#4
N Al-Nuaimi, S Patel, R S Austin, F Mannocci
AIM: To evaluate the outcome of secondary root canal treatment (retreatment) on posterior teeth in relation to the residual volume of coronal tooth structure, measured with an intraoral scanner, using periapical radiography and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). METHODOLOGY: A total of 137 posterior teeth in 121 patients were assessed clinically and radiographically using periapical radiographs and CBCT scans at baseline and 1-year after root canal retreatment...
March 10, 2017: International Endodontic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291487/physical-screening-predictors-for-success-in-completing-air-force-phase-ii-air-liaison-officer-aptitude-assessment
#5
John Christopher McGee, Eric Wilson, Haley Barela, Sharon Blum
OBJECTIVES: Air Liaison Officer Aptitude Assessment (AAA) attrition is often associated with a lack of candidate physical preparation. The Functional Movement Screen, Tactical Fitness Assessment, and fitness metrics were collected (n = 29 candidates) to determine what physical factors could predict a candidate s success in completing AAA. METHODS: Between-group comparisons were made between candidates completing AAA versus those who did not (p < 0.05). Upper 50% thresholds were established for all variables with R(2) < 0...
March 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289841/role-of-exercise-cardiogoniometry-in-coronary-artery-disease-diagnostics
#6
A Weber, J Smid, B Luani, R C Braun-Dullaeus, I Tanev
BACKGROUND: The use of noninvasive diagnostics in coronary artery disease remains underdeveloped. To date, there is no simple and inexpensive method that can lead to a reliable diagnosis. Aside from costly and elaborate imaging techniques, exercise ECG, with its rather moderate sensitivity and specificity, is the main diagnostic method available. METHODS: In this prospective study of 109 patients, the diagnostic value of cardiogoniometry (CGM), a three-dimensional, computer-analyzed vector cardiogram, was determined before and after physical stress, and the results were compared with those obtained from a stress test...
March 13, 2017: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288432/inhibitory-effects-of-sulfamethoxazole-on-denitrifying-granule-properties-short-and-long-term-tests
#7
Qian-Qian Chen, Wen-Di Wu, Zao-Zao Zhang, Jia-Jia Xu, Ren-Cun Jin
The broad-spectrum antibiotic sulfamethoxazole (SMX) was chosen to assess its short- and long-term effects on denitrifying granules. The SMX concentration and pre-exposure time in batch testing influenced the denitrifying granule activity. In the continuous-flow experiments, no inhibitory effects on the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket performance were observed at SMX concentrations up to 100mgL(-1), probably because of functional redundancy and long-term acclimation. The specific denitrifying activity first decreased to a minimum of 49...
February 27, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287010/diagnosis-and-management-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-infection
#8
P Lewis White, Matthijs Backx, Rosemary A Barnes
Pneumocystis jirovecii is a ubiquitous fungus, which causes pneumonia in humans. Diagnosis was hampered by the inability to culture the organism, and based on microscopic examination of respiratory samples or clinical presentation. New assays can assist in the diagnosis and even aid with the emergence of resistant infections. Areas Covered: This manuscript will provide background information on Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP). Diagnosis, from radiological to non-microbiological (e.g. Lactate dehydrogenase) and microbiological investigations (Microscopy, PCR, β-D-Glucan) will be discussed...
March 13, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285845/a-stratified-randomized-double-blind-phase-ii-trial-of-celecoxib-for-treating-patients-with-cervical-intraepithelial-neoplasia-the-potential-predictive-value-of-vegf-serum-levels-an-nrg-oncology-gynecologic-oncology-group-study
#9
Janet S Rader, Michael W Sill, Jan H Beumer, Heather A Lankes, Doris Mangiaracina Benbrook, Francisco Garcia, Connie Trimble, J Tate Thigpen, Richard Lieberman, Rosemary E Zuna, Charles A Leath, Nick M Spirtos, John Byron, Premal H Thaker, Shashikant Lele, David Alberts
PURPOSE: To examine the effect of celecoxib on cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 (CIN 3). This is a NRG Oncology/Gynecologic Oncology Group study with translational biomarkers. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with CIN 3 were randomized to celecoxib 400mg once daily (67 patients) or placebo (63 patients) for 14-18weeks. The primary outcome measure was histologic regression. A test of equal probabilities of success between two therapies was conducted, using Fisher's Exact Test at alpha=10% and 90% power when the treatment arm boosted the probability of success by 30%...
March 9, 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279374/the-quantitative-science-of-evaluating%C3%A2-imaging-evidence
#10
REVIEW
Tessa S S Genders, Bart S Ferket, M G Myriam Hunink
Cardiovascular diagnostic imaging tests are increasingly used in everyday clinical practice, but are often imperfect, just like any other diagnostic test. The performance of a cardiovascular diagnostic imaging test is usually expressed in terms of sensitivity and specificity compared with the reference standard (gold standard) for diagnosing the disease. However, evidence-based application of a diagnostic test also requires knowledge about the pre-test probability of disease, the benefit of making a correct diagnosis, the harm caused by false-positive imaging test results, and potential adverse effects of performing the test itself...
March 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278389/clinical-equipoise-and-shared-decision-making-in-pulmonary-nodule-management-a-survey-of-american-thoracic-society-clinicians
#11
Jonathan M Iaccarino, James Simmons, Michael K Gould, Christopher G Slatore, Steven Woloshin, Lisa M Schwartz, Renda Soylemez Wiener
RATIONALE: Guidelines for pulmonary nodule evaluation suggest a variety of strategies, reflecting the lack of high-quality evidence demonstrating the superiority of any one approach. It is unclear whether clinicians agree that multiple management options are appropriate at different levels of risk and whether this impacts their decision-making approaches with patients. OBJECTIVES: To assess clinicians' perceptions of the appropriateness of various diagnostic strategies, approach to decision-making, and perceived clinical equipoise in pulmonary nodule evaluation...
March 9, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270782/temporal-preparation-for-speaking-in-question-answer-sequences
#12
Lilla Magyari, Jan P De Ruiter, Stephen C Levinson
In every-day conversations, the gap between turns of conversational partners is most frequently between 0 and 200 ms. We were interested how speakers achieve such fast transitions. We designed an experiment in which participants listened to pre-recorded questions about images presented on a screen and were asked to answer these questions. We tested whether speakers already prepare their answers while they listen to questions and whether they can prepare for the time of articulation by anticipating when questions end...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269071/pre-clinical-investigations-of-multi-path-propagation-in-transcranial-doppler-ultrasound-flow-phantom
#13
Alexander J Weir, Cheng-Xiang Wang, Stuart Parks
There are various practical situations in medical applications when pre-clinical investigations must be performed using a simulation environment or test bench prior to human studies. One example is the analysis of propagation channels in Transcanial Doppler (TCD) ultrasound (US), a signal processing challenge requiring the analysis of data from US waves scattered in three dimensions (3D). When examining the effects of scatterers in such channels, it is common to use a data acquisition test bench and a Doppler flow phantom...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259681/stem-cell-laden-hyaluronic-acid-based-spongy-like-hydrogels-for-an-integrated-healing-of-diabetic-wounds-pathophysiologies
#14
Lucília Pereira da Silva, Tírcia Carlos Santos, Daniel Barreira Rodrigues, Rogério Pedro Pirraco, Mariana Teixeira Cerqueira, Rui Luís Reis, Vitor Manuel Correlo, Alexandra Pinto Marques
The correlation between the pathophysiologies of diabetic foot ulcerations is yet to be established and improved treatments are still required. We propose a strategy that directs inflammation, neo-vascularization and neo-innervation of diabetic wounds. Aiming to potentiate a relevant secretome for nerve regeneration, stem cells were pre-cultured in hyaluronic acid-based spongy-like hydrogels under neurogenic/standard media prior transplantation into diabetic mice full-thickness wounds. Acellular spongy-like hydrogels and empty wounds were used as controls...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255838/the-correlation-between-plasma-osmolarity-and-tear-osmolarity
#15
Maika Kobayashi, Tsutomu Igarashi, Hisatomo Takahashi, Chiaki Fujimoto, Hisaharu Suzuki, Hiroshi Takahashi
PURPOSE: To the correlation between plasma osmolarity (Posm) and tear osmolarity (Tosm) in patients (54 patients, 88 eyes) who underwent cataract surgery was evaluated. METHODS: Before cataract surgery, routine pre-operative biochemical tests were performed, and Posm was determined from blood samples. Also, Tosm was measured using the TearLab system, and objective signs including tear break-up time (BUT), fluorescein staining, lissamine green staining, and Schirmer's test were evaluated...
March 2, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245790/relationship-between-history-of-coronary-heart-disease-at-dialysis-initiation-and-onset-of-events-associated-with-heart-disease-a-propensity-matched-analysis-of-a-prospective-cohort-study
#16
Daijo Inaguma, Shigehisa Koide, Kazuo Takahashi, Hiroki Hayashi, Midori Hasegawa, Yukio Yuzawa
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) events, and a number of reports have shown a relationship between CKD and CVD in pre-dialysis or maintenance dialysis patients. However, few studies have reported serial observations during dialysis initiation and maintenance. Therefore, we examined whether the incidence of heart disease events differed between CKD patients with and without a history of coronary heart disease (CHD) at dialysis initiation...
February 28, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240758/the-influence-of-a-new-clinical-motion-for-endodontic-instruments-on-the-incidence-of-postoperative-pain
#17
G Gambarini, D Di Nardo, G Miccoli, F Guerra, R Di Giorgio, G Di Giorgio, G Glassman, L Piasecki, L Testarelli
OBJECTIVES: Previous studies showed that motor motions play an important role in determining apical extrusion of debris. Therefore a new clinical motion (MIMERACI) has been proposed. The basic idea is to progress slowly (1mm advancement), and after each 1mm, to remove the instrument from the canal, clean flutes and irrigate. The aim of the study was to prove whether the clinical use of MIMERACI technique would influence or not postoperative pain. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 100 teeth requesting endodontic treatment were selected for the study and divided into two similar groups based on anatomy, pre-operative symptoms and vitality, presence or absence of periapical lesion...
January 2017: La Clinica Terapeutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240588/measurement-of-antinuclear-antibodies-and-their-fine-specificities-time-for-a-change-in-strategy
#18
Henny G Otten, Walter J Brummelhuis, Ruth Fritsch-Stork, Helen L Leavis, Bram W Wisse, Jacob M van Laar, Ronald H W M Derksen
OBJECTIVES: The current strategy for antinuclear antibody (ANA) analysis involves screening for presence with a subsequent detailed analysis of their specificity. The aim of this study is to compare the clinical and financial efficacy of this strategy between different commercial tests in a large cohort of unselected patients. METHODS: In all consecutive 1030 patients associations were defined between results from different ANA test systems and the pre-test probability for connective tissue disease (CTDs)...
February 24, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240036/diagnosis-and-management-of-patients-with-an-intermediate-probability-of-choledocholithiasis
#19
José Alberto González González, Roberto Monreal Robles
We thank Dr. Dib for his interest in our prospective study, in which we assessed the accuracy of the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy guidelines for the prediction of choledocholithiasis (CL). The guidelines suggest the option of using a less-invasive initial test including endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) or magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) in patients with intermediate probability of CL. However, there is a paucity of published literature supporting this recommendation. Furthermore, in the study by Adams et al...
February 27, 2017: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239746/induction-of-sa-signaling-pathway-and-ethylene-biosynthesis-in-trichoderma-harzianum-treated-tomato-plants-after-infection-of-the-root-knot-nematode-meloidogyne-incognita
#20
Paola Leonetti, Maria Chiara Zonno, Sergio Molinari, Claudio Altomare
Salicylic acid-signaling pathway and ethylene biosynthesis were induced in tomato treated with Trichoderma harzianum when infected by root-knot nematodes and limited the infection by activation of SAR and ethylene production. Soil pre-treatment with Trichoderma harzianum (Th) strains ITEM 908 (T908) and T908-5 decreased susceptibility of tomato to Meloidogyne incognita, as assessed by restriction in nematode reproduction and development. The effect of T. harzianum treatments on plant defense was detected by monitoring the expression of the genes PR-1/PR-5 and JERF3/ACO, markers of the SA- and JA/ET-dependent signaling pathways, respectively...
February 26, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
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