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medical japan

Hiroki Maita, Tadashi Kobayashi, Hiroshi Osawa, Hiroyuki Kato
AimWe aimed to elucidate the accuracy and optimal cut-off point of the self-diagnosis of influenza and the associated clinical symptoms of children by their guardians, compared with those of the rapid influenza diagnostic test (RIDT). BACKGROUND: Seasonal influenza is a common outpatient problem during the winter season. A paediatric influenza epidemic has socio-economic impacts like temporary school closure, school event cancellations, and unscheduled work absences among parents. Hence, early identification and assessment of influenza to prevent its spread is important from a societal perspective...
April 15, 2018: Primary Health Care Research & Development
Taiki Masuda, Sakiko Yabe, Eisuke Yamamoto, Kenta Kobayashi, Tetsunori Yoshimura
BACKGROUND: The use of self-expandable metallic stent(SEMS)was first authorized by insurance and became available nationwide in Japan in 2012. Insertion of SEMS for colorectal obstruction due to colorectal cancer is useful as a bridge to surgery(BTS)approach and releases stenosis as palliative care. AIM: To assess the outcomes of SEMS placement for colorectal obstruction. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 14 patients were treated with SEMS between April 2014 and March 2017...
March 2018: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
Maki Matsukawa, Yumi Fukuyama, Yuko Nakakita, Akiko Akiyama
The purpose of this study is to investigate the comparative changes over time of the home care supporting clinics(HCSCs) in each of the 4 Secondary Medical Areas within Mie Prefecture. There were 129 HCSCs activity reports in 2008, and 170 in 2014. The number of patients and the number of deceased patients have increased in Mie Prefecture. These findings suggest that improvements in the home-care staff recruitment system should be further expanded throughout Mie Prefecture and, in particular, the quality improved in the Higashi-Kishu area...
March 2018: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
Tokuko Okuda
In an aging society, the sustainability of the public medical system is the most important factor. I surveyed leading cases in Japan, as well as corresponding cases overseas. I also conducted interviews in Britain, North America, and Europe, and these indicated the current trends and issues. The UK has a universal insurance system and, facing a declining birthrate and an aging population, they have adopted a policy of immigration, which has various problems. However, the GP system is highly regarded by the OECD...
March 2018: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
Toshikazu Sakuyama, Yoshikazu Asino, Masahito Tanimizu, Fumio Ogasawara, Akitaka Yoshizawa, Hiroshi Suzuki, Kunihiko Watanabe, Manabu Ohnuki, Mitsunori Nishikawa, Akemi Katami, Noriyasu Shirotani
BACKGROUND: The study analyzes a questionnaire on the potential discriminative characteristics of patients with incurable solidcancer, who either receivedor didnot receive palliative chemotherapy while receiving home-basedend -of-life care. From the standpoint of regional palliative care, we sought to investigate the influence of the timing of when chemotherapy was ceasedor withheldin home-basedend -of-life care in patients with incurable solidcancer. We plannedthe project to obtain scientific evidence about the timing of ceasing or withholding chemotherapy...
March 2018: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
Satoshi Yazawa, Yuji Kato, Jin Nakahara, Toshio Miyata, Mototsugu Oya
A 56-year-old man with advanced RCC and a past medical history of type 2 diabetes underwent a radical left nephrectomy following a histological diagnosis of papillary RCC, G2, INF b, pT3, V1 in 1999. In 2008, sorafenib was started to treat multiple pulmonary metastases of RCC. In 2011, sorafenib was switched to sunitinib when radiologic progression was observed. In 2014, sunitinib was switched to axitinib when further radiologic progression was observed. In 2015, the patient was referred to Yazawa clinic for homecare urology when hospital visits became difficult due to cancer pain and bilateral lower-extremity muscle weakness...
April 2018: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
Shuta Tomida, Shinichi Toyooka
In the end of last year, the US Food and Drug Administration has announced the authorization of MSK-IMPACT(TM), clinical test based on multiplex cancer panel profiling for genetic mutations and other alterations in patients' tumors, while in Japan, NCC Oncopanel, domestic multiplex cancer panel, is scheduled to be clinically implemented as advanced medical care B in this coming spring, chasing the state of the art technology for cancer treatment. In this article, we outline a recently published roadmap for precision medicine in Japan, together with our years of experience on cancer diagnosis and treatment based on multiplex cancer panel at Okayama University Hospital and Okadai Biobank...
April 2018: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
Ichiro Arakawa, Mikio Momoeda, Yutaka Osuga, Ikuko Ota, Kaori Koga
Background and objective: This study aims to assess the cost-effectiveness of early physician consultation and guideline-based intervention to prevent endometriosis and/or disease progression using oral contraceptive (OC) and progestin compared to follow-up of self-care for dysmenorrhea in Japan. Methods: A yearly-transmitted Markov model of five major health states with four sub-medical states was constructed. Transition probabilities among health and medical states were derived from Japanese epidemiological patient surveys and converted to appropriate parameters for inputting into the model...
2018: Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation: C/E
So Young Park, Jason Phua, Masaji Nishimura, Yiyun Deng, Yan Kang, Keiichi Tada, Younsuck Koh
OBJECTIVES: To compare physicians' perceptions and practice of end-of-life care in the ICU in three East Asian countries cultures similarly rooted in Confucianism. DESIGN: A structured and scenario-based survey of physicians who managed ICU patients from May 2012 to December 2012. SETTING: ICUs in China, Korea, and Japan. SUBJECTS: Specialists who are either intensivists or nonintensivist primary attending physicians in charge of patients (195 in China, 186 in Korea, 224 in Japan)...
April 6, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
Huei-Ru Lin, Taishi Tsuji, Katsunori Kondo, Yuichi Imanaka
In Japan, the prevalence of dementia is expected to reach 4.7 million by 2025. This study aimed to develop a risk score for the prediction of incident dementia in community-dwelling older adults. In this longitudinal observational study, we used data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES) conducted in K City. We performed Cox regression analyses to develop three risk score models for the prediction of incident dementia in older adults using a frailty index and health checkup data. Analyses of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve were conducted to compare the models' predictive abilities...
April 4, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Joerg Mahlich, Akiko Tsubota, Keiichiro Imanaka, Kentaro Enjo
OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess the burden of chemotherapy for castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) in Japan. METHODS: Utilizing a large administrative hospital data base we compared a set of outcome measures twelve months before and after initiation of chemotherapy, namely total medical costs, number of outpatient visits, number of hospital admissions, and number of days spent in hospital. RESULTS: A total of 598 CRPC patients were identified in the database...
April 6, 2018: Current Medical Research and Opinion
Ayami Komatsu, Atsushi Ikeda, Akio Kikuchi, Chiaki Minami, Motomu Tan, Shuzo Matsushita
INTRODUCTION: Patients with HIV infection may have a higher prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia, as well as an increased risk of bone fracture compared with non-HIV-infected individuals. Antiretroviral therapy is thought to be one of factors associated to osteoporosis-related bone fractures. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of long-term exposure to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) on the cumulative risk of osteoporosis-related bone fractures in Japanese patients with HIV infection...
April 5, 2018: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
Takeshi Shimada, Manami Ohori, Yusuke Inagaki, Yuko Shimooka, Naoya Sugimura, Ikuyo Ishihara, Tomotaka Yoshida, Masayoshi Kobayashi
The individualized occupational therapy (IOT) program is a psychosocial program that we developed to facilitate proactive participation in treatment and improve cognitive functioning and other outcomes for inpatients with acute schizophrenia. The program consists of motivational interviewing, self-monitoring, individualized visits, handicraft activities, individualized psychoeducation, and discharge planning. This multicenter, open-labeled, blinded-endpoint, randomized controlled trial evaluated the impact of adding IOT to a group OT (GOT) program as usual for outcomes in recently hospitalized patients with schizophrenia in Japanese psychiatric hospitals setting compared with GOT alone...
2018: PloS One
Kouichi Tanabe, Kaho Fujiwara, Hana Ogura, Hatsuna Yasuda, Nobuyuki Goto, Fumiko Ohtsu
BACKGROUND: Patients and their families are able to obtain information about palliative care from websites easily nowadays. However, there are concerns on the accuracy of information on the Web and how up to date it is. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to elucidate problematic points of medical information about palliative care obtained from websites, and to compare the quality of the information between Japanese and US websites. METHODS: We searched Google Japan and Google USA for websites relating to palliative care...
April 3, 2018: Interactive Journal of Medical Research
Daijo Inaguma, Yuji Sasakawa, Noriko Suzuki, Eri Ito, Kazuo Takahashi, Hiroki Hayashi, Shigehisa Koide, Midori Hasegawa, Yukio Yuzawa
BACKGROUND: Aortic stenosis (AS) is common in patients on dialysis as well as in the general population. AS leads to difficulty with dialysis therapy because of unstable conditions such as intradialytic hypotension due to low cardiac output. However, the precise morbidity rates and risk factors of AS in patients on dialysis are unknown. Moreover, there are no large-scale observational studies regarding the association between AS in patients on dialysis and mortality. Therefore, we will investigate whether morbidity of AS in patients on dialysis is associated with mortality...
April 3, 2018: BMC Nephrology
Tomoko Kakio, Hitomi Nagase, Takashi Takaoka, Naoko Yoshida, Junichi Hirakawa, Susan Macha, Takashi Hiroshima, Yukihiro Ikeda, Hirohito Tsuboi, Kazuko Kimura
The World Health Organization has warned that substandard and falsified medical products (SFs) can harm patients and fail to treat the diseases for which they were intended, and they affect every region of the world, leading to loss of confidence in medicines, health-care providers, and health systems. Therefore, development of analytical procedures to detect SFs is extremely important. In this study, we investigated the quality of pharmaceutical tablets containing the antihypertensive candesartan cilexetil, collected in China, Indonesia, Japan, and Myanmar, using the Japanese pharmacopeial analytical procedures for quality control, together with principal component analysis (PCA) of Raman spectrum obtained with handheld Raman spectrometer...
April 2, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Mayako Tada, Makoto Hirata, Mitsuho Sasaki, Ryuichi Sakate, Arihiro Kohara, Ichiro Takahashi, Yosuke Kameoka, Toru Masui, Akifumi Matsuyama
Research on rare diseases cannot be performed without appropriate samples from patients with such diseases. Due to the limited number of such patients, securing biosamples of sufficient quality for extensive research is a challenge and represents an important barrier to the advancement of research on rare diseases. To tackle this problem, the Rare Disease Bank (RDB) was established in 2009 at the National Institute of Biomedical Innovation (NIBIO; currently, the National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition in Japan)...
April 2, 2018: Human Cell
Taisei Mushiroda, Yukitoshi Takahashi, Teiichi Onuma, Yoshiaki Yamamoto, Tetsumasa Kamei, Tohru Hoshida, Katsuya Takeuchi, Kotaro Otsuka, Mitsutoshi Okazaki, Masako Watanabe, Kosuke Kanemoto, Tomohiro Oshima, Atsushi Watanabe, Shiro Minami, Kayoko Saito, Hisashi Tanii, Yasushi Shimo, Minoru Hara, Shinji Saitoh, Toshihiko Kinoshita, Masaki Kato, Naoto Yamada, Naoki Akamatsu, Toshihiko Fukuchi, Shigenobu Ishida, Shingo Yasumoto, Atsushi Takahashi, Takeshi Ozeki, Takahisa Furuta, Yoshiro Saito, Nobuyuki Izumida, Yoko Kano, Tetsuo Shiohara, Michiaki Kubo
Importance: Carbamazepine, a commonly used antiepileptic drug, is one of the most common causes of cutaneous adverse drug reactions (cADRs) worldwide. The allele HLA-A*31:01 is reportedly associated with carbamazepine-induced cADRs in Japanese and European populations; however, the clinical utility of HLA-A*31:01 has not been evaluated. Objective: To assess the use of HLA-A*31:01 genetic screening to identify Japanese individuals at risk of carbamazepine-induced cADRs...
April 2, 2018: JAMA Neurology
Kosuke Kitano, Takashi Asakawa, Naoto Kamide, Keisuke Yorimoto, Masaki Yoneda, Yutaka Kikuchi, Makoto Sawada, Tetsuo Komori
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to verify the effects of structured home-based exercises without supervision by a physical therapist on patients with early-stage amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). DESIGN: This is a historical controlled study that is part of a multicenter collaborative study. SETTING: Rehabilitation departments at general hospitals and outpatient clinics with a neurology department in Japan. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-one patients with ALS were enrolled and designated as the Home-EX group, and they performed unsupervised home-based exercises...
March 30, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Satoshi Tanaka
 An increasing number of cases of research misconduct and whistle-blowing in the fields of medicine and life sciences has created public concern about research integrity. In Europe and the United States, there has been a large focus on poor reproducibility in life science research, and poor reproducibility is largely associated with research misconduct. Research integrity is equally crucial in the pharmaceutical sciences, which play an important role in medical and life sciences. Individual cases of research misconduct have not been investigated in detail in Japan, because it was generally believed that only researchers with strong or strange personalities would participate in misconduct...
2018: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
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