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Pre-Test Probability

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538760/a-multivariate-model-for-prediction-of-obstructive-coronary-disease-in-patients-with-acute-chest-pain-development-and-validation
#1
Luis Cláudio Lemos Correia, Maurício Cerqueira, Manuela Carvalhal, Felipe Ferreira, Guilherme Garcia, André Barcelos da Silva, Nicole de Sá, Fernanda Lopes, Ana Clara Barcelos, Márcia Noya-Rabelo
Background: Currently, there is no validated multivariate model to predict probability of obstructive coronary disease in patients with acute chest pain. Objective: To develop and validate a multivariate model to predict coronary artery disease (CAD) based on variables assessed at admission to the coronary care unit (CCU) due to acute chest pain. Methods: A total of 470 patients were studied, 370 utilized as the derivation sample and the subsequent 100 patients as the validation sample...
April 2017: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529343/excellent-auc-for-joint-fluid-cytology-in-the-detection-exclusion-of-hip-and-knee-prosthetic-joint-infection
#2
Jiri Gallo, Jarmila Juranova, Michal Svoboda, Jana Zapletalova
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of synovial fluid (SF) white cell count (SWCC) and neutrophil/lymphocyte percentage in the diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) for particular threshold values. METHODS AND RESULTS: This was a prospective study of 391 patients in whom SF specimens were collected before total joint replacement revisions. SF was aspirated before joint capsule incision. The PJI diagnosis was based only on non-SF data...
May 15, 2017: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528187/anticonvulsant-activity-of-pseudospondias-microcarpa-a-rich-engl-hydroethanolic-leaf-extract-in-mice-the-role-of-excitatory-inhibitory-neurotransmission-and-nitric-oxide-pathway
#3
Donatus W Adongo, Priscilla K Mante, Kennedy K E Kukuia, Robert P Biney, Eric Boakye-Gyasi, Charles K Benneh, Elvis O Ameyaw, Eric Woode
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Pseudospondias microcarpa (A. Rich) Engl. is a plant used for managing various diseases including central nervous system disorders. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study explored the anticonvulsant activity of P. microcarpa hydroethanolic leaf extract (PME) as well as possible mechanism(s) of action in animal models. METHODS: Effects of PME was assessed in electroconvulsive (the maximal electroshock and 6-Hz seizures) and chemoconvulsive (pentylenetetrazole-, picrotoxin-, isoniazid-, 4-aminopyridine-, and strychnine-induced seizures) models of epilepsy...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528150/long-term-prognosis-of-patients-with-intramural-course-of-coronary-arteries-assessed-with-ct-angiography
#4
Aukelien C Dimitriu-Leen, Alexander R van Rosendael, Jeff M Smit, Tessa van Elst, Nan van Geloven, Teemu Maaniitty, J Wouter Jukema, Victoria Delgado, Arthur J H A Scholte, Antti Saraste, Juhani Knuuti, Jeroen J Bax
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to evaluate, in low-to-intermediate pre-test probability patients who were referred for coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) and did not show obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD), whether an intramural course of a coronary artery is associated with worse outcome compared with patients without an intramural course of the coronary arteries. BACKGROUND: The prognostic value of an intramural course of the coronary arteries on coronary CTA in patients without obstructive CAD is not well-known...
May 11, 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525810/tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes-in-patients-with-her2-positive-breast-cancer-treated-with-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-plus-trastuzumab-lapatinib-or-their-combination-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#5
REVIEW
C Solinas, M Ceppi, M Lambertini, M Scartozzi, L Buisseret, S Garaud, D Fumagalli, E de Azambuja, R Salgado, C Sotiriou, K Willard-Gallo, M Ignatiadis
BACKGROUND: A relationship between baseline tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and outcomes has been described in HER2-positive breast cancer. Nevertheless, the magnitude of this association and whether this effect differs based on the type of anti-HER2 agent remain controversial. This meta-analysis investigated the association between baseline TIL and pathologic complete response (pCR) rates in HER2-positive breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy plus trastuzumab and lapatinib either alone or in combination...
May 2, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523038/a-comparison-of-preoperative-and-postoperative-testicular-volume-and-blood-flow-in-patients-with-inguinal-hernia-hydrocele-and-cord-cyst-a-prospective-cohort-study
#6
Ahmet Ali Tuncer, Tamer Peker, Mehtap Berke Acar, Didem Baskin Embleton, Salih Cetinkursun
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of inguinal operations performed with a modified Ferguson technique upon testicular volume and blood flow. METHODS: This study involved 23 children receiving surgery for inguinal hernia, hydrocele, and cord cyst. This was a prospective study performed between April 2016 and June 2016 in a medical faculty pediatric surgery unit. The color Doppler ultrasound (CDUS) was used to assess testicular volume and blood flow before and after a modified Ferguson technique surgery...
March 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515330/post-fire-recovery-of-torpor-and-activity-patterns-of-a-small-mammal
#7
Clare Stawski, Taylor Hume, Gerhard Körtner, Shannon E Currie, Julia Nowack, Fritz Geiser
To cope with the post-fire challenges of decreased availability of food and shelter, brown antechinus (Antechinus stuartii), a small marsupial mammal, increase the use of energy-conserving torpor and reduce activity. However, it is not known how long it takes for animals to resume pre-fire torpor and activity patterns during the recovery of burnt habitat. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that antechinus will adjust torpor use and activity after a fire depending on vegetation recovery. We simultaneously quantified torpor and activity patterns for female antechinus from three adjacent areas: (i) the area of a management burn 1 year post-fire, (ii) an area that was burned 2 years prior, and (iii) a control area...
May 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505593/foot-ankle-complex-injury-risk-curves-using-calcaneus-bone-mineral-density-data
#8
Narayan Yoganandan, Sajal Chirvi, Liming Voo, Nicholas DeVogel, Frank A Pintar, Anjishnu Banerjee
OBJECTIVE: Biomechanical data from post mortem human subject (PMHS) experiments are used to derive human injury probability curves and develop injury criteria. This process has been used in previous and current automotive crashworthiness studies, Federal safety standards, and dummy design and development. Human bone strength decreases as the individuals reach their elderly age. Injury risk curves using the primary predictor variable (e.g., force) should therefore account for such strength reduction when the test data are collected from PMHS specimens of different ages (age at the time of death)...
May 5, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502760/patterns-of-gestational-weight-gain-and-birthweight-outcomes-in-the-eunice-kennedy-shriver-national-institute-of-child-health-and-human-development-fetal-growth-studies-singletons-a-prospective-study
#9
Sarah J Pugh, Paul S Albert, Sungduk Kim, William Grobman, Stefanie N Hinkle, Roger B Newman, Deborah A Wing, Katherine L Grantz
BACKGROUND: Inadequate or excessive total gestational weight gain is associated with increased risks of small- and large-for-gestational-age births, respectively, but evidence is sparse regarding overall and trimester-specific patterns of gestational weight gain in relation to these risks. Characterizing the interrelationship between patterns of gestational weight gain across trimesters can reveal whether the trajectory of gestational weight gain in the first trimester sets the path for gestational weight gain in subsequent trimesters, thereby serving as an early marker for at-risk pregnancies...
May 11, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499418/early-morning-urine-collection-to-improve-urinary-lateral-flow-lam-assay-sensitivity-in-hospitalised-patients-with-hiv-tb-co-infection
#10
Phindile Gina, Philippa J Randall, Tapuwa E Muchinga, Anil Pooran, Richard Meldau, Jonny G Peter, Keertan Dheda
BACKGROUND: Urine LAM testing has been approved by the WHO for use in hospitalised patients with advanced immunosuppression. However, sensitivity remains suboptimal. We therefore examined the incremental diagnostic sensitivity of early morning urine (EMU) versus random urine sampling using the Determine® lateral flow lipoarabinomannan assay (LF-LAM) in HIV-TB co-infected patients. METHODS: Consenting HIV-infected inpatients, screened as part of a larger prospective randomized controlled trial, that were treated for TB, and could donate matched random and EMU samples were included...
May 12, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498501/ppar-gamma-agonist-pioglitazone-modifies-craving-intensity-and-brain-white-matter-integrity-in-patients-with-primary-cocaine-use-disorder-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-pilot-trial
#11
Joy M Schmitz, Charles E Green, Khader M Hasan, Jessica Vincent, Robert Suchting, Michael F Weaver, F Gerard Moeller, Ponnada A Narayana, Kathryn A Cunningham, Kelly T Dineley, Scott D Lane
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pioglitazone (PIO), a potent agonist of PPAR-gamma, is a promising candidate treatment for cocaine use disorder (CUD). We tested the effects of PIO on targeted mechanisms relevant to CUD: cocaine craving and brain white matter (WM) integrity. Feasibility, medication compliance, and tolerability were evaluated. DESIGN: Two-arm double-blind randomized controlled proof-of-concept pilot trial of PIO or placebo (PLC). SETTING: Single-site outpatient treatment research clinic in Houston, Texas, USA...
May 12, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482816/the-role-of-vaspin-as-a-predictor-of-coronary-angiography-result-in-scad-stable-coronary-artery-disease-patients
#12
Matej Stančík, Ivana Ságová, Ema Kantorová, Marián Mokáň
BACKGROUND: The role of vaspin in the pathogenesis of stable coronary artery disease (SCAD) have been repeatedly addressed in clinical studies. However, from the point of view of clinical practice, the results of earlier studies are still inconclusive. METHODS: The data of 106 SCAD patients who received coronary angiography and 85 coronary artery disease-free controls were collected and analysed. The patients were divided into subgroups according to their pre-test probability (PTP) and according to the result of coronary angiography...
May 8, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481909/the-thyroid-cancer-policy-model-a-mathematical-simulation-model-of-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma-in-the-u-s-population
#13
Carrie Lubitz, Ayman Ali, Tiannan Zhan, Curtis Heberle, Craig White, Yasuhiro Ito, Akira Miyauchi, G Scott Gazelle, Chung Yin Kong, Chin Hur
BACKGROUND: Thyroid cancer affects over ½ million people in the U.S. and the incidence of thyroid cancer has increased worldwide at a rate higher than any other cancer, while survival has remained largely unchanged. The aim of this research was to develop, calibrate and verify a mathematical disease model to simulate the natural history of papillary thyroid cancer, which will serve as a platform to assess the effectiveness of clinical and cancer control interventions. METHODS: Herein, we modeled the natural pre-clinical course of both benign and malignant thyroid nodules with biologically relevant health states from normal to detected nodule...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474868/effects-of-drop-set-resistance-training-on-acute-stress-indicators-and-long-term-muscle-hypertrophy-and-strength
#14
Julius Fink, Brad J Schoenfeld, Naoki Kikuchi, Koichi Nakazato
BACKGROUND: We investigated the effects of 2 different resistance training (RT) protocols on muscle hypertrophy and strength. The first group (n = 8) performed a single drop set (DS) and the second group (n = 8) performed 3 sets of conventional RT (normal set, NS). METHODS: Eight young men in each group completed 6 weeks of RT. Muscle hypertrophy was assessed via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and strength via 12 RM tests before and after the 6 weeks. Acute stress markers such as muscle thickness (MT), blood lactate (BL), maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), heart rate (HR) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) before and after one bout of RT...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444153/computed-tomography-derived-fractional-flow-reserve-testing-in-stable-patients-with-typical-angina-pectoris-influence-on-downstream-rate-of-invasive-coronary-angiography
#15
Jesper Møller Jensen, Hans Erik Bøtker, Ole Norling Mathiassen, Erik Lerkevang Grove, Kristian Altern Øvrehus, Kamilla Bech Pedersen, Christian Juhl Terkelsen, Evald Høj Christiansen, Michael Maeng, Jonathon Leipsic, Anne Kaltoft, Lars Jakobsen, Jacob Thorsted Sørensen, Troels Thim, Steen Dalby Kristensen, Lars Romer Krusell, Bjarne Linde Nørgaard
Aims: To assess the use of downstream coronary angiography (ICA) and short-term safety of frontline coronary CT angiography (CTA) with selective CT-derived fractional flow reserve (FFRCT) testing in stable patients with typical angina pectoris. Methods and results: Between 1 January 2016 and 30 June 2016 all patients (N = 774) referred to non-emergent ICA or coronary CTA at Aarhus University Hospital on a suspicion of CAD had frontline CTA performed. Downstream testing and treatment within 3 months and adverse events ≥90 days were registered...
April 20, 2017: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442376/copper-sulfate-pretreatment-prevents-mitochondrial-electron-transport-chain-damage-and-apoptosis-against-mpp-induced-neurotoxicity
#16
Moisés Rubio-Osornio, Marisol Orozco-Ibarra, Araceli Díaz-Ruiz, Eduardo Brambila, Marie-Catherine Boll, Antonio Monroy-Noyola, Jorge Guevara, Sergio Montes, Camilo Ríos
Intrastriatal injection of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) is considered a model to reproduce some biochemical alterations observed in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Among those alterations, inhibition of mitochondrial complex I activity, increased free radical production and reduced antioxidant responses have been reported. Copper (Cu) plays an important role in the metabolism and antioxidative responses through its participation as a cofactor in the cytochrome c oxidase enzyme (COX), Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), and metallothioneins...
April 22, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432899/serum-micrornas-related-with-chemoradiotherapy-resistance-in-advanced-stage-cervical-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#17
Ying Han, Mei Liu, Ziyi Wang, Manni Huang, Ningzhi Xu, Lingying Wu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the serum microRNAs as biomarkers in predicting chemoradiotherapy resistance in advanced-stage cervical squamous cell carcinoma (ACSCC) patients. METHODS: Serum samples were collected from International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage IIB to IIIB cervical squamous cell carcinoma patients treated with platinum based Concomitant Chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in our hospital during September 2013 to November 2015. Twenty well-matched samples (10 resistant and 10 sensitive) were chosen to screen the miRNA expression profile using serum samples pooled with microarrays...
June 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421376/using-the-stopbang-questionnaire-and-other-pre-test-probability-tools-to-predict-osa-in-younger-thinner-patients-referred-to-a-sleep-medicine-clinic
#18
Michael J McMahon, Karen L Sheikh, Teotimo F Andrada, Aaron B Holley
BACKGROUND: The STOPBANG questionnaire is used to predict the presence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We sought to assess the performance of the STOPBANG questionnaire in younger, thinner patients referred to a sleep medicine clinic. METHODS: We applied the STOPBANG questionnaire to patients referred for level I polysomnography (PSG) at our sleep center. We calculated likelihood ratios and area under the receiver operator characteristic (AUROC) curve and performed sensitivity analyses...
April 19, 2017: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419005/clinical-utility-of-polymerase-chain-reaction-testing-for-streptococcus-pneumoniae-in-pediatric-cerebrospinal-fluid-samples-a-diagnostic-accuracy-study-of-more-than-2000-samples-from-2004-2015
#19
Abdullah Alqayoudhi, Maryke Nielsen, Nicola O'Sullivan, Mary Corcoran, Patrick J Gavin, Karina M Butler, Robert Cunney, Richard J Drew
The aim of this retrospective study was to review the diagnostic accuracy of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples for Streptococcus pneumoniae DNA in comparison with traditional bacterial culture. The hypothesis was that PCR is more sensitive than culture and would detect more cases of pneumococcal meningitis, particularly in children treated with antimicrobials before CSF sampling occurred. Patients younger than 16 years who had a CSF sample tested for S.pneumoniae DNA by PCR between 2004 and 2015 were included...
April 17, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412430/incremental-prognostic-value-of-stress-echocardiography-with-carotid-ultrasound-for-suspected-cad
#20
Shahram Ahmadvazir, Benoy N Shah, Konstantinos Zacharias, Roxy Senior
OBJECTIVES: This study hypothesized that ischemia and atherosclerosis assessment by ultrasound (US) may provide incremental prognostic information in patients with new-onset chest pain who do not have coronary artery disease (CAD). BACKGROUND: The clinical significance of atherosclerosis assessment by carotid US in patients undergoing stress echocardiography (SE) in such patients is unknown. METHODS: Consecutive patients with suspected angina but no history of CAD underwent simultaneous SE and US prospectively to assess myocardial ischemia and carotid plaque burden (CPB), respectively...
April 7, 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
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