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Pre-Test Probability

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640172/effect-of-baseline-anxiety-and-depression-symptoms-on-selected-outcomes-following-pulmonary-rehabilitation
#1
Kate Cullen, Daniel Talbot, Julie Gillmor, Colin McGrath, Rory OʼDonnell, Maria Baily-Scanlan, Julie Broderick
PURPOSE: Anxiety and depression are prevalent comorbidities in people with chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs). This study sought to quantify the influence of varying degrees of anxiety and depression on functional performance and disease impact in a population with CRDs following pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) intervention. METHODS: The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT), and the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Assessment Test (CAT) were assessed pre- and post-PR...
July 2017: Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615868/some-probable-factors-affecting-the-malaria-situation-before-and-at-the-beginning-of-a-pre-elimination-program-in-southeastern-iran
#2
Jalil Nejati, Seyed Mehdi Tabatabaei, Masoud Salehi, Abedin Saghafipour, Ehssan Mozafari
The area southeast of Iran still copes with malaria as an unstable infectious disease and includes the most autochthonous malaria reports in the country. This comprehensive study was carried out for the evaluation of environmental factors, welfare indicators and health facilities on the malaria situation before and at the beginning of a pre-elimination programme in this area. The probable factors affecting the malaria situation, including the water-pipe network, electricity, rainfall, long-lasting integrated nets (LLINs), indoor residual spraying and malaria diagnosis-treatment centres were analysed using SPSS software...
June 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614421/zero-calcium-score-as-a-filter-for-further-testing-in-patients-admitted-to-the-coronary-care-unit-with-chest-pain
#3
Luis Cláudio Lemos Correia, Fábio P Esteves, Manuela Carvalhal, Thiago Menezes Barbosa de Souza, Nicole de Sá, Vitor Calixto de Almeida Correia, Felipe Kalil Beirão Alexandre, Fernanda Lopes, Felipe Ferreira, Márcia Noya-Rabelo
Background: The accuracy of zero coronary calcium score as a filter in patients with chest pain has been demonstrated at the emergency room and outpatient clinics, populations with low prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD). Objective: To test the gatekeeping role of zero calcium score in patients with chest pain admitted to the coronary care unit (CCU), where the pretest probability of CAD is higher than that of other populations. Methods: Patients underwent computed tomography for calcium scoring, and obstructive CAD was defined by a minimum 70% stenosis on invasive angiography...
June 12, 2017: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607644/prevalence-and-characteristics-of-precore-mutation-in-iran-and-its-correlation-with-genotypes-of-hepatitis-b
#4
Ali Kargar Kheirabad, Gholamreza Farshidfar, Sadegh Nasrollaheian, Hamed Gouklani
INTRODUCTION: Mutation of the HBV precore gene prevents the production of HBeAg, which is an important target for immune responses. Distribution of this mutation varies along with frequency of HBV genotypes in accordance with geographic and ethnic variations. The general objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of precore mutation in Iran and its correlation with genotypes of hepatitis B. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, viral DNA of 182 Iranian hepatitis B surface antigen positive patients who were admitted to Bandar Abbas Blood Transfusion Organization in 2012 and 2013 was retrieved from their serum samples...
April 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604824/decline-in-cd4-t-lymphocytes-with-monotherapy-bridging-strategy-for-non-adherent-adolescents-living-with-hiv-infection-results-of-the-impaact-p1094-randomized-trial
#5
Allison L Agwu, Meredith G Warshaw, Elizabeth J McFarland, George K Siberry, Ann J Melvin, Andrew A Wiznia, Lee Fairlie, Sandra Boyd, Paul Harding, Hans M L Spiegel, Elaine J Abrams, Vincent J Carey
INTRODUCTION: Management of persistently non-adherent youth living with HIV (YLHIV) with virologic failure (VF) on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) remains challenging. One strategy has been using 3TC/ FTC monotherapy (3TC/FTC), which in the presence of the M184V resistance mutation, does not suppress viral replication nor select for additional drug resistance mutations, and reduces viral fitness with limited side effects. P1094 compared the immunologic outcome of continuing failing cART vs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600257/search-for-more-effective-microsatellite-markers-for-forensics-with-next-generation-sequencing
#6
Bowen Tan, Zicheng Zhao, Zhe Zhang, Shengbin Li, Shuai Cheng Li
Published by the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) program of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in 1997, the 13 core short tandem repeat (STR) loci are widely adopted as genetic markers in forensic applications, e.g., identity testing and paternity testing. However, these loci may be biased and suffer from reduced sensitivities towards specific population groups. In addition, the rapid growth of entries in forensic databases raises the chance of random hits, which can cause false recognitions of criminal suspects...
June 7, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594049/venous-thromboembolism-past-present-and-future
#7
Sam Schulman, Walter Ageno, Stavros V Konstantinides
Venous thromboembolism (VTE), the third most frequent acute cardiovascular syndrome, is associated with a considerable disease burden which continues to grow along with the longer life expectancy of the population worldwide. In the past century, parenteral heparin prophylaxis was established for hospitalised patients at elevated risk of VTE. More recently, non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) with a direct inhibiting effect on factor Xa or thrombin, underwent extensive testing in clinical trials and have been approved for patients undergoing hip or knee replacement...
June 8, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590833/evaluation-of-a-decision-aid-for-women-with-epilepsy-who-are-considering-pregnancy-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Amanda McGrath, Louise Sharpe, Suncica Lah, Kaitlyn Parratt
BACKGROUND: For many women with epilepsy (WWE), decision making about pregnancy is complicated by considerations such as the potential teratogenicity of antiepileptic drugs, offspring risk of epilepsy, seizure occurrence during pregnancy, and the challenges of parenting amidst poorly controlled seizures. OBJECTIVE: This proof-of-concept, randomized controlled trial aimed to evaluate a decision aid (DA) developed to help WWE decide if they should start or enlarge their families...
July 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586607/role-of-symptomatic-treatment-in-comparison-to-antibiotics-in-uncomplicated-urinary-tract-infections
#9
Muhammad Nasir Jamil, Umer Farooq, Babar Sultan, Raza Muhammad Khan
OBJECTIVE: Uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common bacterial infections among women presenting to primary care causing rapidly increasing strains of resistant bacteria to the growing antibiotic industry. Restricting antibiotics to necessary indications is the only solution. The objectives of the study were to compare the efficacy of symptomatic treatment vs antibiotic in patients with uncomplicated UTI, in terms of individual symptom score, i.e., frequency, urgency, dysuria, supra pubic pain scores and total symptoms scores...
October 2016: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584603/a-hypothetical-model-to-predict-the-potential-impact-of-government-and-management-support-in-implementing-integrated-management-of-childhood-illness-practices
#10
Fannah Al Fannah Al Araimi
OBJECTIVES: Despite broad adoption and implementation of Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) in more than 100 countries, childhood mortality and morbidity rates continue to prevail. This calls for further investigation to identify the factors that prevent actual application of IMCI-recommended clinical practices. This study tests a hypothetical structural model to investigate potential role of government and healthcare policymakers on improving implementation and application of IMCI-recommended practices in clinical setting...
May 2017: Oman Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577758/diagnosis-of-recurrent-venous-thromboembolism
#11
Stefano Barco, Stavros Konstantinides, Menno V Huisman, Frederikus A Klok
The diagnostic management of suspected recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) is challenging for four main reasons. First, clinical decision rules are less useful to identity patients with a low pre-test probability. Second, the diagnostic performance of D-dimer tests is decreased. Together, these two point lead to a clearly lower proportion of patients in whom recurrent VTE can be ruled out without performing imaging tests. Third, recurrent thrombi may be difficult to differentiate from residual thrombi, which may be often identified in patients with a history of VTE...
May 26, 2017: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574999/predictors-of-renal-function-recovery-among-patients-undergoing-renal-replacement-therapy-following-orthotopic-liver-transplantation
#12
Maria Claudia Cruz Andreoli, Nádia Karina Guimarães de Souza, Adriano Luiz Ammirati, Thais Nemoto Matsui, Fabiana Dias Carneiro, Ana Claudia Mallet de Souza Ramos, Ilson Jorge Iizuca, Maria Paula Vilela Coelho, Rogério Carballo Afonso, Ben-Hur Ferraz-Neto, Marcio Dias de Almeida, Marcelino Durão, Marcelo Costa Batista, Julio Cesar Monte, Virgílio Gonçalves Pereira, Oscar Pavão Dos Santos, Bento Cardoso Dos Santos
Renal dysfunction frequently occurs during the periods preceding and following orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), and in many cases, renal replacement therapy (RRT) is required. Information regarding the duration of RRT and the rate of kidney function recovery after OLT is crucial for transplant program management. We evaluated a sample of 155 stable patients undergoing post-intensive care hemodialysis (HD) from a patient population of 908 adults who underwent OLT. We investigated the average time to renal function recovery (duration of RRT required) and determined the risk factors for remaining on dialysis > 90 days after OLT...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574672/safety-of-multidetector-computed-tomography-pulmonary-angiography-to-exclude-pulmonary-embolism-in-patients-with-a-likely-pretest-clinical-probability
#13
Helia Robert-Ebadi, Frédéric Glauser, Benjamin Planquette, Thomas Moumneh, Grégoire Le Gal, Marc Righini
BACKGROUND: In patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE) classified as having a likely or high pre-test clinical probability, the necessity of performing additional testing after a negative multidetector computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) remains a matter of debate. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the safety of excluding PE by CTPA without additional imaging in patients with a likely pre-test probability of PE. PATIENTS/METHODS: We retrospectively analysed patients included in two multicentre management outcome studies that assessed diagnostic algorithms for PE diagnosis...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574438/an-evaluation-of-the-binding-strength-of-okra-gum-and-the-drug-release-characteristics-of-tablets-prepared-from-it
#14
Amjad Hussain, Farah Qureshi, Nasir Abbas, Muhammad Sohail Arshad, Ejaz Ali
The aim of this study is to evaluate the adhesion ability of okra gum, which is gaining popularity as a tablet binder. For this purpose, gum was extracted from okra pods, and the binding strength of different concentrations (1%, 3%, and 5%) was determined quantitatively. Additionally, naproxen sodium tablets were prepared by using okra gum as a binder and were evaluated for their properties including hardness, friability, disintegration time, and dissolution rate. The binding strength values were compared with that of pre-gelatinized starch, a commonly used tablet binder...
June 2, 2017: Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574204/rational-clinical-evaluation-of-suspected-acute-coronary-syndromes-the-value-of-more-information
#15
David G Hancock, Ming-Yu Anthony Chuang, Rebecca Bystrom, Amera Halabi, Rachel Jones, Matthew Horsfall, Louise Cullen, William A Parsonage, Derek P Chew
OBJECTIVE: Many meta-analyses have provided synthesised likelihood ratio data to aid clinical decision-making. However, much less has been published on how to safely combine clinical information in practice. We aimed to explore the benefits and risks of pooling clinical information during the ED assessment of suspected acute coronary syndrome. METHODS: Clinical information on 1776 patients was collected within a randomised trial conducted across five South Australian EDs between July 2011 and March 2013...
June 2, 2017: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573843/socio-demographic-and-area-related-factors-associated-with-the-prevalence-of-caries-among-preschool-children-in-greece
#16
M Mantonanaki, T Hatzichristos, H Koletsi-Kounari, W Papaioannou
OBJECTIVE: To assess dental caries experience in 4-6 year old children of the Athens Metropolitan Area attending public kindergartens and investigate the association of area deprivation and immigration status on dmft. BASIC RESEARCH DESIGN: A cross-sectional study of a large area-stratified sample of 683 kindergarten children was conducted during the academic years 2009-2011. Dental caries experience and oral hygiene level were assessed using dmft and the Simplified Debris index (DI-s)...
June 2017: Community Dental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572221/the-2016-update-to-nice-cg95-guideline-for-the-investigation-of-new-onset-stable-chest-pain-more-innovation-but-at-a-cost
#17
Khaled Alfakih, John P Greenwood, Sven Plein
The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) published an update on its guideline on chest pain of recent onset in 2016. The new guideline makes three key changes to the 2010 version. NICE recommend that the previously proposed pre-test probability risk score should no longer be used. They also recommend that a calcium score of zero should no longer be used to rule out coronary artery disease in patients with low pre-test probability. However, the most radical change is that NICE now recommend that all patients with new onset chest pain should be investigated with a computerised tomography coronary angiogram as a first-ine investigation...
June 2017: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571561/high-sensitivity-troponin-i-and-t-reflect-the-presence-of-obstructive-and-multi-vessel-coronary-artery-disease-being-assessed-by-coronary-computed-tomography-angiography
#18
Nadine Reckord, Michèle Natale, Agnibh Mukherji, Jonas Rusnak, Uzair Ansari, Thomas Henzler, Ursula Hoffmann, Martin Borggrefe, Kambis Mashayekhi, Thomas Bertsch, Ibrahim Akin
BACKGROUND: This study evaluates the association between high sensitivity troponin I (hsTnI) and T (hsTnT) in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). METHODS: Patients undergoing CCTA during routine clinical care were prospectively enrolled. CCTA was indicated by a low to intermediate pre-test probability for CAD during routine clinical care. Within 24 hours before or after CCTA, blood samples were taken to measure cardiac biomarkers hsTnI, hsTnT and NT-proNBP...
May 31, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550602/optimizing-the-modification-of-wood-waste-biochar-via-metal-oxides-to-remove-and-recover-phosphate-from-human-urine
#19
Kangning Xu, Chuke Zhang, Xiaomin Dou, Weifang Ma, Chengwen Wang
The recovery of phosphate from human urine has been considered as one of the most attractive benefits of urine source separation because P is an essential but limited macronutrient. This study investigated the approach to modify wood waste biochar via metal oxides aiming to recover phosphate from human urine to produce a value-added biochar. Results showed the phosphate removal ability was enhanced for the modified biochar pre-treated in modification solutions of MgCl2, AlCl3, CaCl2 and FeCl3, respectively, while natural biochar released phosphate to urine...
May 26, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542516/evaluation-of-the-systemic-micro-and-macrovasculature-in-stable-angina-a-case-control-study
#20
Ulf Neisius, Erin Olson, Sabrina H Rossi, Hagar A Ibrahim, Gemma Currie, Anna F Dominiczak, Christian Delles
AIMS: The diagnosis of stable angina involves the use of probability estimates based on clinical presentation, age, gender and cardiovascular risk factors. In view of the link between the cardiac and systemic vasculature we tested whether non-invasive measures of systemic micro- and macrovascular structure and function differentiate between individuals with flow-limiting coronary artery disease (CAD) and those with normal coronary arteries (NCA). METHODS AND RESULTS: We recruited 84 patients undergoing elective coronary angiography for investigation of symptoms of stable angina...
2017: PloS One
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