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Pre-Test Probability

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796809/a-randomized-multicenter-trial-comparing-the-xience-everolimus-eluting-stent-with-the-cypher-sirolimus-eluting-stent-in-the-treatment-of-female-patients-with-de-novo-coronary-artery-lesions-the-spirit-women-study
#1
Anna Franzone, Serge Zaugg, Raffaele Piccolo, Maria Grazia Modena, Ghada W Mikhail, Josepa Mauri Ferré, Ruth Strasser, Liliana Grinfeld, Dik Heg, Peter Jüni, Stephan Windecker, Marie-Claude Morice
BACKGROUND: The comparative performance of different drug-eluting stents (DES) among female patients has not been assessed in a randomized manner. OBJECTIVES: The SPIRIT Women Clinical Evaluation trial compared the durable polymer everolimus-eluting XIENCE stent (DP-EES) with the durable polymer sirolimus-eluting Cypher stent (DP-SES) in women undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS: A total of 455 female patients with stable CAD were randomly assigned to receive DP-EES (n = 304) or DP-SES (n = 151)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792173/statistical-evaluation-of-diagnostic-tests-part-2-pre-test-and-post-test-probability-and-odds-likelihood-ratios-receiver-operating-characteristic-curve-youden-s-index-and-diagnostic-test-biases
#2
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791164/do-pet-dogs-canis-familiaris-follow-ostensive-and-non-ostensive-human-gaze-to-distant-space-and-to-objects
#3
Charlotte Duranton, Friederike Range, Zsófia Virányi
Dogs are renowned for being skilful at using human-given communicative cues such as pointing. Results are contradictory, however, when it comes to dogs' following human gaze, probably due to methodological discrepancies. Here we investigated whether dogs follow human gaze to one of two food locations better than into distant space even after comparable pre-training. In Experiments 1 and 2, the gazing direction of dogs was recorded in a gaze-following into distant space and in an object-choice task where no choice was allowed, in order to allow a direct comparison between tasks, varying the ostensive nature of the gazes...
July 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767913/spontaneous-breathing-test-in-the-prediction-of-extubation-failure-in-the-pediatric-population
#4
Milena Siciliano Nascimento, Celso Moura Rebello, Luciana Assis Pires Andrade Vale, Érica Santos, Cristiane do Prado
Objective: To assess whether the spontaneous breathing test can predict the extubation failure in pediatric population. Methods: A prospective and observational study that evaluated data of inpatients at the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit between May 2011 and August 2013, receiving mechanical ventilation for at least 24 hours followed by extubation. The patients were classified in two groups: Test Group, with patients extubated after spontaneous breathing test, and Control Group, with patients extubated without spontaneous breathing test...
April 2017: Einstein
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766041/the-role-of-the-basal-ganglia-in-the-control-of-seizure
#5
REVIEW
J Vuong, Annaelle Devergnas
Epilepsy is a network disorder and each type of seizure involves distinct cortical and subcortical network, differently implicated in the control and propagation of the ictal activity. The role of the basal ganglia has been revealed in several cases of focal and generalized seizures. Here, we review the data that show the implication of the basal ganglia in absence, temporal lobe, and neocortical seizures in animal models (rodent, cat, and non-human primate) and in human. Based on these results and the advancement of deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease, basal ganglia neuromodulation has been tested with some success that can be equally seen as promising or disappointing...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765872/impact-of-normal-weight-obesity-on-fundamental-motor-skills-in-pre-school-children-aged-3-to-6-years
#6
Martin Musalek, Jakub Kokstejn, Pavel Papez, Christiane Scheffler, Rebekka Mumm, Anna-Franziska Czernitzki, Slawomir Koziel
Normal weight obesity is defined as having excessive body fat, but normal BMI. Even though previous research revealed that excessive body fat in children inhibited their physical activity and decreased motor performance, there has been only little evidence about motor performance of normal weight obese children. This study aims to establish whether normal weight obese pre-school children aged 3-6 years will have a significantly worse level of fundamental motor skills compared to normal weight non-obese counterparts...
August 1, 2017: Anthropologischer Anzeiger; Bericht über die Biologisch-anthropologische Literatur
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763294/prevalence-and-causes-of-abnormal-psa-recovery
#7
Noémie Lautenbach, Michael Müntener, Paolo Zanoni, Lanja Saleh, Karim Saba, Martin Umbehr, Srividya Velagapudi, Danielle Hof, Tullio Sulser, Peter J Wild, Arnold von Eckardstein, Cédric Poyet
BACKGROUND: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test is of paramount importance as a diagnostic tool for the detection and monitoring of patients with prostate cancer. In the presence of interfering factors such as heterophilic antibodies or anti-PSA antibodies the PSA test can yield significantly falsified results. The prevalence of these factors is unknown. METHODS: We determined the recovery of PSA concentrations diluting patient samples with a standard serum of known PSA concentration...
August 1, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759260/nocturnal-oximetry-based-evaluation-of-habitually-snoring-children
#8
Roberto Hornero, Leila Kheirandish-Gozal, Gonzalo C Gutiérrez-Tobal, Mona F Philby, María Luz Alonso-Álvarez, Daniel Álvarez, Ehab A Dayyat, Zhifei Xu, Yu-Shu Huang, Maximiliano Tamae Kakazu, Albert M Li, Annelies Van Eyck, Pablo E Brockmann, Zarmina Ehsan, Narong Simakajornboon, Athanasios G Kaditis, Fernando Vaquerizo-Villar, Andrea Crespo Sedano, Oscar Sans Capdevila, Magnus von Lukowicz, Joaquín Terán-Santos, Félix Del Campo, Christian F Poets, Rosario Ferreira, Katalina Bertran, Yamei Zhang, John Schuen, Stijn Verhulst, David Gozal
BACKGROUND: The vast majority of children around the world undergoing adenotonsillectomy for obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSA) are not objectively diagnosed with nocturnal polysomnography (NPSG) due to access availability and cost issues. Automated analysis of nocturnal oximetry (nSpO2), which is readily and globally available, could potentially provide a reliable and convenient diagnostic approach for pediatric OSA. METHODS: De-identified nSpO2 recordings from a total of 4,191 children originating from 13 pediatric sleep laboratories around the world were prospectively evaluated after developing and validating an automated neural network algorithm using an initial set of single-channel nSpO2 recordings from 589 patients referred for suspected OSA...
July 31, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756079/-exercise-testing-new-guidelines
#9
Dany Michel Marcadet
The GERS (Exercise Rehabilitation and Sports Group of the French Society of Cardiology) has decided to update current guidelines regarding the practice of EKG stress tests. Since the last update dates from 1997, the GERS judged it necessary to integrate data from new works and advancements made in the last 20 years. Good clinical practices and safety conditions are better defined regarding the structure, location, material, staff competency, as well as convention with hospital structures. The diagnosis of coronary artery disease remains the principal indication for a stress test...
July 26, 2017: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752394/a-prolonged-microscopic-observation-improves-detection-of-underpopulated-cells-in-peripheral-blood-smears
#10
Antonio La Gioia, Fabiana Fiorini, Maurizio Fumi, Marcello Fiorini, Ylenia Pancione, Lucia Rocco, Silvia Sale, Maria Bombara, Vincenzo Rocco
We evaluated an extended time in the microscopic review in samples in which the potential clinical information could be increased with respect to those that could be achieved with the usual laboratory methodologies. We used samples containing nucleated red blood cells in a small amount and cytopenic samples. For these purposes for each peripheral blood smear, the timing of eye-count differential was increased up to 20 min, regardless of the final number of cells which could be counted. In addition, an automated system for digital analysis of peripheral blood smears was employed and the number of cells counted was brought up to 1000 leukocytes...
July 27, 2017: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747474/male-female-relatedness-at-specific-snp-linkage-groups-influences-cryptic-female-choice-in-chinook-salmon-oncorhynchus-tshawytscha
#11
Cornelia Geßner, Sheri L Johnson, Paul Fisher, Shannon Clarke, Kim Rutherford, Jane Symonds, Neil J Gemmell
In a range of taxa, the relatedness between mates influences both pre- and post-mating processes of sexual selection. However, relatively little is known about the genetic loci facilitating such a bias, with the exception of the major histocompatibility complex. Here, we performed tightly controlled replicated in vitro fertilization trials to explore the impact of relatedness on two possible mechanisms of cryptic female choice (CFC) in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). We tested (i) whether relatedness of mates, assessed using 682 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on 29 SNP-linkage groups (LGs), biases a male's sperm velocity in ovarian fluid (a parameter previously shown to predict male fertilization success), and (ii) whether relatedness of mates governs fertilization success via other mechanisms, probably via sperm-egg interactions...
July 26, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746379/confirmation-of-independent-introductions-of-an-exotic-plant-pathogen-of-cornus-species-discula-destructiva-on-the-east-and-west-coasts-of-north-america
#12
Kristie Mantooth, Denita Hadziabdic, Sarah Boggess, Mark Windham, Stephen Miller, Guohong Cai, Joseph Spatafora, Ning Zhang, Meg Staton, Bonnie Ownley, Robert Trigiano
Cornus florida (flowering dogwood) and C. nuttallii (Pacific dogwood) are North American native tree species that belong to the big-bracted group of dogwoods. Cornus species are highly valued for their ornamental characteristics, and have fruits that contain high fat content for animals. Also, they are an important understory tree in natural forests. Dogwood anthracnose, caused by Discula destructiva, was observed in the late 1970s on the east and west coasts of the United States and by 1991 had quickly spread throughout most of the native ranges of C...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730155/surveillance-study-of-influenza-occurrence-and-immunity-in-a-wisconsin-cohort-during-the-2009-pandemic
#13
Chia-Yun Lo, Susan L Strobl, Kimberly Dunham, Wei Wang, Lucy Stewart, Julia A Misplon, Mayra Garcia, Jin Gao, Tatsuhiko Ozawa, Graeme E Price, Jose Navidad, Steve Gradus, Sanjib Bhattacharyya, Cecile Viboud, Maryna C Eichelberger, Carol D Weiss, Jack Gorski, Suzanne L Epstein
BACKGROUND: Antibody and T-cell immunity to conserved influenza virus antigens can protect animals against infection with diverse influenza strains. Although immunity against conserved antigens occurs in humans, whether such responses provide cross-protection in humans and could be harnessed as the basis for universal influenza vaccines is controversial. The 2009 pandemic provided an opportunity to investigate whether pre-existing cross-reactive immunity affected susceptibility to infection...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727328/-how-to-use-microbiological-diagnostic-tests-in-a-hospital-setting
#14
Romain Martischang, Mohamed Abbas, Stephan Harbarth, Benedikt Huttner, Jacques Schrenzel
Microbiological cultures provide essential information to guide the antibiotic therapy. However, their results might be misleading for physicians and drive useless treatment, sometimes harmful for patients. Recommendations highlight the importance of clinical signs in order to take into account the pre-test probability when interpreting the results. This combination will improve the predictive value of microbiological tests. The sampling strategy is also important to avoid an overuse of these tests but also misleading results through a reduction of contaminants...
April 12, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726149/cardiopulmonary-exercise-testing-and-spect-myocardial-perfusion-imaging-pre-test-probability-is-the-key
#15
EDITORIAL
Anthony A Holmes, Lawrence M Phillips
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 19, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725938/declining-radiation-dose-of-coronary-computed-tomography-angiography-german-cardiac-ct-registry-experience-2009-2014
#16
Axel Schmermund, Mohamed Marwan, Jörg Hausleiter, Sebastian Barth, Oliver Bruder, Sebastian Kerber, Grigorius Korosoglou, Alexander Leber, Werner Moshage, Stephen Schröder, Steffen Schneider, Jochen Senges, Stephan Achenbach
BACKGROUND: Coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) is increasingly used as a test to rule out coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with a low to intermediate pre-test probability of the disease. We used the database of the German CT registry, collected between 2009 and 2014 in a broad patient population, to analyze contemporary radiation dose associated with coronary CTA in clinical practice. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The prospective observational registry included a total of 7061 patients ≥18 years, referred to 12 participating centers for a clinically indicated cardiac CT examination...
July 19, 2017: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723927/piped-water-supply-interruptions-and-acute-diarrhea-among-under-five-children-in-addis-ababa-slums-ethiopia-a-matched-case-control-study
#17
Metadel Adane, Bezatu Mengistie, Girmay Medhin, Helmut Kloos, Worku Mulat
BACKGROUND: The problem of intermittent piped water supplies that exists in low- and middle-income countries is particularly severe in the slums of sub-Saharan Africa. However, little is known about whether there is deterioration of the microbiological quality of the intermittent piped water supply at a household level and whether it is a factor in reducing or increasing the occurrence of acute diarrhea among under-five children in slums of Addis Ababa. This study aimed to determine the association of intermittent piped water supplies and point-of-use (POU) contamination of household stored water by Escherichia coli (E...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717371/the-effects-of-probiotic-supplement-on-hemoglobin-in-chronic-renal-failure-patients-under-hemodialysis-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#18
Zahra Shariaty, Gholam Reza Mahmoodi Shan, Mehran Farajollahi, Monireh Amerian, Naser Behnam Pour
BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammation is one of the causes of anemia in chronic renal failure patients under hemodialysis. Probiotics probably establish a balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The study was conducted to determine the effects of probiotic supplementation on hemoglobin (Hb) in hemodialysis patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A parallel clinical trial was conducted in which patients were randomly allocated into two groups. The intervention group (n = 18) was given a 500 mg probiotic supplement (a capsule) every day whereas the control group (n = 18) received placebo (a capsule), both for 3 months...
2017: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702465/a-dynamic-transmission-model-to-evaluate-the-effectiveness-of-infection-control-strategies
#19
Karim Khader, Alun Thomas, W Charles Huskins, Molly Leecaster, Yue Zhang, Tom Greene, Andrew Redd, Matthew H Samore
BACKGROUND: The advancement of knowledge about control of antibiotic resistance depends on the rigorous evaluation of alternative intervention strategies. The STAR*ICU trial examined the effects of active surveillance and expanded barrier precautions on acquisition of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) in intensive care units. We report a reanalyses of the STAR*ICU trial using a Bayesian transmission modeling framework. METHODS: The data included admission and discharge times and surveillance test times and results...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693606/combined-use-of-serum-1-3-%C3%AE-d-glucan-and-procalcitonin-for-the-early-differential-diagnosis-between-candidaemia-and-bacteraemia-in-intensive-care-units
#20
Daniele Roberto Giacobbe, Malgorzata Mikulska, Mario Tumbarello, Elisa Furfaro, Marzia Spadaro, Angela Raffaella Losito, Alessio Mesini, Gennaro De Pascale, Anna Marchese, Marco Bruzzone, Paolo Pelosi, Michele Mussap, Alexandre Molin, Massimo Antonelli, Brunella Posteraro, Maurizio Sanguinetti, Claudio Viscoli, Valerio Del Bono
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to assess the combined performance of serum (1,3)-β-D-glucan (BDG) and procalcitonin (PCT) for the differential diagnosis between candidaemia and bacteraemia in three intensive care units (ICUs) in two large teaching hospitals in Italy. METHODS: From June 2014 to December 2015, all adult patients admitted to the ICU who had a culture-proven candidaemia or bacteraemia, as well as BDG and PCT measured closely to the time of the index culture, were included in the study...
July 10, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
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