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Tsuyoshi Tajika, Atsushi Yamamoto, Noboru Oya, Takanori Kitagawa, Hiroki Kobayashi, Hitoshi Shitara, Haku Iizuka, Kenji Takagishi, Hirotaka Chikuda
Background: Elucidating the relation between bone health condition and muscle strength can provide useful knowledge for Japan's super-aged society. This study ascertained the Speed Of Sound (SOS) of the calcaneus and upper and lower limb muscle strength in a general population. Methods: Medical examinations were conducted of 277 adult residents (100 men, 177 women; average age 67.1 years) of a mountain village. Bilateral hand grip and hand key pinch strength were measured...
2018: Open Orthopaedics Journal
Naziha R Rhuma, Omar A Fituri, Laila T Sabei
Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is an inborn error of glyoxylate metabolism. It results from genetic mutation of the AGXT gene. The study objective was to verify the clinical and epidemiological patterns of PH1 in Libyan children at Tripoli Children Hospital confirmed by AGXT gene mutation. A descriptive case series study of 53 children with PH1 diagnosed between 1994 and 2015 was carried out in the Nephrology Unit at Tripoli Children Hospital. Diagnosis of PH1 was based on the clinical presentation (renal stones or nephrocalcinosis), positive family history of PH1, and high 24 h urinary oxalate...
January 2018: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
Changfeng Sun, Yu Liu, Huiming Song, Qiufang Cai, Qiang Li, Lu Wang, Ruochen Mei, Congxi Fang
Sunshine is as essential as temperature and precipitation for tree growth, but sunshine duration reconstructions based on tree rings have not yet been conducted in China. In this study, we presented a 497-year sunshine duration reconstruction for the southeastern Tibetan Plateau using a width chronology of Abies forrestii from the central Hengduan Mountains. The reconstruction accounted for 53.5% of the variance in the observed sunshine during the period of 1961-2013 based on a stable and reliable linear regression...
February 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Haijian Bing, Jun Zhou, Yanhong Wu, Xiaosan Luo, Zhongxiang Xiang, Hongyang Sun, Jipeng Wang, He Zhu
Anthropogenic metals adsorbed on suspended fine particles can be deposited on remote and inaccessible high mountains by long-range atmospheric transport. In this study, we investigated the cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in the soils, mosses and rainfall of three transects on the Gongga Mountain, eastern Tibetan Plateau, to understand the mountain interception effects on their atmospheric transport. The concentrations of Cd and Pb in the soils and mosses displayed a pattern of eastern transect>northern transect>western transect...
February 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Susan Praise, Hiroaki Ito, Ying An, Kazuya Watanabe, Toru Watanabe
Changes in dissolved organic matter (DOM) characteristics were investigated in two mountainous streams with closed-type sabo dams. Surface water was collected from four stations along the two mountainous streams and analyzed using ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry and excitation-emission fluorescence matrix (EEM) methods. Optical properties of DOM indicated an increase in molecular weight and aromaticity at stations near the sabo dams. Average spectral ratio values were low before and after the dam (i.e...
February 17, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Phil Wannamaker, Graham Hill, John Stodt, Virginie Maris, Yasuo Ogawa, Kate Selway, Goran Boren, Edward Bertrand, Daniel Uhlmann, Bridget Ayling, A Marie Green, Daniel Feucht
The original version of this Article incorrectly referenced the Figures in the Supplementary Information. References in the main Article to Supplementary Figure 7 through to Supplementary Figure 20 were previously incorrectly cited as Supplementary Figure 5 through to Supplementary Figure 18, respectively. This has now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.
February 16, 2018: Nature Communications
Ekaterina Pushkareva, Igor S Pessi, Zorigto Namsaraev, Marie-Jose Mano, Josef Elster, Annick Wilmotte
Molecular and morphological methods were applied to study cyanobacterial community composition in biological soil crusts (BSCs) from four areas (two nunataks and two ridges) in the Sør Rondane Mountains, Antarctica. The sampling sites serve as control areas for open top chambers (OTCs) that were put in place in 2010 at the time of sample collection and will be compared with BSC samples taken from the OTCs in the future. Cyanobacterial cell biovolume was estimated using epifluorescence microscopy, which revealed the dominance of filamentous cyanobacteria in all studied sites except the Utsteinen ridge, where unicellular cyanobacteria were the most abundant...
February 7, 2018: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
Yuri Gori, Ana Stradiotti, Federica Camin
BACKGROUND: Local timber is still one of the main sources of work and income for mountain communities. However, illegal logging is a major cause of deforestation in many countries and has significant impacts on local communities and biodiversity. Techniques for tracing timber would provide a useful tool to protect local timber industries and contribute to the fight against illegal logging. Although considerable progress has been made in food traceability, timber provenance is still a somewhat neglected research area...
2018: PloS One
Josette Garnier, Antsiva Ramarson, Vincent Thieu, Julien Némery, Sylvain Théry, Gilles Billen, Alexandra Coynel
The Lot river, a major tributary of the downstream Garonne river, the largest river on the Northern side of the Pyrenees Mountains, was intensively studied in the 1970s. A pioneering program called "Lot Rivière Claire" provided a diagnosis of water quality at the scale of the whole watershed and proposed an ambitious program to manage nutrient pollution and eutrophication largely caused by urban wastewater releases. Later on, the implementation of European directives from 1991 to 2000 resulted in the nearly complete treatment of point sources of pollution in spite of a doubling of the basin's population...
February 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Bach Xuan Tran, Huong Lan Thi Nguyen, Quynh Ngoc Hoang Le, Hue Thi Mai, Chau Ngo, Canh Dinh Hoang, Hai Hong Nguyen, Hai Quan Le, Hung Van Nguyen, Huong Thi Le, Tho Dinh Tran, Nabil Zary, Carl A Latkin, Thuc Minh Thi Vu, Roger C M Ho, Melvyn W B Zhang
Introduction: The expansion of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) program requires more data about the factors affecting the effectiveness of treatment, especially behavioral data such as smoking and alcohol use among patients. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of tobacco and alcohol consumption and identify related factors among MMT patients in the Vietnamese rural mountainside. Methods: We interviewed 241 MMT patients in two clinics in Tuyen Quang, a mountainous province in Vietnam...
June 2018: Addictive Behaviors Reports
Samantha Schneider, Cecilia Blair Levandowski, Cory Manly, Robert Dellavalle, Cory A Dunnick
Exploring the mountains is a highly rewarding past time; however, certain high-altitude exposures can lead to dermatologic manifestations. In this review article, the authors will describe cold, solar, and severe weather that one may experience when spending time outdoors. Factors such as increased ultraviolet radiation, temperature extremes, and low partial pressure of oxygen, along with human physiologic parameters also contribute to disease severity and presentation. This review article will address the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of high-altitude dermatology exposures...
November 15, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
Marc Blancher, François Albasini, Fidel Elsensohn, Ken Zafren, Natalie Hölzl, Kyle McLaughlin, Albert R Wheeler, Steven Roy, Hermann Brugger, Mike Greene, Peter Paal
Blancher, Marc, François Albasini, Fidel Elsensohn, Ken Zafren, Natalie Hölzl, Kyle McLaughlin, Albert R. Wheeler III, Steven Roy, Hermann Brugger, Mike Greene, and Peter Paal. Management of multi-casualty incidents in mountain rescue. High Alt Med Biol. 00:000-000, 2018. INTRODUCTION: Multi-Casualty Incidents (MCI) occur in mountain areas. Little is known about the incidence and character of such events, and the kind of rescue response. Therefore, the International Commission for Mountain Emergency Medicine (ICAR MEDCOM) set out to provide recommendations for the management of MCI in mountain areas...
February 15, 2018: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
Michael Scheurer, Moritz Bigalke
Microplastics (MPs) are small (<5 mm diameter) but have clear implications for the environment. These artificial particles are found in and pose threats to aquatic systems worldwide. MPs have terrestrial sources, but their concentrations and fates in the terrestrial environment are poorly understood. Whilst global plastic production continues to increase, so do the environmental concentrations and impacts of MPs. In this first study of MPs in floodplain soils, we developed a method for identifying, quantifying, and measuring the sizes of most commonly produced MPs in soil by FT-IR microscopy...
February 15, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Dongxue Han, Ning Wang, Xue Sun, Yanbo Hu, Fujuan Feng
The broad-leaved and Korean pine mixed forest in Changbai Mountain, China is an important component of boreal forest; the area is sensitive to global climate change. To understand spatial distribution patterns of soil bacterial community along elevation, we analyzed the soil bacterial community diversity and composition along an elevational gradient of 699-1177 m in a primitive Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountain using the high-throughput sequencing. In total, 149,519 optimized sequences were obtained. Bacterial Shannon index increased along elevation from 699 m to 937 m and started to decrease at the elevation of 1,044 m, showing a humpback curve along elevation...
February 15, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Nooreldin Fadol, Hajo Idriss, Isam Salih, Nserdin A Ragab, Safa Osman, Adam K Sam
This study was conducted to assess the level of radioactivity and the radiation hazards associated with granite rocks used for construction of buildings. The measurement of radioactivity content of the rock samples was performed with gamma-spectrometry equipped with Nal (TI) detector. From the results obtained in this study the average activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were 20.64, 30.50 and 295.19 Bq kg-1, respectively. The absorbed dose rate in air at 1 m above ground level, the annual effective dose and the gamma index were determined with the aim to assess the possible radiological impact on inhabitants of dwellings built using such rocks...
February 12, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Gui-Bing Hong, Chun-Jie Jiang
Litsea cubeba is an evergreen tree from the Lauraceae family, with the common name of mountain pepper in Taiwan. The extracts from different parts such as the bark, leaf, root and fruit have various medicinal properties and have been extensively used in traditional Chinese medicine. SnO2 nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized using an extract of Litsea cubeba fruit based on response surface methodology (RSM). The phytochemicals present in the extract of Litsea cubeba fruit played a crucial role in the NP formation, which could be confirmed by Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR)...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Iraj Hashemzadeh Segherloo, Eric Normandeau, Laura Benestan, Clément Rougeux, Guillaume Coté, Jean-Sébastien Moore, NabiAllah Ghaedrahmati, Asghar Abdoli, Louis Bernatchez
Two blind Iran cave barbs, Garra typhlops and Garra lorestanensis, exist in sympatry in a single subterranean habitat, raising the hypothesis that they may represent a case of sympatric speciation following a colonization event. Their different mental disc forms have prompted some authors to propose the alternative hypothesis of two separate colonization events. In this study, we analysed a genome-wide panel of 11,257 SNPs genotyped by means of genotyping-by-sequencing combined with mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase sub-unit I sequence data, field observations and morphological traits to test these two hypotheses...
February 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
(no author information available yet)
The mountain hare ( Lepus timidus ) is Britain's only native hare, but counting them is challenging. Here, Georgina Mills explains how new research is helping to finally discover the numbers of this elusive species.
February 10, 2018: Veterinary Record
Hang Yao, Helen Zhao, Juan Wang, Gabriel G Haddad
Chronic Mountain Sickness (CMS) occurs in high altitude residence with major neurological symptoms such as migraine headaches, dizziness and cognitive deficits. Recent work demonstrated that highlanders have increased intracellular pH (pH i ) in their brain cells, perhaps for the sake of adaptation to hypoxemia and help to facilitate glycolysis, DNA synthesis, and cell cycle progression. Since there are well adapted (non-CMS) and maladapted (CMS) high altitude dwellers, it is not clear whether pH i is differently regulated in these two high altitude populations...
February 10, 2018: Neuroscience
Jiaohui Fang, Huali Song, Yiran Zhang, Yanran Li, Jian Liu
Evaluation of ecosystem services has become a hotspot in terms of research focus, but uncertainties over appropriate methods remain. Evaluation can be based on the unit price of services (services value method) or the unit price of the area (area value method). The former takes meteorological factors into account, while the latter does not. This study uses Kunyu Mountain Nature Reserve as a study site at which to test the effects of climate on the ecosystem services. Measured data and remote sensing imagery processed in a geographic information system were combined to evaluate gas regulation and soil conservation, and the influence of meteorological factors on ecosystem services...
2018: PloS One
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