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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781687/assessment-of-nurses-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-knowledge-and-skills-within-three-district-hospitals-in-botswana
#1
Lakshmi Rajeswaran, Megan Cox, Stoffel Moeng, Billy M Tsima
BACKGROUND:  Nurses are usually the first to identify the need for and initiate cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) on patients with cardiopulmonary arrest in the hospital setting. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation has been shown to reduce in-hospital deaths when received from adequately trained health care professionals. AIM:  We aimed to investigate nurses' retention of CPR knowledge and skills at district hospitals in Botswana. METHODS:  A quantitative, quasi-experimental study was conducted at three hospitals in Botswana...
April 12, 2018: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781231/the-combination-of-three-autoantibodies-acpa-rf-and-anti-carp-antibodies-is-highly-specific-for-rheumatoid-arthritis-implications-for-very-early-identification-of-individuals-at-risk-to-develop-rheumatoid-arthritis
#2
Marije K Verheul, Stefan Böhringer, Myrthe A M van Delft, Jonathan D Jones, William F C Rigby, Ryan W Gan, V Michael Holers, Jess D Edison, Kevin D Deane, Koen M J Janssen, Johanna Westra, Mikael Brink, Solbritt Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Tom W J Huizinga, Annette H M van der Helm-van Mil, Diane van der Woude, Rene E M Toes, Leendert A Trouw
OBJECTIVE: In rheumatoid arthritis(RA), the autoantibodies anti-citrullinated protein antibodies(ACPA) and rheumatoid factor(RF) are commonly used to aid RA diagnosis. Although these autoantibodies are mainly found in RA, their specificity is not optimal. It is therefore difficult to identify RA patients, especially in very early disease, based on the presence of ACPA and RF alone. Also, anti-carbamylated protein(anti-CarP) antibodies have diagnostic and prognostic value as the presence of anti-CarP antibodies associates with joint damage in RA patients and with future RA development in arthralgia patients...
May 21, 2018: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778857/development-of-a-risk-score-based-on-aortic-calcification-to-predict-1-year-mortality-after-transcatheter-aortic-valve-replacement
#3
Pierre Lantelme, Hélène Eltchaninoff, Muriel Rabilloud, Géraud Souteyrand, Marion Dupré, Marco Spaziano, Marc Bonnet, Clément Becle, Benjamin Riche, Eric Durand, Erik Bouvier, Jean-Nicolas Dacher, Pierre-Yves Courand, Lucie Cassagnes, Eduardo E Dávila Serrano, Pascal Motreff, Loic Boussel, Thierry Lefèvre, Brahim Harbaoui
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to develop a new scoring system based on thoracic aortic calcification (TAC) to predict 1-year cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. BACKGROUND: A calcified aorta is often associated with poor prognosis after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). A risk score encompassing aortic calcification may be valuable in identifying poor TAVR responders. METHODS: The C4 CAPRI (4 Cities for Assessing CAlcification PRognostic Impact) multicenter study included a training cohort (1,425 patients treated using TAVR between 2010 and 2014) and a contemporary test cohort (311 patients treated in 2015)...
May 11, 2018: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772220/cue-awareness-in-avoiding-effortful-control
#4
Timothy L Dunn, Connor Gaspar, Evan F Risko
Based on a recent metacognitive account, cognitive effort is the result of an inferential evaluation made over explicitly available cues. Following from this account, we present here a pre-registered experiment that tested the specific hypothesis that explicit awareness of cues that are aligned with cognitive demand is a prerequisite in avoiding effortful lines of action. We attempted to modulate levels of effort avoidance behavior by introducing an incentive (between-subjects) to monitor two lines of action that, unbeknownst to individuals, varied in the probability of a task switch...
May 14, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770055/hepatitis-a-virus-infection-associated-with-cannabis-use
#5
C Sikora, G Tipples, X-L Pang, A Andonov
We identified a case of acute Hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection linked to cannabis use. The local Public Health department received report of a man in his mid-20s with a classic presentation of hepatitis - jaundice, abdominal pain, vomiting, general malaise, and dark urine - as well as elevated serum aminotransferase levels and a positive anti-HAV IgM. Upon questioning, he reported no contact with ill individuals, or travel outside his metropolitan area. His exclusive source of water was the local municipal supply...
November 2, 2017: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760840/clinical-ultrasound-is-safe-and-highly-specific-for-acute-appendicitis-in-moderate-to-high-pre-test-probability-patients
#6
Daniel Corson-Knowles, Frances M Russell
Introduction: Clinical ultrasound (CUS) is highly specific for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis but is operator-dependent. The goal of this study was to determine if a heterogeneous group of emergency physicians (EP) could diagnose acute appendicitis on CUS in patients with a moderate to high pre-test probability. Methods: This was a prospective, observational study of a convenience sample of adult and pediatric patients with suspected appendicitis. Sonographers received a structured, 20-minute CUS training on appendicitis prior to patient enrollment...
May 2018: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759042/melatonin-prevents-and-ameliorates-lead-induced-gonadotoxicity-through-antioxidative-and-hormonal-mechanisms
#7
Luqman Aribidesi Olayaki, Isiaka Abdullateef Alagbonsi, Amin Halimat Abdulrahim, Wale Johnson Adeyemi, Muftiat Bakare, Noah Omeiza
We investigated the effects of melatonin on sperm parameters and some biochemical markers in lead-exposed male Wistar rats. Lead (50 mg/kg bw/day) and/or melatonin (4 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg bw/day) was administered for 4 weeks, while 2-week lead exposure was preceded by or followed by 2-week treatment with both doses of melatonin in other groups. Lead reduced glutathione, catalase, adjusted testes weight, semen parameters but did not change malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase, and total antioxidant capacity...
January 1, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752813/the-long-exercise-test-in-periodic-paralysis-a-bayesian-analysis
#8
Daniel B Simmons, Julie Lanning, James C Cleland, Araya Puwanant, Paul T Twydell, Robert C Griggs, Rabi Tawil, Eric L Logigian
INTRODUCTION: The long exercise test (LET) is used to assess the diagnosis of periodic paralysis (PP), but LET methodology and normal "cut-off" values vary. METHODS: To determine optimal LET methodology and cut-offs, we reviewed LET data (abductor digiti minimi (ADM) motor response amplitude, area) from 55 PP patients (32 genetically definite) and 125 controls. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed and area-under-the-curve (AUC) calculated to compare 1) peak-to-nadir versus baseline-to-nadir methodologies, and 2) amplitude versus area decrements...
May 12, 2018: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751160/interactions-of-oxidized-multiwalled-carbon-nanotube-with-cadmium-on-zebrafish-cell-line-the-influence-of-two-co-exposure-protocols-on-in-vitro-toxicity-tests
#9
Mariana Morozesk, Lidiane S Franqui, Adrislaine S Mansano, Diego Stéfani T Martinez, Marisa N Fernandes
The widespread production and application of carbon nanotubes (CNT) have raising concerns about their release into the environment and, the joint toxicity of CNT with pre-existing contaminants needs to be assessed. This is the first study that investigated the co-exposure of oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (ox-MWCNT) and cadmium (Cd) using a zebrafish liver cell line (ZFL). Two in vitro co-exposure protocols differing by the order of ox-MWCNT interaction with Cd and fetal bovine serum (FBS) proteins were evaluated...
May 5, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750765/ideal-and-actual-impact-of-rapid-diagnostic-testing-and-antibiotic-stewardship-on-antibiotic-prescribing-and-clinical-outcomes-in-children-with-positive-blood-cultures
#10
Caroline H Reuter, Hannah L Palac, Larry K Kociolek, Xiaotian T Zheng, Yusuf Y Chao, Rupal Patel, Sameer J Patel
BACKGROUND: Implementing matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) and multiplex PCR (mPCR) has been associated with decreased mortality and hospital length of stay in adults, but the impact in pediatrics is less understood. METHODS: This pre-post quasi-experimental study compared antibiotic prescribing for positive blood cultures in patients ≤21 years collected in 2012 (pre-intervention) and in 2015 (after MALDI-TOF/mPCR). Time to effective and optimal antimicrobial therapy were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards regression...
May 10, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746573/self-diagnosis-of-seasonal-influenza-in-a-rural-primary-care-setting-in-japan-a-cross-sectional-observational-study
#11
Hiroki Maita, Tadashi Kobayashi, Hiroshi Osawa, Hiroyuki Kato
OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the accuracy and optimal cut-off point of self-diagnosis and clinical symptoms of seasonal influenza compared with rapid influenza diagnostic tests as the reference standard, we conducted a cross sectional observational study at a rural clinic in Japan. METHODS: Data during three influenza seasons (December 2013 to April 2016) were retrospectively collected from the medical records and pre-examination sheets of 111 patients aged >11 years (mean age 48...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736850/contralateral-parenchymal-enhancement-on-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-mri-reproduces-as-a-biomarker-of-survival-in-er-positive-her2-negative-breast-cancer-patients
#12
Bas H M van der Velden, Elizabeth J Sutton, Luca A Carbonaro, Ruud M Pijnappel, Elizabeth A Morris, Kenneth G A Gilhuijs
OBJECTIVES: To assess whether contralateral parenchymal enhancement reproduces as an independent biomarker for patient survival in an independent patient cohort from a different cancer institution. METHODS: This is a HIPAA-compliant IRB approved retrospective study. Patients with ER-positive/HER2-negative operable invasive ductal carcinoma and preoperative dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI were consecutively included between 2005 and 2009. The parenchyma of the breast contralateral to known cancer was segmented automatically on MRI and contralateral parenchymal enhancement (CPE) was calculated...
May 7, 2018: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730697/risk-related-18-f-fdg-pet-ct-and-new-diagnostic-strategies-in-patients-with-solitary-pulmonary-nodule-the-italian-multicenter-trial
#13
Marco Spadafora, Leonardo Pace, Laura Evangelista, Luigi Mansi, Francesco Del Prete, Giorgio Saladini, Paolo Miletto, Stefano Fanti, Silvana Del Vecchio, Luca Guerra, Giovanna Pepe, Giuseppina Peluso, Emanuele Nicolai, Giovanni Storto, Marco Ferdeghini, Alessandro Giordano, Mohsen Farsad, Orazio Schillaci, Cesare Gridelli, Alberto Cuocolo
PURPOSE: Diagnosis of solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN) is an important public health issue and 18 F-FDG PET/CT has proven to be more effective than CT alone. Pre-test risk stratification and clinical presentation of SPN could affect the diagnostic strategy. A relevant issue is whether thoracic segmental (s)-PET/CT could be implemented in patients with SPN. This retrospective multicenter study compared the results of FDG whole-body (wb)-PET/CT to those of s-PET/CT. METHODS: 18 F-FDG PET/CT of 502 patients, stratified for pre-test cancer risk, were retrospectively analyzed...
May 5, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721783/study-of-diagnostic-accuracy-of-fagan-s-two-step-nomogram-in-increasing-the-value-of-predictive-tools-for-prostate-cancer-application-of-specific-spatial-distribution-of-positive-negative-bioptic-cores-to-predict-extracapsular-extension
#14
Fabrizio Dal Moro, Tommaso Prayer-Galetti, Lorenzo Angelini, Fabio Vianello, Marina Gardiman, Massimo Rugge, Filiberto Zattoni
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PC) represents the second most frequent cancer in the male population worldwide. It is mandatory to have a very accurate staging to choice the best possible treatment. AIMS: To test the possibility of improving the performance of Partin's tables in predicting the pathological staging of PC by introducing bioptic parameters through an innovative statistic tool (Fagan's two-step nomogram). METHODS: We prospectivelly collected data of all 1048 consecutive patients undergoing saturation 24-core transrectal prostate biopsy...
May 2, 2018: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716295/noise-robust-speech-triage
#15
Anthony L Bartos, Tomas Cipr, Douglas J Nelson, Petr Schwarz, John Banowetz, Ladislav Jerabek
A method is presented in which conventional speech algorithms are applied, with no modifications, to improve their performance in extremely noisy environments. It has been demonstrated that, for eigen-channel algorithms, pre-training multiple speaker identification (SID) models at a lattice of signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) levels and then performing SID using the appropriate SNR dependent model was successful in mitigating noise at all SNR levels. In those tests, it was found that SID performance was optimized when the SNR of the testing and training data were close or identical...
April 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706011/clinical-usefulness-of-the-faecal-calprotectin-test-in-suspected-paediatric-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#16
Anthony K Akobeng
AIM: The faecal calprotectin (FC) test is increasingly being used in clinical practice to help select children with gastrointestinal symptoms who might have inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and benefit from endoscopies. We provide an overview of the advantages and limitations of the FC test. METHODS: PubMed was searched for meta-analyses that had investigated the diagnostic accuracy of the FC test and the pooled sensitivity and specificity for distinguishing IBD from non-IBD patients were used to calculate likelihood ratios...
April 29, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697038/tree-analysis-modeling-of-the-associations-between-phq-9-depressive-symptoms-and-doctor-diagnosis-of-depression-in-primary-care
#17
Weng-Yee Chin, Eric Yuk Fai Wan, Christopher Dowrick, Bruce Arroll, Cindy Lo Kuen Lam
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between patient self-reported Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) symptoms and doctor diagnosis of depression using a tree analysis approach. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis on a dataset obtained from 10 179 adult primary care patients and 59 primary care physicians (PCPs) across Hong Kong. Patients completed a waiting room survey collecting data on socio-demographics and the PHQ-9. Blinded doctors documented whether they thought the patient had depression...
April 26, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695327/high-sensitivity-troponin-the-sisyphean-pursuit-of-zero-percent-miss-rate-for-acute-coronary-syndrome-in-the-emergency-department
#18
REVIEW
Shane M Summers, Brit Long, Michael D April, Alex Koyfman, Curtis J Hunter
BACKGROUND: The United States Food and Drug Administration recently approved a high sensitivity troponin (hsTn) assay for use. Recent literature has investigated the diagnostic accuracy of hsTn for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in the emergency department (ED) and its use in accelerated diagnostic protocols. OBJECTIVE: This article evaluates the existing literature and discusses incorporation of hsTn testing into ED clinical practice based on best available evidence...
April 3, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692275/diagnostic-accuracy-of-dopaminergic-imaging-in-prodromal-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#19
Alan J Thomas, Paul Donaghy, Gemma Roberts, Sean J Colloby, Nicky A Barnett, George Petrides, Jim Lloyd, Kirsty Olsen, John-Paul Taylor, Ian McKeith, John T O'Brien
BACKGROUND: Dopaminergic imaging has high diagnostic accuracy for dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) at the dementia stage. We report the first investigation of dopaminergic imaging at the prodromal stage. METHODS: We recruited 75 patients over 60 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 33 with probable MCI with Lewy body disease (MCI-LB), 15 with possible MCI-LB and 27 with MCI with Alzheimer's disease. All underwent detailed clinical, neurological and neuropsychological assessments and FP-CIT [123I-N-fluoropropyl-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)] dopaminergic imaging...
April 25, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680338/a-comparison-of-the-updated-diamond-forrester-cad-consortium-and-confirm-history-based-risk-scores-for-predicting-obstructive-coronary-artery-disease-in-patients-with-stable-chest-pain-the-scot-heart-coronary-cta-cohort
#20
Lohendran Baskaran, Ibrahim Danad, Heidi Gransar, Bríain Ó Hartaigh, Joshua Schulman-Marcus, Fay Y Lin, Jessica M Peña, Amanda Hunter, David E Newby, Philip D Adamson, James K Min
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to compare the performance of history-based risk scores in predicting obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) among patients with stable chest pain from the SCOT-HEART study. BACKGROUND: Risk scores for estimating pre-test probability of CAD are derived from referral-based populations with a high prevalence of disease. The generalizability of these scores to lower prevalence populations in the initial patient encounter for chest pain is uncertain...
April 13, 2018: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
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