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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433728/vector-competence-of-amblyomma-americanum-acari-ixodidae-for-rickettsia-rickettsii
#1
Michael L Levin, Galina E Zemtsova, Lindsay F Killmaster, Alyssa Snellgrove, Lauren B M Schumacher
Rickettsia rickettsii - the etiologic agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) - is widely spread across the Americas. In the US, Dermacentor spp. ticks are identified as primary vectors of R. rickettsii and Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. has been implicated in transmission of this pathogen in several locations in the Southwest. Conversely, ticks of the genus Amblyomma are recognized vectors of RMSF in Central and South America, but not in the US. A. americanum is one of the most aggressive human-biting ticks in the US, whose geographical range overlaps with that of reported RMSF cases...
April 12, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433621/simultaneous-speciation-in-the-european-high-mountain-flowering-plant-genus-facchinia-minuartia-s-l-caryophyllaceae-revealed-by-genotyping-by-sequencing
#2
Markus S Dillenberger, Joachim W Kadereit
Understanding the relative importance of different mechanisms of speciation in a given lineage requires fully resolved interspecific relationships. Using Facchinia, a genus of seven species centred in the European Alps, we explore whether the polytomy found by Sanger sequencing analyses of standard nuclear (ITS) and plastid markers (trnQ-rps16) is a hard or soft polytomy by substantially increasing the amount of DNA sequence data, generated by genotyping-by-sequencing. In comparison to 142 phylogenetically informative sites in the Sanger sequences the GBS sequences yielded 3363 phylogenetically informative sites after exclusion of apparently oversaturated SNPs...
April 19, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433328/role-of-non-traditional-locations-for-seasonal-flu-vaccination-empirical-evidence-and-evaluation
#3
Namhoon Kim, Travis P Mountain
This study investigated the role of non-traditional locations in the decision to vaccinate for seasonal flu. We measured individuals' preferred location for seasonal flu vaccination by examining the National H1N1 Flu Survey (NHFS) conducted from late 2009 to early 2010. Our econometric model estimated the probabilities of possible choices by varying individual characteristics, and predicted the way in which the probabilities are expected to change given the specific covariates of interest. From this estimation, we observed that non-traditional locations significantly influenced the vaccination of certain individuals, such as those who are high-income, educated, White, employed, and living in a metropolitan statistical area (MSA), by increasing the coverage...
April 19, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433111/epidemiology-and-introduction-to-the-clinical-presentation-of-wilson-disease
#4
Christine Lo, Oliver Bandmann
Our understanding of the epidemiology of Wilson disease has steadily grown since Sternlieb and Scheinberg's first prevalence estimate of 5 per million individuals in 1968. Increasingly sophisticated genetic techniques have led to revised genetic prevalence estimates of 142 per million. Various population isolates exist where the prevalence of Wilson disease is higher still, the highest being 885 per million from within the mountainous region of Rucar in Romania. In Sardinia, where the prevalence of Wilson disease has been calculated at 370 per million births, six mutations account for around 85% of Wilson disease chromosomes identified...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431316/pbdes-polybrominated-diphenyl-ethers-pose-a-risk-to-captive-giant-pandas
#5
Yi-Ping Chen, Ying-Juan Zheng, Qiang Liu, Aaron M Ellison, Yan Zhao, Qing-Yi Ma
The Qinling subspecies of giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca qinlingensis), is highly endangered; fewer than 350 individuals still inhabit Qinling Mountains. Previous research revealed captive pandas were exposed to bromine, so we hypothesized that captive pandas were exposed to and affected by polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). To test this hypothesis, we tested blood and feces of captive and wild pandas, their drinking water, food (bamboo leaves) from SWARC (Shaanxi Wild Animal Research Center)and FNNR (Foping National Nature Reserve) and supplemental feedstuff given to captive panda at SWARC...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429645/homestead-food-production-and-maternal-and-child-dietary-diversity-in-nepal-variations-in-association-by-season-and-agroecological-zone
#6
Bishnu Dulal, Gary Mundy, Rojee Sawal, Pooja Pandey Rana, Kenda Cunningham
BACKGROUND: Suaahara, a large-scale integrated program, aimed to improve diets and nutritional status among women and children, in part by facilitating enhanced homestead food production (EHFP). OBJECTIVE: This study examines associations between EHFP and maternal and child dietary diversity and variations by season and agroecological zone (AEZ): mountains and terai. METHODS: We used data from household monitoring surveys (n = 2101 mothers; n = 994 children, 6-23 months), which included a 7-day dietary recall and maternal report on participation in 5 EHFP activities-received vegetable seeds, chicks, and technical support and participated in training and EHFP groups...
January 1, 2017: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428859/species-partitioning-in-a-temperate-mountain-chain-segregation-by-habitat-vs-interspecific-competition
#7
Giulia Bastianelli, Brendan A Wintle, Elizabeth H Martin, Javier Seoane, Paola Laiolo
Disentangling the relative influence of the environment and biotic interactions in determining species coexistence patterns is a major challenge in ecology. The zonation occurring along elevation gradients, or at bioclimatic contact zones, offers a good opportunity to improve such understanding because the small scale at which the partitioning occurs facilitates inference based on experiments and ecological modelling. We studied the influence of abiotic gradients, habitat types, and interspecific competition in determining the spatial turnover between two pipit and two bunting species in NW Spain...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427839/the-prevalence-of-metabolic-syndrome-among-older-adults-in-ecuador-results-of-the-sabe-survey
#8
Carlos H Orces, Enrique Lopez Gavilanez
AIMS: To describe the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among older adults in Ecuador. A secondary objective was to examine the relationship between metabolic syndrome and its components and insulin resistance among non-diabetic participants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The National Survey of Health, Wellbeing, and Aging survey was used to examine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome according to demographic, behavioral, and health characteristics of the participants...
April 11, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427471/quality-of-life-and-healthcare-service-utilization-among-methadone-maintenance-patients-in-a-mountainous-area-of-northern-vietnam
#9
Long Hoang Nguyen, Lan Huong Thi Nguyen, Victoria L Boggiano, Canh Dinh Hoang, Hung Van Nguyen, Huong Thi Le, Hai Quan Le, Tho Dinh Tran, Bach Xuan Tran, Carl A Latkin, Nabil Zary, Minh Thuc Thi Vu
BACKGROUND: The expansion of methadone maintenance treatment in mountainous areas in still limited and little is known about its health impacts on drug users. This study aimed to examine health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and health care access among patients engaging in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) in Tuyen Quang, a mountainous province in Vietnam. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey with 241 patients conveniently recruited in two MMT clinics (Son Duong and Tuyen Quang)...
April 20, 2017: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427347/comparative-transcriptomics-of-mountain-pine-beetle-pheromone-biosynthetic-tissues-and-functional-analysis-of-cyp6de3
#10
J A Nadeau, J Petereit, R L Tillett, K Jung, M Fotoohi, M MacLean, S Young, K Schlauch, G J Blomquist, C Tittiger
BACKGROUND: The mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is a highly destructive pest of pine forests in western North America. During flight to a new host tree and initiation of feeding, mountain pine beetles release aggregation pheromones. The biosynthetic pathways of these pheromones are sex-specific and localized in the midgut and fat body, but the enzymes involved have not all been identified or characterized. RESULTS: We used a comparative RNA-Seq analysis between fed and unfed male and female MPB midguts and fat bodies to identify candidate genes involved in pheromone biosynthesis...
April 20, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424726/size-mediated-interaction-between-a-cushion-species-and-other-non-cushion-species-at-high-elevations-of-the-hengduan-mountains-sw-china
#11
Yang Yang, Jian-Guo Chen, Christian Schöb, Hang Sun
Arenaria polytrichoides (Caryophyllaceae) is a common cushion plant occurring at high elevations in the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains, SW China. It frequently has other non-cushion species growing within its canopy, forming a contrast with the surrounding areas because it creates patches of higher diversity and greater biomass. In this study, we examined the relationship between the cushions and associated non-cushion species along a gradient of cushion size. A total of 200 A. polytrichoides individuals were selected to fit four size classes...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424267/using-a-novel-data-resource-to-explore-heart-rate-during-mountain-and-road-running
#12
Andrew Best, Barry Braun
Online, accessible performance and heart rate data from running competitions are posted publicly or semi-publicly to social media. We tested the efficacy of one such data resource- Strava- as a tool in exercise physiology investigations by exploring heart rate differences in mountain racing and road racing running events. Heart rate and GPS pace data were gathered from Strava activities posted by 111 males aged 21-49, from two mountain races (Mt. Washington Road Race and Pike's Peak Ascent) and two road race distances (half marathon and marathon)...
April 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421324/weathering-the-storm-how-lodgepole-pine-trees-survive-mountain-pine-beetle-outbreaks
#13
Nadir Erbilgin, Jonathan A Cale, Altaf Hussain, Guncha Ishangulyyeva, Jennifer G Klutsch, Ahmed Najar, Shiyang Zhao
Recent mountain pine beetle outbreaks in western North America killed millions of lodgepole pine trees, leaving few survivors. However, the mechanism underlying the ability of trees to survive bark beetle outbreaks is unknown, but likely involve phytochemicals such as monoterpenes and fatty acids that can drive beetle aggregation and colonization on their hosts. Thus, we conducted a field survey of beetle-resistant lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) trees to retrospectively deduce whether these phytochemicals underlie their survival by comparing their chemistry to that of non-attacked trees in the same stands...
April 18, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421267/potential-distribution-of-mountain-cloud-forest-in-michoac%C3%A3-n-mexico-prioritization-for-conservation-in-the-context-of-landscape-connectivity
#14
Camilo A Correa Ayram, Manuel E Mendoza, Andrés Etter, Diego R Pérez Salicrup
Landscape connectivity is essential in biodiversity conservation because of its ability to reduce the effect of habitat fragmentation; furthermore is a key property in adapting to climate change. Potential distribution models and landscape connectivity studies have increased with regard to their utility to prioritizing areas for conservation. The objective of this study was to model the potential distribution of Mountain cloud forests in the Transversal Volcanic System, Michoacán and to analyze the role of these areas in maintaining landscape connectivity...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421252/altitude-distributions-and-source-analysis-of-ocps-and-pcbs-in-surface-soils-of-changbai-mountain-northeast-china
#15
Xiaochun Wang, Shu Chen, Kuiyuan Wan, Xiaocai Yin, Xiaohua Zhu, Jing Pan, Yongliang Yang
Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in surface soils of Changbai Mountain, Northeastern China, have been quantified by gas chromatography with electron capture detector and the altitude distributions and possible pollution sources were analyzed. The concentrations of ∑HCHs, ∑DDTs and ∑7PCBs were in the range of 3.09-25.6, 0.96-19.4 and 7.32-26.1 ng/g dw, respectively. The concentration of α-HCH, β-HCH, p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, PCB 101, 138, 153, and 180 showed increasing trends with altitude...
April 18, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419666/microbial-ecology-of-mountain-glacier-ecosystems-biodiversity-ecological-connections-and-implications-of-a-warming-climate
#16
REVIEW
Scott Hotaling, Eran Hood, Trinity L Hamilton
Glacier ecosystems are teeming with life on, beneath, and to a lesser degree, within their icy masses. This conclusion largely stems from polar research, with less attention paid to mountain glaciers that overlap environmentally and ecologically with their polar counterparts in some ways, but diverge in others. One difference lies in the susceptibility of mountain glaciers to the near-term threat of climate change, as they tend to be much smaller in both area and volume. Moreover, mountain glaciers are typically steeper, more dependent upon basal sliding for movement, and experience higher seasonal precipitation...
April 17, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419257/rodent-pika-parasite-spillover-in-western-north-america
#17
Patrick Foley, Tara Roth, Janet Foley, Chris Ray
Competition during the Cenozoic expansion of the Rodentia may have contributed to ecological niche reduction of pikas, which are now increasingly under threat as their habitat degrades under global climate change, while some rodents expand their ranges and overlap with pikas. Range overlap carries the possibility of disease spillover. Contemporary North American pikas are cold-adapted and relegated primarily to alpine environments where they subsist on relatively low-quality herbaceous diet. Yet their evolutionary ancestors were distributed geographically even into the subtropics...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418725/medex-2015-heart-rate-variability-predicts-development-of-acute-mountain-sickness
#18
Angus Sutherland, Joseph Freer, Laura Evans, Alberto Dolci, Matteo Crotti, Jamie Hugo Macdonald
Sutherland, Angus, Joseph Freer, Laura Evans, Alberto Dolci, Matteo Crotti, and Jamie Hugo Macdonald. MEDEX 2015: Heart rate variability predicts development of acute mountain sickness. High Alt Med Biol 00:000-000, 2017. AIMS: Acute mountain sickness (AMS) develops when the body fails to acclimatize to atmospheric changes at altitude. Preascent prediction of susceptibility to AMS would be a useful tool to prevent subsequent harm. Changes to peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) on hypoxic exposure have previously been shown to be of poor predictive value...
April 18, 2017: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418406/large-near-term-projected-snowpack-loss-over-the-western-united-states
#19
John C Fyfe, Chris Derksen, Lawrence Mudryk, Gregory M Flato, Benjamin D Santer, Neil C Swart, Noah P Molotch, Xuebin Zhang, Hui Wan, Vivek K Arora, John Scinocca, Yanjun Jiao
Peak runoff in streams and rivers of the western United States is strongly influenced by melting of accumulated mountain snowpack. A significant decline in this resource has a direct connection to streamflow, with substantial economic and societal impacts. Observations and reanalyses indicate that between the 1980s and 2000s, there was a 10-20% loss in the annual maximum amount of water contained in the region's snowpack. Here we show that this loss is consistent with results from a large ensemble of climate simulations forced with natural and anthropogenic changes, but is inconsistent with simulations forced by natural changes alone...
April 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417937/study-on-the-health-status-and-health-service-utilization-of-the-elderly-of-a-remote-and-poor-village-in-a-mountainous-area-in-jinzhai-anhui
#20
Chaoqun Hu, Wenya Yu, Yipeng Lv, Haiping Chen, Qiangyu Deng, Lulu Zhang
Background: Despite the rapid development of China's economy, a number of poor areas in China continue to exist. The health status of the elderly in the poor areas is a matter of concern. This study aims to explore the status of the elderly in terms of their health status, health service needs, and utilization among rural residents of a remote and poor village in a mountainous area in Jinzhai, Anhui. Furthermore, this study aims to explore the differences between the nation rural area average level and the remote and poor village in the mountainous area in terms of health status and health service utilization...
April 12, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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