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Martha Hensel, Miranda Bertram, Raquel Rech, Gabriel L Hamer, Sarah A Hamer
Sandhill Cranes (Antigone canadensis) of the midcontinent population (MCP) and Rocky Mountain population (RMP) are migratory game birds with stable populations that travel between Canada and the southern USA and Mexico. In the winters of 2012-14, we performed gross and histologic examinations of 43 hunter-harvested Sandhill Cranes in Texas (MCP) and New Mexico (RMP) to assess the impact of disease on populations. Lesions were significantly more common in the MCP relative to the RMP, likely reflecting differential environmental exposure to pathogens and parasites...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Ute Risse-Buhl, Christine Anlanger, Katalin Kalla, Thomas R Neu, Christian Noss, Andreas Lorke, Markus Weitere
Previous laboratory and on-site experiments have highlighted the importance of hydrodynamics in shaping biofilm composition and architecture. In how far responses to hydrodynamics can be found in natural flows under the complex interplay of environmental factors is still unknown. In this study we investigated the effect of near streambed turbulence in terms of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) on the composition and architecture of biofilms matured in two mountainous streams differing in dissolved nutrient concentrations...
September 28, 2017: Water Research
Melia T DeVivo, David R Edmunds, Matthew J Kauffman, Brant A Schumaker, Justin Binfet, Terry J Kreeger, Bryan J Richards, Hermann M Schätzl, Todd E Cornish
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal transmissible spongiform encephalopathy affecting white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), and moose (Alces alces shirasi) in North America. In southeastern Wyoming average annual CWD prevalence in mule deer exceeds 20% and appears to contribute to regional population declines. We determined the effect of CWD on mule deer demography using age-specific, female-only, CWD transition matrix models to estimate the population growth rate (λ)...
2017: PloS One
Joseph A Shaw
On the morning of 5 November 2013, a bright subsun was consistently visible during a flight from Bozeman, Montana, to Salt Lake City, Utah. Just after passing over the Wasatch Mountains and beginning to descend into the Salt Lake Valley, the subsun expanded to a rare display of Bottlinger's rings-an elliptical halo surrounding the subsun. The rings remained visible for 1 to 2 min. This paper shows photographs of the sequence, along with meteorological data from a nearby radiosonde. The display occurred in virga below clouds at an air temperature in the approximate range from -8°C to -12°C, in air saturated with respect to ice, at an altitude of approximately 2600-3600 m above mean sea level...
July 1, 2017: Applied Optics
John A Adam
Using purely geometric considerations, a sequence of mountain shadow models is considered. The observer is located at the summit of idealized mountains with several different cross-sectional profiles. The result for a triangular profile is generalized to the case of an off-summit observer. We also examine the case of a conical mountain. In addition, a simple geometric model is formulated for mountain "spikes" in terms of the differences in shadow length and contrast for an off-summit observer within the shadow...
July 1, 2017: Applied Optics
Kirsten Cowley, Arun Looman, Damien T Maher, Kirstie Fryirs
Temperate Highland Peat Swamps on Sandstone (THPSS) are a type of upland wetland, similar to fens in the Northern Hemisphere and are found at the headwaters of low-order streams on the plateaus of Eastern Australia. They are classified as endangered ecological communities under State and National legislation. Previous works have identified particular geomorphic characteristics that are important to carbon storage in these low energy sediment accumulation zones. Changes in the geomorphic structure of THPSS, such as channelisation, may have profound implications for carbon storage...
October 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Hiroaki Abe, Changyuan Tang, Nozomu Takeuchi, Akihiko Kondoh
Intensive groundwater development in the urban area of the Nagaoka Plain, Japan, has induced changes in the pH and saturation index of calcite in groundwater. To account for these chemical changes, it is important to determine seasonal variations of recharge and the groundwater flow system in the aquifer. This study identified the sources and flow system of groundwater in this urban area by a comprehensive method using stable isotope data and a numerical groundwater model of the Nagaoka Plain. Stable isotope evidence shows that the groundwater is recharged by meteoric water originating from low-elevation areas rather than the mountains surrounding the plain...
October 17, 2017: Ground Water
Matthias Jochner, Harald Bugmann, Magdalena Nötzli, Christof Bigler
Upper treeline ecotones are important life form boundaries and particularly sensitive to a warming climate. Changes in growth conditions at these ecotones have wide-ranging implications for the provision of ecosystem services in densely populated mountain regions like the European Alps. We quantify climate effects on short- and long-term tree growth responses, focusing on among-tree variability and potential feedback effects. Although among-tree variability is thought to be substantial, it has not been considered systematically yet in studies on growth-climate relationships...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Verónica Sandoya, Aníbal Pauchard, Lohengrin A Cavieres
The aim was to assess patterns of plant diversity in response to elevation and disturbance in a tropical mountain. The study area was located in north-central portion of the Eastern Cordillera of the Ecuadorian Andes, on a road from 1,150 m a.s.l. (Osayacu) to 4,000 (Papallacta). Along a mountain road spanning a wide altitudinal gradient, at 20 elevations we sampled three plots: one at the roadside and two perpendicular to the roadside. The relationship between elevation and species richness was assessed using linear and quadratic regressions, the effect of disturbance on species richness was determined by ANCOVA and a t test with parameters obtained from quadratic equations...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Andrew Wiegardt, Jared Wolfe, C John Ralph, Jaime L Stephens, John Alexander
Migratory species employ a variety of strategies to meet energetic demands of postbreeding molt. As such, at least a few species of western Neotropical migrants are known to undergo short-distance upslope movements to locations where adults molt body and flight feathers (altitudinal molt migration). Given inherent difficulties in measuring subtle movements of birds occurring in western mountains, we believe that altitudinal molt migration may be a common yet poorly documented phenomenon. To examine prevalence of altitudinal molt migration, we used 29 years of bird capture data in a series of linear mixed-effect models for nine commonly captured species that breed in northern California and southern Oregon...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Andrew Cumpstey, Philip J Hennis, Edward T Gilbert-Kawai, Bernadette O Fernandez, Matthieu Poudevigne, Alexandra Cobb, Paula Meale, Kay Mitchell, Helen Moyses, Helmut Pöhnl, Monty G Mythen, Michael P W Grocott, Martin Feelisch, Daniel S Martin
Nitric oxide (NO) production plays a central role in conferring tolerance to hypoxia. Tibetan highlanders, successful high-altitude dwellers for millennia, have higher circulating nitrate and exhaled NO (ENO) levels than native lowlanders. Since nitrate itself can reduce the oxygen cost of exercise in normoxia it may confer additional benefits at high altitude. Xtreme Alps was a double-blinded randomised placebo-controlled trial to investigate how dietary nitrate supplementation affects physiological responses to hypoxia in 28 healthy adult volunteers resident at 4559 m for 1 week; 14 receiving a beetroot-based high-nitrate supplement and 14 receiving a low-nitrate 'placebo' of matching appearance/taste...
October 14, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Azusa Ishizaki, Yukihisa Sanada, Mutsushi Ishida, Masahiro Munakata
After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS) accident in 2011, aerial radiation monitoring (ARM) using a manned helicopter was conducted to rapidly measure air dose rates and the deposition of radioactive nuclides over a large area. Typically, the air dose rate is obtained by conversion from the count rate using conventional flat source model (FSM). The converted dose rate obtained via aerial monitoring poorly matches the results of ground measurement in the mountain and forest areas because FSM does not consider topographical effects...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Masaya Yamamoto, Masato Ohtani, Kaoruko Kurata, Hiroaki Setoguchi
Background and Aims: Recent biogeographic studies have illustrated that Quaternary climatic changes and historical orogenies have driven the development of high levels of biodiversity. In this context, phylogenetic niche conservatism may play a role as a major precursor of allopatric speciation. However, the effects of niche evolution on the diversification patterns of plant species under rapid habitat changes are still unknown. Here, Primula section Reinii, one of the few primroses endemic to the Japanese Archipelago, was investigated...
October 13, 2017: Annals of Botany
О L Barbarash, М I Voevoda, G V Artamonova, Т А Mulerova, Е N Voropaeva, V N Maksimov, М Yu Ogarkov
AIM: To estimate the prevalence of the genotypes of the candidate genes ACE (I/D, rs4646994), ADRB1 (Ser49Gly, A/G, rs1801252) ADRA2B (I/D), MTHFR (C677T, Ala222Val, rs1801133), and eNOS (4b/4a) and their association with hypertension in two ethnic groups of Mountain Shoria. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A clinical and epidemiological study was conducted in a population compactly living in the hard-to-reach areas of Mountain Shoria (the settlements of Orton, Ust-Kabyrza, and Sheregesh of the Kemerovo Region)...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
Alessandro Grainer, Livio Zerbini, Carlo Reggiani, Giuseppe Marcolin, James Steele, Gaspare Pavei, Antonio Paoli
Background: Interest around Nordic Walking (NW) has increased in recent years. However, direct comparisons of NW with normal walking (W), particularly in ecologically valid environments is lacking. The aim of our study was to compare NW and W, over long distances in a natural mountain environment. Methods: Twenty one subjects (13 male/8 female, aged 41 ± 12 years, body mass index BMI 24.1 ± 3.7), walked three distinct uphill paths (length 2.2/3.4/7 km) with (NW) or without (W) walking poles over two separate days...
October 17, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
M Ruiz, M V Sarriés, M J Beriain, S Crecente, R Domínguez, J M Lorenzo
In order to improve foal carcass quality, it is necessary in particular to improve the carcass dressing percentage and tissue composition. Thus, it is important to establish relationships between grading systems and these parameters. This research was conducted to study the effect of slaughter age (13 v. 26 months) and finishing feed (standard v. linseed feed) on carcass characteristics such as subcutaneous fat colour plus classification of foals for the degree of fatness and conformation. For this study, 46 foals of crossbred genotype (Galician Mountain×Burguete) were used...
October 17, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Zhongzheng Chen, Kai He, Feng Cheng, Laxman Khanal, Xuelong Jiang
The species richness patterns of small mammals and the processes shaping them in two gradients of a mountain with different spatial and climatic characteristics were examined using standard sampling scheme. We trapped 2,006 small mammals representing 37 species, along elevational gradients on both western and eastern slopes of the Ailao Mountains, Southwest China. Using mid-domain effect model, model selection and model averaging, we examined the effects of slope, area, mean annual temperature (MAT), mean annual humidity (MAH), productivity, plant species richness (PSR) and the mid-domain effect (MDE) on the patterns of small mammal diversity...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yufang Wang, Haiyan Wang, Shuhua Chang, Maoxing Liu
Specification of PM 2.5 transmission characteristics is important for pollution control and policymaking. We apply higher-order organization of complex networks to identify major potential PM 2.5 contributors and PM 2.5 transport pathways of a network of 189 cities in China. The network we create in this paper consists of major cities in China and contains information on meteorological conditions of wind speed and wind direction, data on geographic distance, mountains, and PM 2.5 concentrations. We aim to reveal PM 2...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jay P Graham, Joseph N S Eisenberg, Gabriel Trueba, Lixin Zhang, Timothy J Johnson
Small-scale food animal production is widely practiced around the globe, yet it is often overlooked in terms of the environmental health risks. Evidence suggests that small-scale food animal producers often employ the use of antimicrobials to improve the survival and growth of their animals, and that this practice leads to the development of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) that can potentially spread to humans. The nature of human-animal interactions in small-scale food animal production systems, generally practiced in and around the home, likely augments spillover events of AMR into the community on a scale that is currently unrecognized and deserves greater attention...
October 16, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
Francisco J Molina, Gerardo C Leynaud
Ectotherm species are not capable of generating metabolic heat; therefore, they present different strategies for regulating their body temperatures, ranging from a precise degree of thermoregulation to a passive thermoconformity with ambient temperatures. In reptiles, aerial basking is the most common mechanism for gaining heat. However, among aquatic reptiles, such as freshwater turtles, aquatic basking is also frequent. Hydromedusa tectifera is a turtle of exclusively aquatic and nocturnal habits widely distributed in South America...
October 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
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