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Pre-Test Probability

Suma Babu, Erik P Pioro, Jianbo Li, Yuebing Li
INTRODUCTION: We compared the yield of limb and thoracic paraspinal muscles for revealing lower motor neuron (LMN) dysfunction on electromyography (EMG) in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). METHODS: A retrospective review of 354 patients with clinically definite or probable ALS was performed. Seventeen limb muscles and thoracic paraspinal muscles were evaluated for the presence of both active and chronic denervation. RESULTS: Distal limb muscles showed the highest electrodiagnostic sensitivities of LMN dysfunction in ALS regardless of onset region and diagnostic certainty at the time of diagnosis...
October 19, 2016: Muscle & Nerve
Abigail Livny, Anat Biegon, Tammar Kushnir, Sagi Harnof, Chen Hoffmann, Eyal Fruchter, Mark Weiser
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is known to have a substantial, though highly variable, impact on cognitive abilities. Due to the wide range of cognitive abilities among healthy individuals, an objective assessment of TBI-related cognitive loss requires an accurate measurement of premorbid cognitive performance. To address this problem, we recruited 50 adults who sustained a TBI and had performed a cognitive baseline assessment in adolescence as part of the aptitude tests mandated by the Israeli Defense Forces...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Seena Vengalil, J B Agadi, K Raghavendra
BACKGROUND: Olfactory dysfunction is a predominant non - motor symptom in patients with Parkinson's disease. Indian studies on olfactory loss using standardized kits are lacking. OBJECTIVE: 1) To assess the olfactory impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease 2) To verify the applicability of UPSIT to Indian subjects 3) To assess the correlation between olfactory dysfunction and duration, stage and severity of the illness. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with Parkinson's disease attending Neurology outpatient and inpatient departments were taken for the study...
April 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Yanqun Liu, Min Hoe Chew, Chee Kian Tham, Choong Leong Tang, Simon Yk Ong, Yi Zhao
There is an increasing demand for accurate prognostication for colorectal cancer (CRC). This study sought to assess prognostic potentials of methylation targets in the serum of CRC patients. A total of 165 CRC patients were enrolled in this prospective study. Promoter methylation levels of seven genes in pre-operative sera and matched tumor tissues were evaluated by quantitative methylation-specific PCR. Kaplan-Meier test, and univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models were used for survival analyses...
2016: American Journal of Cancer Research
Elliot B Tapper, Sameer D Saini, Neil Sengupta
BACKGROUND: Many patients have elevated serum aminotransferases reflecting many underlying conditions, both common and rare. Clinicians generally apply one of two evaluative strategies: testing for all diseases at once (non-directed) or just common diseases first (directed). METHODS: We simulated the evaluation of 10,000 adult outpatients with elevated with alanine aminotransferase to compare both testing strategies. Model inputs employed population-based data from the US (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) and Britain (Birmingham and Lambeth Liver Evaluation Testing Strategies)...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Hepatology
Louise Man, H Raymond Tahhan
A current focus of transfusion medicine is a judicious strategy in transfusion of blood products. Unfortunately, our ability to predict hemoglobin (Hgb) response to transfusion has been limited. The objective of this study was to determine variability of response to red blood cell transfusion and to predict which patients will have an Hgb rise higher or lower than that predicted by the long-standing convention of "one and three". This was a retrospective chart review in a single hospital. Data for 167 consecutive patient encounters were reviewed...
2016: Journal of Blood Medicine
Dzenana Begic, Ermina Mujicic, Jozo Coric, Lejla Zunic
INTRODUCTION: The hospital blood bank (HBB) need to timely provide adequate amounts of blood and blood products for surgeries. For various surgical programs are performed assessments of the average number of blood doses needed for surgery. By using two types of requisitions BT/AB (blood type/antibody) and BT/AB/MT (blood type/antibody/match test) for pretransfusion immunohaematological testing in General Hospital "Prim. Dr. Abdulah Nakas" is achieved more rational consumption of blood and blood derivatives and financial savings through reduced number of matching tests (MT)...
July 24, 2016: Materia Socio-medica
Júnia Maria Serra-Negra, Mariana Batista Ribeiro, Ivana Meyer Prado, Saul Martins Paiva, Isabela Almeida Pordeus
AIMS: To evaluate the relationship between possible sleep bruxism and sleep characteristics in children. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional study was conducted through data collection of a pre-tested questionnaire answered by 111 parents on behalf of their children in the waiting room during their appointment at the Pediatric Dentistry Clinic of a public Brazilian university. The diagnosis of possible sleep bruxism was based on the international classification of sleep disorders (ICSD) criteria...
October 3, 2016: Cranio: the Journal of Craniomandibular Practice
Fatemeh S Rasouli, S Farhad Masoudi
PURPOSE: Pre-clinical tests and simulation studies for radiotherapy are generally carried out using water or simplified materials. Investigating the effects of defining compositionally realistic media in proton transport studies is the objective of this work. Accurate modeling of the Bragg curve is a fundamental requirement for such a study. METHODS AND MATERIALS: An equation previously validated by experiments provides an appropriate analytical method for proton dose calculation in depth of the target...
October 3, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Jayant S Vaidya, Frederik Wenz, Max Bulsara, Jeffrey S Tobias, David J Joseph, Christobel Saunders, Chris Brew-Graves, Ingrid Potyka, Stephen Morris, Hrisheekesh J Vaidya, Norman R Williams, Michael Baum
BACKGROUND: Based on our laboratory work and clinical trials we hypothesised that radiotherapy after lumpectomy for breast cancer could be restricted to the tumour bed. In collaboration with the industry we developed a new radiotherapy device and a new surgical operation for delivering single-dose radiation to the tumour bed - the tissues at highest risk of local recurrence. We named it TARGeted Intraoperative radioTherapy (TARGIT). From 1998 we confirmed its feasibility and safety in pilot studies...
September 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
Inoka K Suraweera, Supun D Wijesinghe, Sameera J Senanayaka, Hemantha D B Herath, T B Ananda Jayalal
BACKGROUND: Work-related diseases and occupational accidents affect a significant number of workers globally. The majority of these diseases and accidents are reported from developing countries; and a large percentage of the workforce in developing countries is estimated to be employed in small-scale industries. Sri Lanka is no exception. These workers are exposed to occupational hazards and are at a great risk of developing work- related diseases and injuries. OBJECTIVE: To identify occupational health issues faced by small-scale industry workers in Sri Lanka...
September 28, 2016: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
D A Lillis, C Lloyd, S Kelada, P O'Kelly, S Kelly, P Gilligan
Pre-test probability scoring and blood tests for deep venous thrombosis (DVT) assessment are sensitive but not specific leading to increased demands on radiology services. 385 patients presenting to an Emergency Department with suspected DVT were studied to explore our actual work up of patients with possible DVT relating to risk stratification, further investigation and follow up. Of the 205 patients with an initially negative scan, 36 (17.6%) were brought for review to the Emergency Department Consultant clinic...
2016: Irish Medical Journal
Takeshi Wada, Satoshi Gando, Yuichi Ono, Kunihiko Maekawa, Kenichi Katabami, Mineji Hayakawa, Atsushi Sawamura
BACKGROUND: We tested the hypothesis that disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) during the early phase of post-cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is associated with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) and affects the outcome of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients. METHODS: A review of the computer-based medical records of OHCA patients was retrospectively conducted and included 388 patients who were divided into DIC and non-DIC patients based on the Japanese Association for Acute Medicine DIC diagnostic criteria...
2016: Thrombosis Journal
Gideon Amanyire, Fred C Semitala, Jennifer Namusobya, Richard Katuramu, Leatitia Kampiire, Jeanna Wallenta, Edwin Charlebois, Carol Camlin, James Kahn, Wei Chang, David Glidden, Moses Kamya, Diane Havlir, Elvin Geng
BACKGROUND: In Africa, up to 30% of HIV-infected patients who are clinically eligible for antiretroviral therapy (ART) do not start timely treatment. We assessed the effects of an intervention targeting prevalent health systems barriers to ART initiation on timing and completeness of treatment initiation. METHODS: In this stepped-wedge, non-blinded, cluster-randomised controlled trial, 20 clinics in southwestern Uganda were randomly assigned in groups of five clinics every 6 months to the intervention by a computerised random number generator...
August 27, 2016: Lancet HIV
Thomas Mason, Yiu-Shing Lau, Matthew Sutton
BACKGROUND: The limited number of existing previous studies of the distribution of quality under NHS Pay-for-performance (P4P) by income deprivation have not analysed the relationship at the individual level and have been restricted to assessing P4P in the primary care setting. In this study, we set out to examine how achievement of P4P 'quality measures' for which NHS hospitals were paid was distributed by income deprivation. METHODS: Design: Retrospective analysis of performance data reported by hospitals, examining how the probability of receiving 23 indicators varied by patients' area deprivation using logistic regression controlling for age and gender...
2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
A Frega, F Manzara, M Schimberni, A Guarino, A Catalano, P Bianchi, R Marziani, G Cozza, G N Milazzo, D French, D Caserta
OBJECTIVE: The increased use of the intrauterine contraception (IUC) in female population and its probable relationship with cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions and cervical cancer make necessary clarify the possible interaction between the device and the pre-neoplastic lesions. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seven hundred and eighty-nine patients users of IUC and 1491 patients ever users of IUC were followed every 6 months for 3 years. Each clinical control included Papanicolau test, colposcopy, HPV-DNA test and HPV-mRNA test...
September 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Zohra Ghlissi, Nadhim Sayari, Rim Kallel, Ali Bougatef, Zouheir Sahnoun
This study investigated some biological properties of Artemisia campestris aqueous extract (ACAE) as well its global chemical compositions. Twenty four rats were excised on the posterior neck skin area and divided into 4 groups, treated respectively with: sterile saline, glycerol, CICAFLORA and ACAE. The wound closure rate, histopathology evolution and the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) level in skin tissue were evaluated. Anti-inflammatory activity was studied by carrageenan-induced rat paw edema...
September 16, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Peter Kent, Mark J Hancock
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of Physiotherapy
Ola Hammarsten, Elvar Theodorsson, Christian Bjurman, Max Petzold
BACKGROUND: Myocardial infarction is more likely if the heart damage biomarker cardiac troponin T (cTnT) is elevated in a blood sample, indicating that cardiac damage has occurred. No method allows the clinician to estimate the risk of myocardial infarction at a specific cTnT level in a given patient. METHODS: Predictive value among lookalikes (PAL) uses pre-test prevalence, sensitivity and specificity at adjacent cTnT limits based on percentiles. PAL is the pre-test prevalence-adjusted probability of disease between two adjacent cTnT limits...
September 13, 2016: Clinical Biochemistry
Domenico Tamburrino, Deniece Riviere, Mohammad Yaghoobi, Brian R Davidson, Kurinchi Selvan Gurusamy
BACKGROUND: Periampullary cancer includes cancer of the head and neck of the pancreas, cancer of the distal end of the bile duct, cancer of the ampulla of Vater, and cancer of the second part of the duodenum. Surgical resection is the only established potentially curative treatment for pancreatic and periampullary cancer. A considerable proportion of patients undergo unnecessary laparotomy because of underestimation of the extent of the cancer on computed tomography (CT) scanning. Other imaging methods such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), PET-CT, and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) have been used to detect local invasion or distant metastases not visualised on CT scanning which could prevent unnecessary laparotomy...
September 15, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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