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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821180/infant-acceptance-of-primary-tastes-and-fat-emulsion-developmental-changes-and-links-with-maternal-and-infant-characteristics
#1
Camille Schwartz, Claire Chabanet, Emilie Szleper, Valérie Feyen, Sylvie Issanchou, Sophie Nicklaus
Previous studies on taste acceptance have been conducted taste-by-taste and with a cross-sectional design. The aim of this study was to longitudinally evaluate the acceptance of sweet, salty, bitter, sour and umami solutions, and a fat emulsion comparatively in a birth cohort from 3 to 20 months old. The acceptance of each taste relative to water was defined using proportional variables that are based on ingestion (IR) or liking evaluated by the experimenter (LR). These data were analyzed with mixed models that accounted for age and subject effects (minimum 152 observations/age/taste; maximum 216)...
September 1, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821178/oil-perception-detection-thresholds-for-varying-fatty-stimuli-and-inter-individual-differences
#2
Jaana M Heinze, Andrew Costanzo, Inga Baselier, Andreas Fritsche, Melanie Lidolt, Jörg Hinrichs, Sabine Frank-Podlech, Russell Keast
Multiple lines of research have demonstrated that humans can perceive fat in the form of free fatty acids (FFAs). However, the dietary concentration of FFAs is generally very low and fat is mainly consumed as triacylglycerol (TAG). The aim of this study was to examine the perception of different fatty stimuli and possible associations between them. Therefore, detection thresholds for 4 fatty stimuli (oleic acid [FFA], paraffin oil [mixture of hydrocarbon molecules], canola oil [TAG-rich], and canola oil spiked with oleic acid [rich in TAGs and FFAs]) were determined in 30 healthy participants...
September 1, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821163/metformin-maintains-mucosal-integrity-in-experimental-model-of-colitis-by-inhibiting-oxidative-stress-and-pro-inflammatory-signaling
#3
Abhimanu Pandey, Sneh Verma, Vijay L Kumar
Metformin, an antidiabetic drug, is well known for its multifarious properties and its ability to modulate inflammatory cascade. Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory condition of the colon where drugs exhibiting anti-inflammatory property have been shown to induce and maintain remission. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of metformin against acetic-acid induced colitis in rat. The study included five groups of rats namely normal control, experimental control, drug treated groups (50 and 500mg/kg of metformin, MET50, MET500 and 300mg/kg of mesalazine, MSZ300)...
August 14, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821150/functionalized-alginate-with-liquid-like-behaviors-and-its-application-in-wet-spinning
#4
Zhen Sang, Wenqian Zhang, Zhiyuan Zhou, Huakang Fu, Yeqiang Tan, Kunyan Sui, Yanzhi Xia
Alginate is a kind of marine-derived plant polysaccharide with useful properties including inherent flame-retardancy and biocompatibility, yet poor flowability and low processing efficiency induced by high viscosity impede its further industrial applications. In this study, PEG-substituted tertiary amines were adapted to functionalize alginate with different molecular weight via acid-base reaction to improve the flowability. Based on alginate with low molecular weight, alginate fluids exhibited excellent flowability at room temperature in the absence of solvent...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821131/carboxymethyl-cellulose-production-from-sugarcane-bagasse-with-steam-explosion-pulping-experimental-modeling-and-optimization
#5
Loghman Golbaghi, Mehrdad Khamforoush, Tahmasb Hatami
The sugarcane bagasse was used for producing carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and obtaining high-molecular-mass hemicellulose as co-product. To this end, the steam explosion process was employed. It was found that the optimum operating conditions are the temperature of 187.15°C, NaOH/bagasse ratio of 39% (w/w), and retention time (RT) of 10min. Next, the obtained cellulose in the optimized condition was extracted and purified, and it was subsequently converted to CMC according to Williamson etherification technique...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821127/a-comparative-study-on-cellulose-nanocrystals-extracted-from-bleached-cotton-and-flax-and-used-for-casting-films-with-glycerol-and-sorbitol-plasticisers
#6
Emilia Csiszár, Sebestyén Nagy
Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) were released from bleached cotton and flax by a sulphuric acid hydrolysis with about 40 and 34% yield, respectively. The rod-like cotton-CNC particles were slightly longer and wider and had a less pronounced aggregation ability in aqueous suspension than the flax-CNC ones. Films were cast from the CNC suspensions with sorbitol and glycerol plasticisers. The concept behind this research was to explore how the plasticisers - with similar structure but different molecular weight - and their concentrations affect the perceptible and measured properties of CNC films...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821118/sulfated-polysaccharide-from-cyclocarya-paliurus-enhances-the-immunomodulatory-activity-of-macrophages
#7
Yue Yu, Mingyue Shen, Zhijun Wang, Yuanxing Wang, Mingyong Xie, Jianhua Xie
In this study, a sulfated polysaccharide (S-CP1-8) was obtained from Cyclocarya paliurus by chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine method. S-CP1-8 was chemical characterized and cultured with macrophage RAW264.7 cells to evaluate its immunomodulatory activity. Preliminary physicochemical analysis identified arabinose (Ara), galactose (Gal) and glucose (Glc) were the major monosaccharides of S-CP1-8, with average Molecular weight (Mw) of 970kDa and contained sulfate with degree of substitution (DS) of 0.12. Meanwhile, our findings demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 secretion levels were significantly increased by S-CP1-8 treatment in RAW264...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821117/chitosan-based-thin-active-layer-membrane-for-forward-osmosis-desalination
#8
Alireza Shakeri, Hasan Salehi, Masoud Rastgar
A novel hydrophilic chitosan-based thin active layer membrane was elaborately fabricated through a facile method and its performance was studied in forward osmosis (FO) desalination process. Chitosan (CS) was interfacially polymerized with trimesoyl chloride (TMC) monomer on the surface of sulfonated polyethersulfone-polyethersulfone (SPES-PES) support layer. Two different procedures were employed to incorporate CS into the membrane thin active layer structure. The solutions containing different CS concentrations (from 0...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821115/rheology-and-bioactivity-of-high-molecular-weight-dextrans-synthesised-by-lactic-acid-bacteria
#9
Kenza Zarour, Mª Goretti Llamas, Alicia Prieto, Patricia Rúas-Madiedo, María Teresa Dueñas, Pilar Fernández de Palencia, Rosa Aznar, Mebrouk Kihal, Paloma López
Dextrans synthesised by three Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains, isolated from mammalian milks, were studied and compared with dextrans produced by Lc. mesenteroides and Lactobacillus sakei strains isolated from meat products. Size exclusion chromatography coupled with multiangle laser light scattering detection analysis demonstrated that the dextrans have molecular masses between 1.74×10(8)Da and 4.41×10(8)Da. Rheological analysis of aqueous solutions of the polymer revealed that all had a pseudoplastic behaviour under shear conditions and a random, and flexible, coil structure...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821103/effect-of-dual-modification-by-annealing-and-ultrahigh-pressure-on-properties-of-starches-with-different-polymorphs
#10
Shujun Wang, Peng Guo, Fengjuan Xiang, Jinrong Wang, Jinglin Yu, Shuo Wang
The effects of dual modification by annealing (ANN) and ultrahigh pressure (UHP) on properties of wheat, yam, and potato starches were investigated. Compared with the single UHP treatment (400MPa), ANN-UHP (400MPa) treatment did not alter significantly the ordered structures of wheat starch, indicating that ANN treatment enhanced the stability and resistance of starch granules to the subsequent UHP treatment. In contrast, UHP (400MPa)-ANN treatment resulted in more severe disruption of ordered structures of wheat starch than did the single UHP treatment, showing that UHP-treated starch was more vulnerable to the subsequent ANN treatment...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821097/thiolated-pectin-doxorubicin-conjugates-synthesis-characterization-and-anticancer-activity-studies
#11
Kamonrak Cheewatanakornkool, Sathit Niratisai, Somkamol Manchun, Crispin R Dass, Pornsak Sriamornsak
In this paper, pectin was cross-linked by a coupling reaction with either thioglycolic acid or cystamine dihydrochloride to form thiolated pectins. The thiolated pectins were then coupled with doxorubicin (DOX) derivative to obtain thiolated pectin-DOX conjugates by two different methods, disulfide bond formation and disulfide bond exchange. The disulfide bond exchange method provided a simple, fast, and efficient approach for synthesis of thiolated pectin-DOX conjugates, compared to the disulfide bond formation...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821082/recycling-of-pre-hydrolysis-liquor-to-improve-the-concentrations-of-hemicellulosic-saccharides-during-water-pre-hydrolysis-of-aspen-woodchips
#12
Zongquan Li, Jungang Jiang, Yingjuan Fu, Zhaojiang Wang, Menghua Qin
In this study, the pre-hydrolysis liquor (PHL) was recycled during aspen chip water pre-hydrolysis, and the effects of PHL recycling on the extraction and accumulation of the hemicellulosic saccharides especially that with high molecular weight in the PHL were studied. The results showed that the concentration of hemicellulose saccharides in PHL depended on the pre-hydrolysis temperature and PHL recycling times. Compared to the unrecycled PHL, the concentration of hemicellulosic saccharides in PHL increased significantly when recycling PHL once or twice at 170°C...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821081/direct-characterization-of-cotton-fabrics-treated-with-di-epoxide-by-nuclear-magnetic-resonance
#13
Min Xiao, Joronia Chéry, Ivan Keresztes, David B Zax, Margaret W Frey
A non-acid-based, di-functional epoxide, neopentyl glycol diglycidyl ether (NPGDGE), was used to modify cotton fabrics. Direct characterization of the modified cotton was conducted by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) without grinding the fabric into a fine powder. NaOH and MgBr2 were compared in catalyzing the reaction between the epoxide groups of NPGDGE and the hydroxyl groups of cellulose. Possible reaction routes were discussed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that while the MgBr2-catalyzed reaction resulted in self-polymerization of NPGDGE, the NaOH-catalyzed reaction did not...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821076/confirmation-and-measurement-of-hydrophobic-interaction-in-sol-gel-system-of-konjac-glucomannan-with-different-degree-of-deacetylation
#14
Chen Xin, Jian Chen, Hongshan Liang, Jiawei Wan, Jing Li, Bin Li
Fluorescence measurement was used as a tool to study the hydrophobic interaction in sol-gel system of konjac glucomannan (KGM) with different degree of deacetylation (DD). In the concentration from 0 to 10g/L, I1/I3 ratio of native KGM declined from 1.75 to 1.25. Before and after heating, the critical associating concentration of the native KGM was 0.60g/L and 0.95g/L respectively, but this value of deacetylated KGM (DD=32.58%) was 0.58g/L and 0.45g/L respectively. The addition of Na2SO4 and NaSCN exhibited more significant influence on deacetylated KGM compared with native KGM...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821069/preparation-and-pharmacological-evaluation-of-norcantharidin-conjugated-carboxymethyl-chitosan-in-mice-bearing-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#15
Zhiwen Jiang, Jinhua Chi, Baoqin Han, Wanshun Liu
In this study, norcantharidin (NCTD), a small-molecule anticancer drug derived from Chinese traditional medicine blister beetle (Mylabris), was conjugated covalently onto carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS). Then the hepatocellular carcinoma therapeutic properties and liver-protective effects were investigated through orthotopic transplantation tumor model. Results showed that the obtained CMCS-NCTD demonstrated remarkable anti-growth efficacy against hepatocellular 22 in mice. Significant improvement of the liver injury caused by cancer cells was observed in tumor-bearing mice administrated with CMCS-NCTD...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821057/a-cell-penetrating-peptide-mediated-chitosan-nanocarriers-for-improving-intestinal-insulin-delivery
#16
Lei Li, Liaoqing Yang, Manman Li, Liefeng Zhang
To overcome barriers for oral delivery of insulin, the chitosan(CS)-based nanocarriers with a novel cell penetrating peptide (SAR6EW) have been prepared and evaluated in this study. Characterization measurements showed that SAR6EW/CS/insulin-NPs displayed global particles with smooth surfaces and an average diameter about 150nm. The entrapment efficiency and loading rates of insulin were 75.36% and 7.58%, respectively. Insulin could be released constantly from SAR6EW/CS/insulin-NPs in vitro. Furthermore, SAR6EW/CS/insulin-NPs could facilitate the uptake of insulin and induce a significantly higher internalization of insulin via adding clathrin and caveolae mediated endocytosis...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821041/regulation-of-structure-rheological-and-surface-properties-of-chitin-nanocrystal-dispersions
#17
M A Torlopov, I S Martakov, V I Mikhaylov, N V Tsvetkov, P V Krivoshapkin
The hydrosols of chitin nanocrystals (ChN) are promising as modifiers of properties, drug delivery systems, and media. The purpose of this work is to clarify the mechanisms for regulating processes of stability and structure formation occurring in the ChN hydrosols under the influence of varying ionic strength. ChN were isolated from the crab shell; ChN hydrosols are obtained with different concentrations of the dispersed phase. The structure and morphology of the particles was studied by atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821024/optimization-of-dextran-production-by-weissella-cibaria-nitcsk4-using-response-surface-methodology-genetic-algorithm-based-technology
#18
J Kanimozhi, I Ganesh Moorthy, R Sivashankar, V Sivasubramanian
The most influencing factor on dextran production by Weissella cibaria NITCSK4 were screened using Plackett Burman design at 95% confidence limit with higher value of co-efficient of determination (R(2)) 99.58%. The combined effects of significant factors, namely, sucrose, temperature, dipotassium hydrogen phosphate (K2HPO4) and yeast extract were studied and optimized using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The input parameters of non-linear models predicted by RSM were subsequently optimized using the genetic algorithm (GA) for obtaining a maximum dextran yield...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821018/a-cross-language-study-of-acoustic-predictors-of-speech-intelligibility-in-individuals-with-parkinson-s-disease
#19
Yunjung Kim, Yaelin Choi
Purpose: The present study aimed to compare acoustic models of speech intelligibility in individuals with the same disease (Parkinson's disease [PD]) and presumably similar underlying neuropathologies but with different native languages (American English [AE] and Korean). Method: A total of 48 speakers from the 4 speaker groups (AE speakers with PD, Korean speakers with PD, healthy English speakers, and healthy Korean speakers) were asked to read a paragraph in their native languages...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821017/the-location-of-australian-buruli-ulcer-lesions-implications-for-unravelling-disease-transmission
#20
Arvind Yerramilli, Ee Laine Tay, Andrew J Stewardson, Peter G Kelley, Emma Bishop, Grant A Jenkin, Mike Starr, Janine Trevillyan, Andrew Hughes, N Deborah Friedman, Daniel P O'Brien, Paul D R Johnson
BACKGROUND: Buruli ulcer (BU), caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, is increasing in incidence in Victoria, Australia. To improve understanding of disease transmission, we aimed to map the location of BU lesions on the human body. METHODS: Using notification data and clinical records review, we conducted a retrospective observational study of patients diagnosed with BU in Victoria from 1998-2015. We created electronic density maps of lesion locations using spatial analysis software and compared lesion distribution by age, gender, presence of multiple lesions and month of infection...
August 18, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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