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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679777/integrating-microbial-biomass-composition-and-function-to-discern-the-level-of-anthropogenic-activity-in-a-river-ecosystem
#1
Kailingli Liao, Yaohui Bai, Yang Huo, Zhiyu Jian, Wanchao Hu, Chen Zhao, Jiuhui Qu
Anthropogenic activities (e.g., wastewater discharge and pesticide and fertilizer use) have considerable impact on the biotic properties of natural aquatic ecosystems, especially the microbial community and function. Microbes can respond to anthropogenic activities and are thus potential indicators of activity levels. Several reports have documented the impacts of anthropogenic activities on the variations in the microbial community, but the direct use of microbial community indices to discern anthropogenic activity levels remains limited...
April 18, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679724/harvest-and-trade-of-caterpillar-mushroom-ophiocordyceps-sinensis-and-the-implications-for-sustainable-use-in-the-tibet-region-of-southwest-china
#2
Jun He
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: caterpillar mushroom (Ophiocordyceps sinensis) is a unique medicinal fungi which is only found in alpine grasslands in Himalayan mountain regions and the Tibetan Plateau. Known locally as Yartsa Gunbu, it has been widely used in Tibetan and Chinese Medicine for centuries. It is crucial to understand local commercial harvest and trade practices of caterpillar mushroom to support the sustainable management of this valuable resource. However, data derived from empirically grounded research is currently limited, particularly in China...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679267/engelmann-spruce-chemotypes-in-colorado-and-their-effects-on-symbiotic-fungi-associated-with-the-north-american-spruce-beetle
#3
Thomas Seth Davis, Fiona B Horne, Jens C Yetter, Jane E Stewart
Conifer secondary metabolites play a key role in mechanisms of resistance to biotic disturbance, especially by bark beetles and beetle-associated microorganisms. Here, we describe variation in constitutive monoterpenes isolated from Engelmann spruce, Picea engelmannii, phloem across fourteen high-elevation populations in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, and test interactions between phloem monoterpenes and an endophloedic symbiotic fungus, Leptographium abietinum, associated with the North American spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675967/shrub-range-expansion-alters-diversity-and-distribution-of-soil-fungal-communities-across-an-alpine-elevation-gradient
#4
Courtney G Collins, Jason E Stajich, Sören E Weber, Nuttapon Pombubpa, Jeffrey M Diez
Global climate and land use change are altering plant and soil microbial communities worldwide, particularly in arctic and alpine biomes where warming is accelerated. The widespread expansion of woody shrubs into historically herbaceous alpine plant zones is likely to interact with climate to affect soil microbial community structure and function, however our understanding of alpine soil ecology remains limited. This study aimed to 1) determine whether the diversity and community composition of soil fungi vary across elevation gradients and to 2) assess the impact of woody shrub expansion on these patterns...
April 19, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674964/botanical-provenance-of-traditional-medicines-from-carpathian-mountains-at-the-ukrainian-polish-border
#5
REVIEW
Weronika Kozlowska, Charles Wagner, Erin M Moore, Adam Matkowski, Slavko Komarnytsky
Plants were an essential part of foraging for food and health, and for centuries remained the only medicines available to people from the remote mountain regions. Their correct botanical provenance is an essential basis for understanding the ethnic cultures, as well as for chemical identification of the novel bioactive molecules with therapeutic effects. This work describes the use of herbal medicines in the Beskid mountain ranges located south of Krakow and Lviv, two influential medieval centers of apothecary tradition in the region...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674904/two-new-species-of-ateuchus-with-remarks-on-ecology-distributions-and-evolutionary-relationships-coleoptera-scarabaeidae-scarabaeinae
#6
Victor Moctezuma, José Luis Sánchez-Huerta, Gonzalo Halffter
Two new species of the genus Ateuchus Weber are described from the region of Los Chimalapas, Oaxaca, Mexico: A. benitojuarezi sp. n. and A. colossus sp. n. A diagnosis for distinguishing these new species from the other species of this genus in North America is included. This paper is illustrated with pictures of the dorsal habitus and the male genitalia of the new species. The evolutionary relationships of the species are discussed, as well as their distribution and ecology. It is considered that the species of the genus Ateuchus present in North and Central America correspond to the Typical Neotropical and Mountain Mesoamerican distribution patterns...
2018: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674896/deep-intraspecific-dna-barcode-splits-and-hybridisation-in-the-udea-alpinalis-group-insecta-lepidoptera-crambidae-an-integrative-revision
#7
Richard Mally, Peter Huemer, Matthias Nuss
The analysis of mitochondrial COI data for the European-Centroasian montane Udea alpinalis species group finds deep intraspecific splits. Specimens of U. austriacalis and U. rhododendronalis separate into several biogeographical groups. These allopatric groups are not recovered in the analyses of the two nuclear markers wingless and Elongation factor 1-alpha, except for U. austriacalis from the Pyrenees and the French Massif Central. The latter populations are also morphologically distinct and conspecific with Scopula donzelalis Guenée, 1854, which is removed from synonymy and reinstated as Udea donzelalis (Guenée, 1854) stat...
2018: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674891/species-rediscovery-or-lucky-endemic-looking-for-the-supposed-missing-species-leistus-punctatissimus-through-a-biogeographer-s-eye-coleoptera-carabidae
#8
Pizzolotto Roberto, Brandmayr Pietro
Is it correct to look for a supposedly missing species by focusing research at the type locality? A species can be declared extinct because for an unusual amount of time it has not been seen again; however, in the frame of the climate change it is likely that a supposedly missing species is a lucky survivor not seen because it was not searched for in the correct environment. We used the strictly endemic Leistus punctatissimus Breit, 1914 (Coleoptera, Carabidae) as the case study for testing the latter hypothesis vs...
2018: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674883/genome-wide-snp-data-and-morphology-support-the-distinction-of-two-new-species-of-kovarikia-soleglad-fet-graham-2014-endemic-to-california-scorpiones-vaejovidae
#9
Robert W Bryson Jr, Dustin A Wood, Matthew R Graham, Michael E Soleglad, John E McCormack
Morphologically conserved taxa such as scorpions represent a challenge to delimit. We recently discovered populations of scorpions in the genus Kovarikia Soleglad, Fet & Graham, 2014 on two isolated mountain ranges in southern California. We generated genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism data and used Bayes factors species delimitation to compare alternative species delimitation scenarios which variously placed scorpions from the two localities with geographically adjacent species or into separate lineages...
2018: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674874/phylogenetics-of-ogyges-kaup-and-the-biogeography-of-nuclear-central-america-coleoptera-passalidae
#10
Enio B Cano, Jack C Schuster, Juan J Morrone
A phylogenetic morphological analysis of the genus Ogyges Kaup, distributed in Nuclear Central America, from Chiapas, Mexico, to northwestern Nicaragua was undertaken. Five species of Proculejus Kaup, distributed north of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in Mexico, were selected as outgroup. Ogyges was recovered as monophyletic with three species groups: championi , laevissimus , and crassulus . Each species group shows a distinct, generally allopatric distribution. The O. championi species group, with ten species, is distributed in the Maya block, more specifically in the mountainous system north of the Motozintla-Comaltitlán fault in Chiapas, and north of the dry valleys of the Cuilco and Motagua rivers in Guatemala...
2018: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670534/divergent-mitochondrial-antioxidant-activities-and-lung-alveolar-architecture-in-the-lungs-of-rats-and-mice-at-high-altitude
#11
Alexandra Jochmans-Lemoine, Susana Revollo, Gabriella Villalpando, Ibana Valverde, Marcelino Gonzales, Sofien Laouafa, Jorge Soliz, Vincent Joseph
Compared with mice, adult rats living at 3,600 m above sea level (SL-La Paz, Bolivia) have high hematocrit, signs of pulmonary hypertension, and low lung volume with reduced alveolar surface area. This phenotype is associated with chronic mountain sickness in humans living at high altitude (HA). We tested the hypothesis that this phenotype is associated with impaired gas exchange and oxidative stress in the lungs. We used rats and mice (3 months old) living at HA (La Paz) and SL (Quebec City, Canada) to measure arterial oxygen saturation under graded levels of hypoxia (by pulse oximetry), the alveolar surface area in lung slices and the activity of pro- (NADPH and xanthine oxidases-NOX and XO) and anti- (superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase-SOD and GPx) oxidant enzymes in cytosolic and mitochondrial lung protein extracts...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670437/dung-beetle-vicariant-speciation-in-the-mountains-of-oaxaca-mexico-with-a-description-of-a-new-species-of-phanaeus-coleoptera-geotrupidae-scarabaeidae
#12
Bert Kohlmann, Alfonsina Arriaga-Jiménez, Matthias Rös
An analysis of vicariant speciation of Geotrupes and Phanaeus (Coleoptera, Geotrupidae, Scarabaeidae) from the mountains of Oaxaca, Mexico is undertaken. The new species of dung beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) from Oaxaca, Mexico, Phanaeus dionysius sp. n. is described. Photos of the habitus and a distribution map are provided. Phanaeus malyi Arnaud is revalidated. An updated key for the Phanaeus endymion species group and new localities are also presented. An updated key for the Geotrupes of Oaxaca and new locality records are also submitted...
2018: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670422/description-of-a-new-species-of-coelosis-hope-from-guajira-peninsula-northern-colombia-coleoptera-scarabaeidae-dynastinae-oryctini
#13
Jhon César Neita-Moreno, Jesús Orozco, Claudia Alejandra Medina-Uribe
A new species of Coelosis is described from the Macuira Mountains, Guajira Peninsula, northern Colombia. A character comparison between this new and other previously known Colombian species in the genus is presented. A key for the identification and distributional map for Colombian species of Coelosis is provided, as well as a key for the genera included in the tribe Oryctini in Colombia.
2018: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668136/-a-fatal-case-series-of-rocky-mountain-spotted-fever-in-sonora-m%C3%A3-xico
#14
Jesús Delgado-De la Mora, Jesús David Licona-Enríquez, Marcia Leyva-Gastélum, David Delgado-De la Mora, Adela Rascón-Alcantar, Gerardo Álvarez-Hernández
INTRODUCTION: Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a highly lethal infectious disease, particularly if specific treatment with doxycycline is given belatedly. OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical profile of fatal Rocky Mountain spotted fever cases in hospitalized patients in the state of Sonora, México. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study on a series of 47 deaths caused by Rickettsia rickettsii from 2013 to 2016. The diagnosis of Rocky Mountain spotted fever was confirmed in a single blood sample by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or by a four-fold increase in immunoglobulin G measured in paired samples analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence...
March 15, 2018: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667874/evaluation-of-a-test-and-cull-strategy-for-reducing-prevalence-of-chronic-wasting-disease-in-mule-deer-odocoileus-hemionus
#15
Lisa L Wolfe, Mary Kay Watry, Michael A Sirochman, Tracey M Sirochman, Michael W Miller
  We evaluated a test and cull strategy for lowering chronic wasting disease (CWD) prevalence in a naturally-infected, free-ranging mule deer ( Odocoileus hemionus) herd wintering in the town of Estes Park, Colorado, USA and in nearby Rocky Mountain National Park. We tested 48-68% of the estimated number of adult (≥1 yr old) deer annually for 5 yr via tonsil biopsy immunohistochemistry (IHC), collecting 1,251 samples from >700 individuals and removing IHC-positive deer. Among males, CWD prevalence during the last 3 yr of selective culling was lower (one-sided Fisher's exact test P=0...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666770/applying-foliar-stoichiometric-traits-of-plants-to-determine-fertilization-for-a-mixed-pine-oak-stand-in-the-qinling-mountains-china
#16
Lin Hou, Zhenjie Dong, Yuanyuan Yang, Donghong Zhang, Shengli Zhang, Shuoxin Zhang
Background: The Chinese Natural Forest Protection program has been conducted nationwide and has achieved resounding success. However, timber importation has increased; therefore, producing more domestic timber is critical to meet the demand for raw materials. Fertilization is one of the most effective silviculture practices used to improve tree and stand growth. However, determining the appropriate type and amount of elements is necessary for effective fertilization of big timber in different forest types and environmental conditions...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664980/frequency-of-bevacizumab-and-ranibizumab-injections-for-diabetic-macular-edema-in-medicare-beneficiaries
#17
Connie M Wu, Annie M Wu, Paul B Greenberg, Fei Yu, Flora Lum, Anne L Coleman
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To describe the frequency and variation of intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin; Genentech, South San Francisco, CA) and ranibizumab (Lucentis; Genentech, South San Francisco, CA) use for diabetic macular edema (DME) in the United States. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The authors obtained a 5% sample of Medicare beneficiaries from the Medicare Part B claims files from 2010 to 2013 and identified beneficiaries with DME using the ICD-9-CM code (362...
April 1, 2018: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660880/exploring-land-use-land-cover-change-and-drivers-in-andean-mountains-in-colombia-a-case-in-rural-quind%C3%A3-o
#18
María Eunice Quintero-Gallego, Mauricio Quintero-Angel, José Joaquín Vila-Ortega
Given that Land Use and Cover Changes (LUCC) and deforestation are activities with the highest anthropic intervention on ecosystems and increase the loss of biodiversity, this paper explores the LUCC and the main drivers of change in Andean mountains, taking a rural area located between the municipalities of Montenegro and Quimbaya (Quindío, Colombia) (1954-2009), as a case of study. Aerial photographs and geographic information systems (GIS) are used to create maps of LUCC, as well as a systemized search of information on LUCC and main drivers...
April 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659915/temperature-alters-the-response-to-insecticides-in-drosophila-suzukii-diptera-drosophilidae
#19
Nadia Saeed, Lorenzo Tonina, Andrea Battisti, Nicola Mori
Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is an invasive pest in Europe and is a major threat to the soft fruit industry. Because of an ample temperature range, the pest spans from low to high elevation crops in mountain areas of the Southern Alps. Starting from field observations on the variable efficacy of insecticides under different temperatures, experiments were designed to test the efficacy of chemical families of insecticides available against this pest. Pyrethroids and spynosins proved to be the most effective under all temperature conditions (14, 22, and 30°C) in all assays...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659568/introduced-bullfrog-facilitates-pathogen-invasion-in-the-western-united-states
#20
Tiffany A Yap, Michelle S Koo, Richard F Ambrose, Vance T Vredenburg
Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), a causal agent of the amphibian fungal skin disease chytridiomycosis, has been implicated in the decline and extinction of over 200 species worldwide since the 1970s. Despite almost two decades of research, the history of Bd and its global spread is not well understood. However, the spread of the Global Panzootic Lineage of Bd (Bd-GPL), the lineage associated with amphibian die-offs, has been linked with the American bullfrog (Rana [Aqurana] catesbeiana) and global trade...
2018: PloS One
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