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Adhd and reorienting negativity

J Rydkjær, J R Møllegaard Jepsen, A K Pagsberg, B Fagerlund, B Y Glenthøj, B Oranje
BACKGROUND: Deficient mismatch negativity (MMN) has been proposed as a candidate biomarker in schizophrenia and may therefore be potentially useful in early identification and intervention in early onset psychosis. In this study we explored whether deficits in the automatic orienting and reorienting responses, measured as MMN and P3a amplitude, are present in young adolescents with first-episode psychosis (FEP) and whether findings are specific to psychosis compared to young adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
January 2017: Psychological Medicine
Jochen Seitz, Manuel Hueck, Brigitte Dahmen, Martin Schulte-Rüther, Tanja Legenbauer, Beate Herpertz-Dahlmann, Kerstin Konrad
OBJECTIVE: Recent evidence has suggested an increased rate of comorbid ADHD and subclinical attentional impairments in bulimia nervosa (BN) patients. However, little is known regarding the underlying neural mechanisms of attentional functions in BN. METHOD: Twenty BN patients and twenty age- and weight-matched healthy controls (HC) were investigated using a modified version of the Attention Network Task (ANT) in an fMRI study. This design enabled an investigation of the neural mechanisms associated with the three attention networks involved in alerting, reorienting and executive attention...
2016: PloS One
L Oja, M Huotilainen, E Nikkanen, H Oksanen-Hennah, M Laasonen, A Voutilainen, L von Wendt, K Alho
Involuntary switching of attention to distracting sounds was studied by measuring effects of these events on auditory discrimination performance and event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in 6-11-year-old boys with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and comorbid Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and in age-matched controls. The children were instructed to differentiate between two animal calls by pressing one response button, for example, to a dog bark and another button to a cat mew. These task-relevant sounds were presented from one of two loudspeakers in front of the child, and there were occasional task-irrelevant changes in the sound location, that is, the loudspeaker...
February 1, 2016: Brain Research
Ming-Tao Yang, Chun-Hsien Hsu, Pei-Wen Yeh, Wang-Tso Lee, Jao-Shwann Liang, Wen-Mei Fu, Chia-Ying Lee
Inattention (IA) has been a major problem in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), accounting for their behavioral and cognitive dysfunctions. However, there are at least three processing steps underlying attentional control for auditory change detection, namely pre-attentive change detection, involuntary attention orienting, and attention reorienting for further evaluation. This study aimed to examine whether children with ADHD would show deficits in any of these subcomponents by using mismatch negativity (MMN), P3a, and late discriminative negativity (LDN) as event-related potential (ERP) markers, under the passive auditory oddball paradigm...
2015: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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