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Carbapenemase screening

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899921/high-prevalence-of-%C3%AE-lactamase-and-plasmid-mediated-quinolone-resistance-genes-in-extended-spectrum-cephalosporin-resistant-escherichia-coli-from-dogs-in-shaanxi-china
#1
Xiaoqiang Liu, Haixia Liu, Yinqian Li, Caiju Hao
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence and molecular characterization of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL), plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase (pAmpC) and carbapenemases as well as plasmid-mediated quinolone-resistant (PMQR) among extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant (ESC-R) Escherichia coli from dogs in Shaanxi province in China. Methods: A total of 40 ESC-R Escherichia coli selected from 165 Extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) isolated from dogs were screened and characterized for the genes encoding for the ESBLs, pAmpC, carbapenemases and PMQR genes by PCR and sequencing...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890667/investigation-of-carbapenem-resistance-and-the-first-identification-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-carbapenemase-kpc-enzyme-among-escherichia-coli-isolates-in-turkey-a-prospective-study
#2
Mert Ahmet Kuskucu, Asiye Karakullukcu, Mailihaba Ailiken, Barıs Otlu, Bilgul Mete, Gokhan Aygun
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the presence of carbapenem resistance and carbapenemase production in Escherichia coli isolates from clinical samples in Turkey. METHODS: The prospective study included a total of 4052 Escherichia coli isolates collected from patients admitted to a hospital from March 2011 to May 2012. We used ertapenem disc for screening carbapenemase production, and the confirmation was performed by using Etest. The resistance mechanisms and genetic relatedness of the carbapenem resistant strains were investigated by using PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), respectively...
November 23, 2016: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890443/oxa-23-and-isaba1-oxa-66-class-d-%C3%AE-lactamases-in-acinetobacter-baumannii-isolates-from-companion-animals
#3
Christa Ewers, Peter Klotz, Ursula Leidner, Ivonne Stamm, Ellen Prenger-Berninghoff, Stephan Göttig, Torsten Semmler, Sandra Scheufen
Acinetobacter baumannii is recognised as a major pathogen of nosocomial infections that frequently show resistance to last-resort antimicrobials. To investigate whether A. baumannii from companion animals harbour carbapenem resistance mechanisms, 223 clinical isolates obtained from veterinary clinics between 2000 and 2013 in Germany were screened for carbapenem-non-susceptibility employing meropenem-containing Mueller-Hinton agar plates. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) data were obtained using the VITEK(®)2 system...
November 16, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890334/control-of-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-outbreaks-in-acute-settings-an-evidence-review
#4
REVIEW
C E French, C Coope, L Conway, J P T Higgins, J McCulloch, G Okoli, B C Patel, I Oliver
BACKGROUND: In recent years, infections with carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) have been increasing globally and present a major public health challenge. AIM: To review the international literature: (i) to describe CPE outbreaks in acute hospital settings globally; and (ii) to identify the control measures used during these outbreaks and report on their effectiveness. METHODS: A systematic search of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases, abstract lists for key conferences and reference lists of key reviews was undertaken, and information on unpublished outbreaks was sought for 2000-2015...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873028/mcr-modern-colistin-resistance
#5
REVIEW
I Caniaux, A van Belkum, G Zambardi, L Poirel, M F Gros
Recently, plasmid-mediated and, therefore, transferable bacterial polymyxin resistance was discovered in strains from both humans and animals. Such a trait may widely spread geographically, while simultaneously crossing microbial species barriers. This may ultimately render the "last resort" polymyxin antibiotics therapeutically useless. Colistin is currently used to treat infections caused by Gram-negative carbapenemase producers and colistin resistance may lead to practical pan-antibiotic resistance. We here analyzed the medical and diagnostic consequences of (emerging) colistin resistance and propose pathways toward adequate diagnostics for timely detection of both asymptomatic carriage and infection...
November 21, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812159/enterobacteriaceae-isolated-from-the-river-danube-antibiotic-resistances-with-a-focus-on-the-presence-of-esbl-and-carbapenemases
#6
Clemens Kittinger, Michaela Lipp, Bettina Folli, Alexander Kirschner, Rita Baumert, Herbert Galler, Andrea J Grisold, Josefa Luxner, Melanie Weissenbacher, Andreas H Farnleitner, Gernot Zarfel
In a clinical setting it seems to be normal these days that a relevant proportion or even the majority of different bacterial species has already one or more acquired antibiotic resistances. Unfortunately, the overuse of antibiotics for livestock breeding and medicine has also altered the wild-type resistance profiles of many bacterial species in different environmental settings. As a matter of fact, getting in contact with resistant bacteria is no longer restricted to hospitals. Beside food and food production, the aquatic environment might also play an important role as reservoir and carrier...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795386/evaluation-of-the-carba-np-test-in-oregon-2013
#7
Karim E Morey, Robert Vega, P Maureen Cassidy, Genevieve L Buser, Jaipreet K Rayar, Jeffrey A Myers, Scott J Weissman, Zintars G Beldavs, Christopher D Pfeiffer
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are an urgent public health threat. We evaluated the capacity of the Carba NP test to detect carbapenemase production in 206 isolates: 143 Enterobacteriaceae identified by Oregon's CRE surveillance in 2013 and 63 known carbapenemase-positive organisms. Overall, test sensitivity and specificity were 89% (59/66; 95% CI 81-97%) and 100% (140/140; 95% CI 98-100%), respectively. All KPC, NDM-1, VIM, and IMP-producers but no (0/7) OXA-48-like strains were Carba NP-positive prior to a post-hoc protocol modification...
October 17, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790429/act-fast-as-time-is-less-high-faecal-carriage-of-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-in-critical-care-patients
#8
Sanjith Saseedharan, Manisa Sahu, Edwin Joseph Pathrose, Sarita Shivdas
INTRODUCTION: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are drug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria that are present in the community as well as in hospitals. Their infection and colonisation puts critically ill patients at high risk due to the drug-resistant nature of the strains and possible spreading of these organisms, even in a hospital environment. AIM: To examine the presence and types of Enterobacteriaceae species in patients admitted directly from the community...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788691/outbreak-of-kpc-3-producing-st15-and-st348-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-a-portuguese-hospital
#9
D Vubil, R Figueiredo, T Reis, C Canha, L Boaventura, G J DA Silva
To date, only a few sporadic cases of infections due to Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) producers have been reported in Portugal. Here, we report for the first time an outbreak of K. pneumoniae KPC-3 producers in a tertiary-care hospital during 2013. Twenty-seven ertapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae were identified in patients at a tertiary-care hospital during 2013 isolated predominantly from urine (48·1%) and blood (25·9%) cultures. All isolates were highly resistant to β-lactam antibiotics and most showed intermediate resistance to imipenem...
October 28, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780222/population-screening-using-sewage-reveals-pan-resistant-bacteria-in-hospital-and-community-samples
#10
Lital Meir-Gruber, Yossi Manor, Shiraz Gefen-Halevi, Musa Y Hindiyeh, Fernando Mileguir, Roberto Azar, Gill Smollan, Natasha Belausov, Galia Rahav, Ari Shamiss, Ella Mendelson, Nathan Keller
The presence of pan-resistant bacteria worldwide possesses a threat to global health. It is difficult to evaluate the extent of carriage of resistant bacteria in the population. Sewage sampling is a possible way to monitor populations. We evaluated the presence of pan-resistant bacteria in Israeli sewage collected from all over Israel, by modifying the pour plate method for heterotrophic plate count technique using commercial selective agar plates. This method enables convenient and fast sewage sampling and detection...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769646/non-molecular-detection-of-carbapenemases-in-enterobacteriaceae-clinical-isolates
#11
A Aguirre-Quiñonero, L Martínez-Martínez
Infections caused by carbapenemase-producing bacteria are becoming a major clinical and public health concern. Detection of carbapenemase producing strains is often challenging, since susceptibility to carbapenems may vary significantly among carbapenemase producers. Some carbapenemases have shown to exhibit weak activity against carbapenems leading to minimum inhibitory concentrations of carbapenems below the breakpoint for defining clinical resistance and even below the proposed screening breakpoint. Thus, reliable and rapid detection of carbapenemase-activity is needed for an appropriate patient management and a rapid implementation of infection prevention and control measures...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766146/review-on-colonization-of-residents-and-staff-in-italian-long-term-care-facilities-by-multidrug-resistant-bacteria-compared-with-other-european-countries
#12
Richard Aschbacher, Elisabetta Pagani, Massimo Confalonieri, Claudio Farina, Paolo Fazii, Francesco Luzzaro, Pier Giorgio Montanera, Aurora Piazza, Laura Pagani
BACKGROUND: Rates of colonization and infection with multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria are increasing worldwide, in both acute care hospitals and long-term care facilities (LTCFs). Italy has one of the highest prevalence of MDR bacteria in European countries, especially with regard to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) or carbapenemase producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE). METHOD: Review of studies on colonization by MDR bacteria from Italian LTCFs, risk factors for colonization and molecular characteristics of surveillance and clinical isolates, compared with other European countries...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746394/counting-the-cost-of-an-outbreak-of-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-an-economic-evaluation-from-a-hospital-perspective
#13
Jonathan A Otter, Philip Burgess, Frances Davies, Siddharth Mookerjee, Julie Singleton, Mark Gilchrist, Darren Parsons, Eimear T Brannigan, Julie Robotham, Alison H Holmes
OBJECTIVE: To perform an economic evaluation on the cost associated with an outbreak of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE). METHODS: We performed an observational economic evaluation of an outbreak of CPE (NDM-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae) affecting 40 patients in a group of five hospitals across three sites in West London. Costs were split into actual expenditure (including anti-infective costs, enhanced CPE screening, contact precautions, temporary ward-based monitors of hand and environmental practice, and environmental decontamination), and 'opportunity cost' (staff time, bed closures, and elective surgical missed revenue)...
October 13, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716102/antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-in-predicting-the-presence-of-carbapenemase-genes-in-enterobacteriaceae-in-south-africa
#14
Ashika Singh-Moodley, Olga Perovic
BACKGROUND: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) is a concern in South Africa and worldwide. It is therefore important that these organisms be accurately identified for infection prevention control purposes. METHOD: In this study 1193 suspected CREs from 46 laboratories from seven provinces in South Africa were assessed to confirm the prevalence of carbapenemase genes from our referral diagnostic isolates for the period 2012 to 2015. We compared the antimicrobial susceptibility testing method used in the reference laboratory to the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) which is used as the gold standard...
October 4, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703329/bulgecin-a-as-a-%C3%AE-lactam-enhancer-for-carbapenem-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-carbapenem-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-clinical-isolates-containing-various-resistance-mechanisms
#15
Marion J Skalweit, Mei Li
Genetic screening of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PSDA) and Acinetobacter baumannii (ACB) reveals genes that confer increased susceptibility to β-lactams when disrupted, suggesting novel drug targets. One such target is lytic transglycosylase. Bulgecin A (BlgA) is a natural product of Pseudomonas mesoacidophila and a lytic transglycosolase inhibitor that works synergistically with β-lactams targeting PBP3 for Enterobacteriaceae. BlgA also weakly inhibits di-Zn(2+) metallo-β-lactamases like L1 of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689892/high-throughput-analysis-of-integron-gene-cassettes-in-wastewater-environments
#16
Joao Gatica, Vijay Tripathi, Stefan J Green, Célia M Manaia, Thomas Berendonk, Damiano Cacace, Christophe Merlin, Norbert Kreuzinger, Thomas Schwartz, Despo Fatta-Kassinos, Luigi Rizzo, Carsten U Schwermer, Hemda Garelick, Edouard Jurkevitch, Eddie Cytryn
Integrons are extensively targeted as a proxy for anthropogenic impact in the environment. We developed a novel high-throughput amplicon sequencing pipeline that enables characterization of thousands of integron gene cassette-associated reads, and applied it to acquire a comprehensive overview of gene cassette composition in effluents from wastewater treatment facilities across Europe. Between 38,100 and 172,995 reads per-sample were generated and functionally characterized by screening against nr, SEED, ARDB and β-lactamase databases...
September 30, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687074/carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-the-uk-a-national-study-euscape-uk-on-prevalence-incidence-laboratory-detection-methods-and-infection-control-measures
#17
Pascale Trepanier, Kim Mallard, Danièle Meunier, Rachel Pike, Derek Brown, Janet P Ashby, Hugo Donaldson, F Mustafa Awad-El-Kariem, Indran Balakrishnan, Marc Cubbon, Paul R Chadwick, Michael Doughton, Rachael Doughton, Fiona Hardiman, Graham Harvey, Carolyne Horner, John Lee, Jonathan Lewis, Anne Loughrey, Rohini Manuel, Helena Parsons, John D Perry, Gemma Vanstone, Graham White, Nandini Shetty, John Coia, Camilla Wiuff, Katie L Hopkins, Neil Woodford
OBJECTIVES: To estimate UK prevalence and incidence of clinically significant carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE), and to determine epidemiological characteristics, laboratory methods and infection prevention and control (IPC) measures in acute care facilities. METHODS: A 6 month survey was undertaken in November 2013-April 2014 in 21 sentinel UK laboratories as part of the European Survey on Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae (EuSCAPE) project...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685673/emerging-new-delhi-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamase-1-type-producing-gram-negative-bacteria-isolated-from-cairo-university-pediatric-hospital-cairo-egypt
#18
Mona Wassef, Mona Abdelhaleim, Doaa Ghaith, Yasmin El-Mahdy
New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) compromises the efficacy of almost all β-lactam antibiotics, including carbapenems. This study aimed to screen for the blaNDM-1-type gene and NDM-1-type carbapenemase production among Gram-negative bacteria in Cairo University Pediatric Hospital (Cairo, Egypt). Among 382 Gram-negative clinical isolates collected over the period October 2013 to May 2014, 100 clinical isolates showing reduced carbapenem (imipenem and meropenem) susceptibility were included in this study. Initial phenotypic screening for NDM enzyme production was performed by Etest for metallo-β-lactamases (EMBL)...
December 2016: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665520/the-differential-importance-of-mutations-within-ampd-in-cephalosporin-resistance-of-enterobacter-aerogenes-and-enterobacter-cloacae
#19
Baharak Babouee Flury, Matthew J Ellington, Katie L Hopkins, Jane F Turton, Michel Doumith, Neil Woodford
Mechanisms leading to carbapenem and cephalosporin resistance were sought in Enterobacter aerogenes isolates that were highly resistant to carbapenems but had no known carbapenemase. Results were compared with recent work examining carbapenem-resistant Enterobacter cloacae. Eighteen carbapenem-resistant E. aerogenes were screened for known β-lactamase and carbapenemase genes, and novel carbapenemases were sought in whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data of the three most resistant isolates. For all isolates, ampC, ampR, ampD and the porin genes omp35 and omp36 were investigated by Sanger sequencing or from available WGS data...
September 12, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27645609/development-and-evaluation-of-a-multiplex-real-time-pcr-for-the-detection-of-imp-vim-and-oxa-23-carbapenemase-gene-families-on-the-bd-max-open-system
#20
Jeanette W P Teo, My-Van La, Raymond T P Lin
A multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for the detection of clinically prevalent IMP, VIM, and OXA-23 gene families. The assay was designed to work on the BD MAX open platform which is a fully automated system for all PCR processes including sample extraction to PCR resulting. A total of 107 well-characterized carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae were evaluated and the results were 100% concordant with the reference test isolates. This assay will serve to complement PCR screens that detect the major carbapenemase families of NDM, KPC, and OXA-48-like...
August 26, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
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