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Pre-Test Probability

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931391/umbilical-cord-bilirubin-as-a-predictor-of-neonatal-jaundice-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#1
Kelsey D J Jones, S E Grossman, Dharshini Kumaranayakam, Arati Rao, Greg Fegan, Narendra Aladangady
BACKGROUND: Hyperbilirubinaemia is a major cause of neonatal morbidity. Early identification of those infants most at risk might allow the development of targeted primary preventative therapy and follow-up. The objective of this study was to assess whether arterial umbilical cord bilirubin (aUCB) level at delivery predicts the development of neonatal jaundice in term deliveries. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of hospital biochemistry records identified term deliveries with recorded aUCB...
September 20, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921784/the-evolution-of-gonad-expenditure-and-gonadosomatic-index-gsi-in-male-and-female-broadcast-spawning-invertebrates
#2
Geoff A Parker, Steven A Ramm, Jussi Lehtonen, Jonathan M Henshaw
Sedentary broadcast-spawning marine invertebrates, which release both eggs and sperm into the water for fertilization, are of special interest for sexual selection studies. They provide unique insight into the early stages of the evolutionary succession leading to the often-intense operation of both pre- and post-mating sexual selection in mobile gonochorists. Since they are sessile or only weakly mobile, adults can interact only to a limited extent with other adults and with their own fertilized offspring...
September 18, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919492/human-platelet-antigens-are-associated-with-febrile-non-hemolytic-transfusion-reactions
#3
Ding-Ping Chen, Ying-Hao Wen, Jang-Jih Lu, Ching-Ping Tseng, Wan-Ling Chen, Su-Wei Chang
BACKGROUND: Febrile non-hemolytic transfusion reaction (FNHTR) is the most common type of transfusion reactions, and it could be reduced by transfusing patients with leukocyte-poor blood products. However, FNHTR still occur in certain patients transfused with leukocyte-poor red blood cell (LPR) products. It is examined whether human platelet antigen (HPA) could be a potential membrane antigen that plays a role in FNHTR. METHODS: A total of 120 inpatient subjects who transfused with LPR (60 in FNHTR group, 60 in control group) were typed for HPA-2, HPA-3, and HPA-15 using sequence specific primer-polymerase chain reaction (SSP-PCR) and electrophoresis...
September 14, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916935/risk-stratification-model-lower-extremity-ultrasonography-for-hospitalized-patients-with-suspected-deep-vein-thrombosis
#4
Emily C Alper, Ivan K Ip, Patricia Balthazar, Gregory Piazza, Samuel Z Goldhaber, Carol B Benson, Ronilda Lacson, Ramin Khorasani
BACKGROUND: The Wells score for deep venous thrombosis (DVT) has a high failure rate and low efficiency among inpatients. OBJECTIVE: To create and validate an inpatient-specific risk stratification model to help assess pre-test probability of DVT in hospitalized patients. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of hospitalized patients undergoing lower-extremity ultrasonography studies (LEUS) for suspected DVT. Demographics, physical findings, medical history, medications, hospitalization, and laboratory and imaging results were collected...
September 15, 2017: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916487/a-novel-statistical-model-for-analyzing-data-of-a-systematic-review-generates-optimal-cut-off-values-for-fractional-exhaled-nitric-oxide-for-asthma-diagnosis
#5
REVIEW
Antonius Schneider, Klaus Linde, Johannes B Reitsma, Susanne Steinhauser, Gerta Rücker
OBJECTIVE: Measurement of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) might substitute bronchial provocation for diagnosing asthma. However, optimal FENO thresholds for diagnosing asthma remain unclear. We re-analyzed data collected for a systematic review investigating the diagnostic accuracy of FENO measurement to exploit all available thresholds under consideration of pre-test probabilities using a newly developed statistical model. STUDY DESIGN: 150 data-sets for a total of 53 different cut-offs extracted from 26 studies with 4518 participants were analyzed with the multiple thresholds model...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900368/testing-lupus-anticoagulants-in-a-real-life-scenario-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#6
Franz Ratzinger, Tanja Panic, Helmuth Haslacher, Thomas Perkmann, Klaus G Schmetterer, Sabine Belik, Georg Maenner, Ingrid Pabinger, Peter Quehenberger
INTRODUCTION: Lupus anticoagulant (LAC) testing is challenging. Most data are derived from a well-controlled study environment with potential alterations to daily routines. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to assess the capacity of various LAC screening tests and derived mixing tests to predict a positive result in subsequent confirmation tests in a large cohort of patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 5832 individuals, we retrospectively evaluated the accuracy of the aPTT-A, aPTT-LAscreen, aPTT-FS and dRVVTscreen and of their derived mixing tests in detecting a positive confirmation test result within the same blood specimen...
October 15, 2017: Biochemia Medica: časopis Hrvatskoga Društva Medicinskih Biokemičara
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899369/nursing-care-needs-and-services-utilised-by-home-dwelling-elderly-with-complex-health-problems-observational-study
#7
Gro Næss, Marit Kirkevold, Wenche Hammer, Jørund Straand, Torgeir Bruun Wyller
BACKGROUND: In Norway, as in many Western countries, a shift from institutional care to home care is taking place. Our knowledge is limited regarding which needs for nursing interventions patients being cared for in their home have, and how they are met. We aimed at assessing aspects of health and function in a representative sample of the most vulnerable home-dwelling elderly, to identify their needs for nursing interventions and how these needs were met. METHODS: In this observational study we included patients aged 75+ living in their own homes in Oslo, who received daily home care, had three or more chronic diagnoses, received daily medication, and had been hospitalized during the last year...
September 12, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892473/a-multi-center-field-study-of-two-point-of-care-tests-for-circulating-wuchereria-bancrofti-antigenemia-in-africa
#8
Cédric B Chesnais, Naomi-Pitchouna Awaca-Uvon, Fatoma K Bolay, Michel Boussinesq, Peter U Fischer, Lincoln Gankpala, Aboulaye Meite, François Missamou, Sébastien D Pion, Gary J Weil
BACKGROUND: The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis uses point-of-care tests for circulating filarial antigenemia (CFA) to map endemic areas and for monitoring and evaluating the success of mass drug administration (MDA) programs. We compared the performance of the reference BinaxNOW Filariasis card test (ICT, introduced in 1997) with the Alere Filariasis Test Strip (FTS, introduced in 2013) in 5 endemic study sites in Africa. METHODOLOGY: The tests were compared prior to MDA in two study sites (Congo and Côte d'Ivoire) and in three sites that had received MDA (DRC and 2 sites in Liberia)...
September 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881002/clinician-targeted-interventions-to-influence-antibiotic-prescribing-behaviour-for-acute-respiratory-infections-in-primary-care-an-overview-of-systematic-reviews
#9
REVIEW
Sarah Kg Tonkin-Crine, Pui San Tan, Oliver van Hecke, Kay Wang, Nia W Roberts, Amanda McCullough, Malene Plejdrup Hansen, Christopher C Butler, Chris B Del Mar
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance is a worldwide health threat. Interventions that reduce antibiotic prescribing by clinicians are expected to reduce antibiotic resistance. Disparate interventions to change antibiotic prescribing behaviour for acute respiratory infections (ARIs) have been trialled and meta-analysed, but not yet synthesised in an overview. This overview synthesises evidence from systematic reviews, rather than individual trials. OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the existing evidence from systematic reviews on the effects of interventions aimed at influencing clinician antibiotic prescribing behaviour for ARIs in primary care...
September 7, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879541/postural-perturbation-does-not-reset-stepping-rhythm-in-humans-but-brief-intermission-does
#10
Koichi Hiraoka, Atsushi Kinoshita, Hiroshi Kunimura, Masakazu Matsuoka, Naoki Hamada
In the present study, we tested a hypothesis that the rhythm generator in humans keeps the rhythm of periodic motor output during brief inactivation of the pattern generator. This investigation was made through testing whether the step rhythm was reset after an interruptive event. A reset of the step rhythm was defined as an observation that the step re-emerges at random timing after an interruptive event regardless of the step rhythm before the interruption. This observation reflects an intermission of rhythm-keeping activity...
September 6, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879005/starvation-effects-on-nitrogen-and-carbon-stable-isotopes-of-animals-an-insight-from-meta-analysis-of-fasting-experiments
#11
Hideyuki Doi, Fumikazu Akamatsu, Angélica L González
Nitrogen and carbon stable isotopic compositions (δ(15)N and δ(13)C) of consumers have been used for physiological and food web studies. Previous studies have shown δ(15)N and δ(13)C values are affected by several biological and environmental factors during starvation, but the generality of the effect of starvation on δ(15)N and δ(13)C values has not yet been tested. Here, we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of starvation on δ(15)N and δ(13)C values of consumers, and the underlying factors that may explain the observed variation...
August 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878977/how-effective-is-incidental-learning-of-the-shape-of-probability-distributions
#12
Randy Tran, Edward Vul, Harold Pashler
The idea that people learn detailed probabilistic generative models of the environments they interact with is intuitively appealing, and has received support from recent studies of implicit knowledge acquired in daily life. The goal of this study was to see whether people efficiently induce a probability distribution based upon incidental exposure to an unknown generative process. Subjects played a 'whack-a-mole' game in which they attempted to click on objects appearing briefly, one at a time on the screen...
August 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871934/diffuse-palmoplantar-keratoderma-onychodystrophy-universal-hypotrichosis-and-cysts
#13
Tasleem Arif, Syed Suhail Amin, Mohammad Adil, Mohd Mohtashim
Dear Editor, Clouston syndrome, also called hidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED), is an autosomal dominant ectodermal dysplasia characterized by a clinical triad of onychodystrophy, generalized hypotrichosis, and palmoplantar keratoderma (1). Herein we report the case of a 24-year-old male with the distinctive clinical triad associated with multiple epidermoid cysts, which probably reflects the phenotype of Clouston syndrome. A 24-year-old male presented to our Department with diffuse thickening of the skin of his palms and soles since infancy...
July 2017: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863160/high-rates-of-loss-to-follow-up-during-the-first-year-of-pre-antiretroviral-therapy-for-hiv-patients-at-sites-providing-pre-art-care-in-nigeria-2004-2012
#14
Simon G Agolory, Andrew F Auld, Solomon Odafe, Ray W Shiraishi, E Kainne Dokubo, Mahesh Swaminathan, Ibrahim Dalhatu, Dennis Onotu, Oseni Abiri, Henry Debem, Adebobola Bashorun, Tedd V Ellerbrock
BACKGROUND: With about 3.4 million HIV-infected persons, Nigeria has the second highest number of people living with HIV (PLHIV) in the world. However, antiretroviral treatment (ART) coverage in Nigeria remains low with only 748,846 (22%) of PLHIV on ART by the end of 2014. Retention of HIV-infected patients in pre-ART care is essential to ensure timely ART initiation. We assessed outcomes of patients enrolled in Nigeria's pre-ART program during 2004-2012. METHODS: We conducted a nationally representative retrospective cohort study among adults (≥15 years old), enrolling in pre-ART programs supported by the U...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857400/predictive-value-of-symptoms-signs-and-biomarkers-on-computer-tomography-pulmonary-angiogram-results
#15
Anver Sethwala, Xiaojie Wang, Emma E Sturm, Kate L Collins, Ronan O'Donnabhain, N Deborah Friedman
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary embolism (PE) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. PE is a heterogeneous entity causing a wide variety of clinical presentations, making it imperative to establish which clinical symptoms, signs and biomarkers can influence the pre-test probability of PE to aid clinicians and reduce over testing. AIMS: The objective of this study was to analyse the clinical parameters used by clinicians to order a Computer Tomography Pulmonary Angiogram (CTPA), and establish which were associated with the presence of PE...
August 30, 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827230/correlation-between-preconception-maternal-non-occupational-exposure-to-interior-decoration-or-oil-paint-odour-and-average-birth-weight-of-neonates-findings-from-a-nationwide-cohort-study-in-china-s-rural-areas
#16
Huiting Liu, Shi Chen, Huijuan Zhu, Hongbo Yang, Fengying Gong, Linjie Wang, Yu Jiang, Bill Q Lian, Chengsheng Yan, Jianqang Li, Qing Wang, Shikun Zhang, Hui Pan
BACKGROUND: Birth weight is a critical indicator of neonatal health and foretells people's health in adolescence and even adulthood. Some researchers have warned against the adverse effects on babies' birth weight of exposure to pollutants in interior decoration or oil paint by odour intake. This study evaluated the effects of maternal exposure to such factors before conception on the birth weights of neonates. METHODS: Data on 213 461 cases in this study were from the database of the free National Pre-pregnancy Checkups Project...
August 21, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821530/whisper-or-shout-study-protocol-of-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial-assessing-mhealth-sexual-reproductive-health-and-nutrition-interventions-among-female-sex-workers-in-mombasa-kenya
#17
Frances H Ampt, Collins Mudogo, Peter Gichangi, Megan S C Lim, Griffins Manguro, Matthew Chersich, Walter Jaoko, Marleen Temmerman, Marilyn Laini, Liz Comrie-Thomson, Mark Stoové, Paul A Agius, Margaret Hellard, Kelly L'Engle, Stanley Luchters
INTRODUCTION: New interventions are required to reduce unintended pregnancies among female sex workers (FSWs) in low- and middle-income countries and to improve their nutritional health. Given sex workers' high mobile phone usage, repeated exposure to short messaging service (SMS) messages could address individual and interpersonal barriers to contraceptive uptake and better nutrition. METHODS: In this two-arm cluster randomised trial, each arm constitutes an equal-attention control group for the other...
August 18, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818044/effects-of-the-vertically-transmitted-microsporidian-facilispora-margolisi-and-the-parasiticide-emamectin-benzoate-on-salmon-lice-lepeophtheirus-salmonis
#18
Jordan D Poley, Ben J G Sutherland, Mark D Fast, Ben F Koop, Simon R M Jones
BACKGROUND: Microsporidia are highly specialized, parasitic fungi that infect a wide range of eukaryotic hosts from all major taxa. Infections cause a variety of damaging effects on host physiology from increased stress to death. The microsporidian Facilispora margolisi infects the Pacific salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis oncorhynchi), an economically and ecologically important ectoparasitic copepod that can impact wild and cultured salmonids. RESULTS: Vertical transmission of F...
August 17, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796809/a-randomized-multicenter-trial-comparing-the-xience-everolimus-eluting-stent-with-the-cypher-sirolimus-eluting-stent-in-the-treatment-of-female-patients-with-de-novo-coronary-artery-lesions-the-spirit-women-study
#19
Anna Franzone, Serge Zaugg, Raffaele Piccolo, Maria Grazia Modena, Ghada W Mikhail, Josepa Mauri Ferré, Ruth Strasser, Liliana Grinfeld, Dik Heg, Peter Jüni, Stephan Windecker, Marie-Claude Morice
BACKGROUND: The comparative performance of different drug-eluting stents (DES) among female patients has not been assessed in a randomized manner. OBJECTIVES: The SPIRIT Women Clinical Evaluation trial compared the durable polymer everolimus-eluting XIENCE stent (DP-EES) with the durable polymer sirolimus-eluting Cypher stent (DP-SES) in women undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS: A total of 455 female patients with stable CAD were randomly assigned to receive DP-EES (n = 304) or DP-SES (n = 151)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792173/statistical-evaluation-of-diagnostic-tests-part-2-pre-test-and-post-test-probability-and-odds-likelihood-ratios-receiver-operating-characteristic-curve-youden-s-index-and-diagnostic-test-biases
#20
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