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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349630/developmental-changes-in-serotonergic-modulation-of-gabaergic-synaptic-transmission-and-postsynaptic-gabaa-receptor-composition-in-the-cerebellar-nuclei
#1
Fumihito Saitow, Masatoshi Nagano, Hidenori Suzuki
Outputs from the cerebellar nuclei (CN) are important for generating and controlling movement. The activity of CN neurons is controlled not only by excitatory inputs from mossy and climbing fibers and by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-based inhibitory transmission from Purkinje cells in the cerebellar cortex but is also modulated by inputs from other brain regions, including serotonergic fibers that originate in the dorsal raphe nuclei. We examined the modulatory effects of serotonin (5-HT) on GABAergic synapses during development, using rat cerebellar slices...
January 19, 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347864/dense-breast-notification-laws-impact-on-downstream-imaging-after-screening-mammography
#2
Michal Horný, Alan B Cohen, Richard Duszak, Cindy L Christiansen, Michael Shwartz, James F Burgess
Dense breast tissue is a common finding that decreases the sensitivity of mammography in detecting cancer. Many states have recently enacted dense breast notification (DBN) laws to provide patients with information to help them make better-informed decisions about their health. To test whether DBN legislation affected the probability of screening mammography follow-up by ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we examined the proportion of times screening mammography was followed by ultrasound or MRI for a series of months pre- and post-legislation...
January 1, 2018: Medical Care Research and Review: MCRR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340549/teaching-model-for-evaluation-of-the-ability-and-competence-progress-in-endosuture-in-surgical-skill-laboratory
#3
Luiz Gonzaga de Moura-Júnior, Almino Ramos, Josemberg Marins Campos, Álvaro Antônio Ferraz, Hermano Ângelo Lima Rocha, Grijalva Otávio Costa
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic manual suturing is probably the most difficult skill to be acquired in minimally invasive surgery. However, laparoscopic exercise endo-sutures can be learned with a simulator and are of great practical importance and clinical applicability, absorbing concepts that are immediately transferred to the operating room. AIM: To assess the progression of skills competence in endo-sutures through realistic simulation model of systematized education...
October 2017: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340490/accuracy-of-closed-pleural-biopsy-in-the-diagnosis-of-malignant-pleural-effusion
#4
Renata Báez-Saldaña, Uriel Rumbo-Nava, Araceli Escobar-Rojas, Patricia Castillo-González, Santiago León-Dueñas, Teresa Aguirre-Pérez, María Eugenia Vázquez-Manríquez
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have demonstrated that closed pleural biopsy (CPB) has a sensitivity of less than 60% for diagnosing malignancy. Therefore, controversy has recently emerged regarding the value of CPB as a diagnostic test. Our objective was to assess the accuracy of CPB in diagnosing malignancy in patients with pleural effusion. METHODS: This was a prospective 8-year study of individuals who underwent CPB to establish the etiology of pleural effusion...
November 2017: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia: Publicaça̋o Oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338741/knowledge-and-practices-of-general-practitioners-at-district-hospitals-towards-cervical-cancer-prevention-in-burundi-2015-a-cross-sectional-study
#5
Zacharie Ndizeye, Davy Vanden Broeck, Heleen Vermandere, John Paul Bogers, Jean-Pierre Van Geertruyden
BACKGROUND: Well-organized screening and treatment programmes are effective to prevent Invasive Cervical Cancer (ICC) in LMICs. To achieve this, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the involvement of existing health personnel in casu doctors, nurses, midwives in ICC prevention. A necessary precondition is that health personnel have appropriate knowledge about ICC. Therefore, to inform policy makers and training institutions in Burundi, we documented the knowledge and practices of general practitioners (GPs) at district hospital level towards ICC control...
January 16, 2018: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338307/the-impact-of-prehabilitation-on-post-surgical-complications-in-patients-undergoing-non-urgent-cardiovascular-surgical-intervention-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Filipe Marmelo, Vânia Rocha, Daniel Gonçalves
Introduction Cardiac surgery is an aggressive procedure, inducing a great level of stress and disturbance to the homeostasis of the organism and underlying several postoperative complications. Surgical prehabilitation comprises pre-operative physical conditioning designed to improve the physiological and functional capacities of the individual, prepare the organism for surgical stress and reduce the risk of postoperative morbidity. Aim This systematic review and meta-analysis is aimed at evaluating the ability of prehabilitation to prevent post-surgical complications in cardiac patients...
January 1, 2018: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315054/ambulatory-management-of-pulmonary-embolism
#7
Houssam Abusibah, Muntasir M Abdelaziz, Peter Standen, Praveen Bhatia, Mahir Ma Hamad
The diagnosis of pulmonary embolism can be very difficult and elusive. It depends greatly on the use of diagnostic tests, which are in turn interpreted according to a pre-test clinical probability. These include non-specific tests such as the chest X-ray and electrocardiograph, which help exclude other conditions such as pneumonia or myocardial infarction. On the other hand, more specific tests such as computed tomography or ventilation/perfusion scanning are used to confirm or exclude the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism...
January 2, 2018: British Journal of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314060/dynamic-field-of-view-imaging-to-increase-temporal-resolution-in-the-early-phase-of-contrast-media-uptake-in-breast-dce-mri-a-feasibility-study
#8
Federico D Pineda, Ty O Easley, Gregory S Karczmar
PURPOSE: To increase diagnostic accuracy of breast MRI by increasing temporal resolution and more accurately sampling the early kinetics of contrast media uptake. We tested the feasibility of accelerating bilateral breast DCE-MRI by reducing the FOV, allowing aliasing, and unfolding the resulting images. METHODS: Previous experience with an 'ultrafast' protocol for bilateral breast DCE-MRI (6s-10s temporal resolution) showed that the number of significantly enhancing voxels is very low in the first 30 to 45 seconds after contrast media injection...
January 3, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310695/understanding-the-relationship-between-egg-and-antigen-based-diagnostics-of-schistosoma-mansoni-infection-pre-and-post-treatment-in-uganda
#9
Joaquín M Prada, Panayiota Touloupou, Moses Adriko, Edridah M Tukahebwa, Poppy H L Lamberton, T Déirdre Hollingsworth
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is a major socio-economic and public health problem in many sub-Saharan African countries. After large mass drug administration (MDA) campaigns, prevalence of infection rapidly returns to pre-treatment levels. The traditional egg-based diagnostic for schistosome infections, Kato-Katz, is being substituted in many settings by circulating antigen recognition-based diagnostics, usually the point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen test (CCA). The relationship between these diagnostics is poorly understood, particularly after treatment in both drug-efficacy studies and routine monitoring...
January 8, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298353/antibacterial-activity-of-antipsychotic-agents-their-association-with-lipid-nanocapsules-and-its-impact-on-the-properties-of-the-nanocarriers-and-on-antibacterial-activity
#10
Hassan Nehme, Patrick Saulnier, Alyaa A Ramadan, Viviane Cassisa, Catherine Guillet, Matthieu Eveillard, Anita Umerska
Bacterial antibiotic resistance is an emerging public health problem worldwide; therefore, new therapeutic strategies are needed. Many studies have described antipsychotic compounds that present antibacterial activity. Hence, the aims of this study were to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activity of antipsychotics belonging to different chemical families, to assess the influence of their association with lipid nanocapsules (LNCs) on their antimicrobial activity as well as drug release and to study the uptake of LNCs by bacterial cells...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280705/non-functioning-parathyroid-cystic-tumour-malignant-or-not-report-of-a-case
#11
G Cocorullo, G Scerrino, G Melfa, C Raspanti, G Rotolo, V Mannino, P Richiusa, D Cabibi, A G Giannone, C Porrello, G Gulotta
Parathyroid carcinoma (PC) is a very rare endocrine tumour, usually characterized by symptoms such as a neck mass, dysphonia, severe hypercalcemia exceeding 140 mg/L and elevated serum parathyroid hormone levels, even more than 5 times the upper limit of normal. Non-functioning parathyroid cancer is extremely rare and, in this case, its pre-operative diagnosis is often difficult. A 54-year old female patient, referring dysphagia and dysphonia, underwent neck ultrasound and neck CT. A left thyroid nodule, probably cystic, was found...
September 2017: Il Giornale di Chirurgia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260950/dose-painting-of-prostate-cancer-based-on-gleason-score-correlations-with-apparent-diffusion-coefficients
#12
Eric Grönlund, Silvia Johansson, Tufve Nyholm, Camilla Thellenberg, Anders Ahnesjö
BACKGROUND: Gleason scores for prostate cancer correlates with an increased recurrence risk after radiotherapy (RT). Furthermore, higher Gleason scores correlates with decreasing apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) data from diffusion weighted MRI (DWI-MRI). Based on these observations, we present a formalism for dose painting prescriptions of prostate volumes based on ADC images mapped to Gleason score driven dose-responses. METHODS: The Gleason score driven dose-responses were derived from a learning data set consisting of pre-RT biopsy data and post-RT outcomes for 122 patients treated with a homogeneous dose to the prostate...
December 20, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249436/identification-of-patients-with-stable-chest-pain-deriving-minimal-value-from-coronary-computed-tomography-angiography-an-external-validation-of-the-promise-minimal-risk-tool
#13
Philip D Adamson, Christopher B Fordyce, David A McAllister, James E Udelson, Pamela S Douglas, David E Newby
BACKGROUND: The PROspective Multicenter Imaging Study for Evaluation of chest pain (PROMISE) minimal-risk tool was recently developed to identify patients with suspected stable angina at very low risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and clinical events. We assessed the external validity of this tool within the context of the Scottish Computed Tomography of the HEART (SCOT-HEART) multicenter randomised controlled trial of patients with suspected stable angina due to coronary disease. METHODS: The minimal-risk tool was applied to 1764 patients with complete imaging and follow-up data...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248657/comprehensive-cardiac-ct-with-myocardial-perfusion-imaging-versus-functional-testing-in-suspected-coronary-artery-disease-the-multicenter-randomized-crescent-ii-trial
#14
Marisa Lubbers, Adriaan Coenen, Marcel Kofflard, Tobias Bruning, Bas Kietselaer, Tjebbe Galema, Marc Kock, Andre Niezen, Marco Das, Marco van Gent, Ewout-Jan van den Bos, Leon van Woerkens, Paul Musters, Suze Kooij, Fay Nous, Ricardo Budde, Miriam Hunink, Koen Nieman
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to assess the effectiveness, efficiency, and safety of a tiered, comprehensive cardiac computed tomography (CT) protocol in comparison with functional testing. BACKGROUND: Although CT angiography accurately rules out coronary artery disease (CAD), incorporation of CT myocardial perfusion imaging as part of a tiered diagnostic approach could improve the clinical value and efficiency of cardiac CT in the diagnostic work-up of patients with angina pectoris...
December 8, 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245013/combination-cancer-therapy-can-confer-benefit-via-patient-to-patient-variability-without-drug-additivity-or-synergy
#15
Adam C Palmer, Peter K Sorger
Combination cancer therapies aim to improve the probability and magnitude of therapeutic responses and reduce the likelihood of acquired resistance in an individual patient. However, drugs are tested in clinical trials on genetically diverse patient populations. We show here that patient-to-patient variability and independent drug action are sufficient to explain the superiority of many FDA-approved drug combinations in the absence of drug synergy or additivity. This is also true for combinations tested in patient-derived tumor xenografts...
December 14, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244227/surveillance-for-hepatobiliary-cancers-in-patients-with-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis
#16
Ahmad Hassan Ali, James H Tabibian, Navine Naser-Ghodsi, Ryan J Lennon, Thomas DeLeon, Mitesh J Borad, Moira Hilscher, Marina G Silveira, Elizabeth J Carey, Keith D Lindor
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a risk factor for cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) and gallbladder carcinoma (GBCa). Surveillance for GBCa is recommended, but the clinical utility of surveillance for other hepatobiliary cancers (HBCa) in PSC, namely CCA and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), is unclear. We aimed to determine whether surveillance is associated with better survival after diagnosis of HBCa in patients with PSC. METHODS: Medical records of PSC patients seen at Mayo Clinic Rochester from 1995-2015 were reviewed...
December 15, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238880/in-vitro-performance-of-prefilled-co2-absorbers-with-the-zeus%C3%A2
#17
Mohab Omer, Jan F A Hendrickx, Simon De Ridder, Alexander De Houwer, Rik Carette, Sofie De Cooman, Andre M De Wolf
Low fresh gas flows (FGFs) decrease the use of anesthetic gases, but increase CO2 absorbent usage. CO2 absorbent usage remains poorly quantified. The goal of this study is to determine canister life of 8 commercially available CO2 absorbent prepacks with the Zeus®. Pre-packed CO2 canisters of 8 different brands were tested in vitro: Amsorb Plus, Spherasorb, LoFloSorb, LithoLyme, SpiraLith, SpheraSorb, Drägersorb 800+, Drägersorb Free, and CO2ntrol. CO2 (160 mL min- 1) flowed into the tip of a 2 L breathing bag that was ventilated with a tidal volume of 500 mL, a respiratory rate of 10/min, and an I:E ratio of 1:1 using the controlled mechanical ventilation mode of the Zeus® (Dräger, Lubeck, Germany)...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230678/fractal-based-radiomic-approach-to-predict-complete-pathological-response-after-chemo-radiotherapy-in-rectal-cancer
#18
Davide Cusumano, Nicola Dinapoli, Luca Boldrini, Giuditta Chiloiro, Roberto Gatta, Carlotta Masciocchi, Jacopo Lenkowicz, Calogero Casà, Andrea Damiani, Luigi Azario, Johan Van Soest, Andre Dekker, Philippe Lambin, Marco De Spirito, Vincenzo Valentini
The aim of this study was to propose a methodology to investigate the tumour heterogeneity and evaluate its ability to predict pathologically complete response (pCR) after chemo-radiotherapy (CRT) in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). This approach consisted in normalising the pixel intensities of the tumour and identifying the different sub-regions using an intensity-based thresholding. The spatial organisation of these subpopulations was quantified using the fractal dimension (FD). This approach was implemented in a radiomic workflow and applied to 198 T2-weighted pre-treatment magnetic resonance (MR) images of LARC patients...
December 11, 2017: La Radiologia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229440/post-exposure-prophylaxis-with-doxycycline-to-prevent-sexually-transmitted-infections-in-men-who-have-sex-with-men-an-open-label-randomised-substudy-of-the-anrs-ipergay-trial
#19
Jean-Michel Molina, Isabelle Charreau, Christian Chidiac, Gilles Pialoux, Eric Cua, Constance Delaugerre, Catherine Capitant, Daniela Rojas-Castro, Julien Fonsart, Béatrice Bercot, Cécile Bébéar, Laurent Cotte, Olivier Robineau, François Raffi, Pierre Charbonneau, Alexandre Aslan, Julie Chas, Laurence Niedbalski, Bruno Spire, Luis Sagaon-Teyssier, Diane Carette, Soizic Le Mestre, Veronique Doré, Laurence Meyer
BACKGROUND: Increased rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have been reported among men who have sex with men. We aimed to assess whether post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) with doxycycline could reduce the incidence of STIs. METHODS: All participants attending their scheduled visit in the open-label extension of the ANRS IPERGAY trial in France (men aged 18 years or older having condomless sex with men and using pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate plus emtricitabine) were eligible for inclusion in this open-label randomised study...
December 8, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217029/development-of-a-predictive-model-for-temporal-artery-biopsies
#20
Ezekiel Weis, Andrew Toren, David Jordan, Vivek Patel, Steven Gilberg
OBJECTIVE: Temporal artery biopsy is a critical, relatively safe, and reliable test in the diagnosis of temporal arteritis. Yet, a clarification of the pre-test probabilities may provide clarity on which patients with suspected giant cell arteritis would benefit from this invasive diagnostic procedure. DESIGN: A prospective case series PARTICIPANTS: A consecutive case series of patients referred to the Ophthalmology service for temporal artery biopsy. METHODS: All subjects underwent standardized serum testing, and signs and symptoms assessment...
December 2017: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
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