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Nicholas T Bacon, Greg A Ryan, Jonathan E Wingo, Mark T Richardson, Tracey Pangallo, Phillip A Bishop
The purpose was to determine if pull-up performance was affected by the use of chalk (100% magnesium carbonate) during open-handed and pinch grip weight-assisted pull-ups (WAPU) in recreationally-trained rock climbers. Furthermore, the reliability of open-handed and pinch grip WAPU was also investigated. Recreationally-active volunteers (n = 9) completed six counterbalanced trials. Participants used chalk during four trials to determine the reliability (test-retest) of the open-handed and pinch grips. While two of the six trials were used to determine if open-handed and pinch grip WAPU performance was affected without using chalk...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
Ji-Won Park, Ok-Kyoung Kwon, Hyung Won Ryu, Jin-Hyub Paik, Imam Paryanto, Prasetyawan Yuniato, Sangho Choi, Sei-Ryang Oh, Kyung-Seop Ahn
Passiflora foetida L. (Passifloraceae), a perennial climber in general, is used for treating many ailments in conventional medicine. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effect of methanolic extracts of P. foetida L. (PFME) and the involvement of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signalling in the regulation of inflammation were investigated. PFME prevented the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and the expression of inducible cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophage cells. Additionally, PFME reduced the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Mariane S Sousa-Baena, Lúcia G Lohmann, José Hernandes-Lopes, Neelima R Sinha
The climbing habit has evolved multiple times during the evolutionary history of angiosperms. Plants evolved various strategies for climbing, such as twining stems, tendrils and hooks. Tendrils are threadlike organs with the ability to twine around other structures through helical growth; they may be derived from a variety of structures, such as branches, leaflets and inflorescences. The genetic capacity to grow as a tendrilled climber existed in some of the earliest land plants; however, the underlying molecular basis of tendril development has been studied in only a few taxa...
March 9, 2018: New Phytologist
Gareth Roderique-Davies, Robert M Heirene, Stephen Mellalieu, David A Shearer
Conceptual similarities have been identified between experiences of extreme sports athletes and those with drug and behavioral addictions. Evidence suggests rock climbers experience craving and other withdrawal-like states when abstinent from their sport. However, no studies have attempted to quantitatively measure the craving experienced by participants of any extreme sports. Such a measure could allow a greater understanding of the craving experienced by extreme sports athletes and a comparison of these across sports (e...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Jiakun Long, Yang Wang, Chen Xu, Tingting Liu, Gengli Duan, Yingjia Yu
Uncaria rhynchophylla is woody climber plant distributed mainly in China and Japan, the stems and hooks of which can be collected as "Gou-Teng" for the treatment of hyperpyrexia, epilepsy and preeclampsia. Fudan University first manufactured KHR98, the extract of Uncaria rhynchophylla. In order to study the active components and structural information of KHR98, we established a high- performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF-MS) method for rapid analysis of alkaloids...
March 2, 2018: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Jan Kodejška, Jiří Baláš, Nick Draper
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of two cold water immersion (CWI) temperatures (15° C and 8° C) on repeat handgrip performance to failure. METHODS: Thirty-two participants completed three intermittent trials to failure on a climbing-specific handgrip dynamometer on three laboratory visits. For each visit a different recovery strategy was employed: passive recovery (PAS), cold water immersion at 8° C (CW8) or 15° C (CW15). The force time integral (FTI - time of contraction multiplied by the force of contraction) was determined to assess handgrip performance...
February 21, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Thomas Rowland
The value of exercise studies in children often resides in defining differences, which might make growing youngsters unique from their mature adult counterparts. Many such physiological and behavioral developmental differences have been identified, emphasizing that children are not, physiologically speaking, simply small adults. The following 2 studies published in the past year were chosen for their importance in contributing to the insights into previously unexplored areas. The first study addresses the influence of exercise on physiological variability, an emerging field that offers to provide important insights into the nature of such responses...
February 9, 2018: Pediatric Exercise Science
Christine Böhmer, Anne-Claire Fabre, Marc Herbin, Stéphane Peigné, Anthony Herrel
Arboreal locomotion imposes selective pressures that may affect the evolution of the locomotor apparatus. The limbs have to be mobile to reach across discontinuities, yet at the same time need to be forceful to move against gravity during climbing. However, as intermediaries between the arboreal and terrestrial environment, semi-arboreal mammals appear not extremely specialized and, thus, anatomical adaptations may be less evident than expected for arboreal climbers. Here, we present quantitative data on the muscle anatomy of the forelimbs (N = 14) of two closely related species of Mustelidae and relate the findings to their locomotor habits...
March 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Michał Ginszt, Małgorzata Michalak-Wojnowska, Piotr Gawda, Magdalena Wojcierowska-Litwin, Iwona Korszeń-Pilecka, Małgorzata Kusztelak, Rafał Muda, Agata A Filip, Piotr Majcher
The functional RR genotype of the alpha-actinin-3 (ACTN3) gene has been reported to be associated with elite sprint/power athlete status. Although large and rapidly increasing number of studies have investigated the associations between the ACTN3 genotypes and athletic performance in various sport disciplines, there is a lack of studies on the genetic predisposition in Sport Climbing, which was selected to be part of the next Summer Olympic Games in Tokyo 2020 with three subdisciplines ('Lead Climbing', 'Speed Climbing' and 'Bouldering')...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Jiří Baláš, Jan Kodejška, Dominika Krupková, Johan Hannsmann, Simon Fryer
Baláš, J, Kodejška, J, Krupková, D, Hannsmann, J, and Fryer, S. Reliability of near-infrared spectroscopy for measuring intermittent handgrip contractions in sport climbers. J Strength Cond Res 32(2): 494-501, 2018-The use of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to investigate muscle oxygenation changes during physical tasks such as rock climbing has rapidly increased within recent years; yet, there is no known measure of reliability. The current study aimed to determine intersession reliability and minimal detectable change (MDC) of continuous wave NIRS parameters during intermittent handgrip contractions in rock climbers...
February 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
S Sharmila, K Kalaichelvi, S M Dhivya, P Premamalini, P Abirami, G Jayanthi
Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate a meticulous pharmacognostic cram is to supplement constructive information with regard to its identification, characterization, and standardization of endemic and endangered medicinal climber Cayratia pedata var. glabra and also screening the antibacterial activity of this climber. Materials and Methods: The morphological characters of study plant, microscopic examination of leaf powder, anatomy of young stem, physicochemical analysis of plant powder, extractive values, phytochemical analysis, powder with different chemical reagents, fluorescence analysis of plant powder, and other World Health Organization (WHO) recommended for standardization were analyzed...
December 2017: Pharmacognosy Research
Raúl Aguilar, Carlos Martínez, José R Alvero-Cruz
The cortisol awakening response (CAR) was examined over a 45days stay at extreme altitudes (above of about 5500m) on Mount Kangchenjunga. The CAR refers to a peak cortisol response during the waking period that is superimposed to the diurnal rhythmicity in cortisol secretion, whose function has been proposed to be the anticipation of demands of the upcoming day (the CAR anticipation hypothesis). According to this hypothesis, we distinguished between resting days on which the expedition team engaged in routine activities in the base camp, and ascent days on which it planned to climb up a very demanding track...
December 23, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Antonella Tammaro, Francesca Magri, Elisa Moliterni, Francesca Romana Parisella, Matteo Mondello, Severino Persechino
Black heels, also known as talon noir or calcaneal petechiae, are asymptomatic superficial cutaneous haemorrhages of the feet, mostly seen as post-traumatic lesions in young athletic individuals who practice sports such as tennis, football, or gymnastics. Here, we present a case of black heels in a young male rock climber.
December 17, 2017: International Wound Journal
Joel M P Cordeiro, Miriam Kaehler, Gustavo Souza, Leonardo P Felix
Chromosome numbers and heterochromatin banding pattern variability have been shown to be useful for taxonomic and evolutionary studies of different plant taxa. Bignonieae is the largest tribe of Bignoniaceae, composed mostly by woody climber species whose taxonomies are quite complicated. We reviewed and added new data concerning chromosome numbers in Bignonieae and performed the first analyses of heterochromatin banding patterns in that tribe based on the fluorochromes chromomycin A3 (CMA) and 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI)...
December 11, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Eloisa Limonta, Alfredo Brighenti, Susanna Rampichini, Emiliano Cè, Federico Schena, Fabio Esposito
PURPOSE: To validate heart rate (f H) as an effective indicator of the aerobic demands of climbing, the f H vs oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]) relationship determined during cycling exercise and climbing on a circular climbing treadwall was compared. Possible differences in maximum aerobic characteristics between advanced and élite climbers were also assessed. METHODS: Seven advanced and six élite climbers performed a discontinuous incremental test on a cycle ergometer and a similar test on a climbing treadwall...
February 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Kathryn Garcia, Diego Jaramillo, Erika Rubesova
BACKGROUND: The impact of high-intensity, repetitive training on the fingers of adolescent climbers is relatively unknown. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate this effect by ultrasound (US) and to confirm some findings by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The US study was performed in 20 adolescent rock climbers (ages 10-17 years) and 6 non-climbing controls (ages 11-15 years). US was used to examine the third digit of the right hand for differences in thickness of soft tissue, flexor and extensor tendon, volar plate and bony and growth plate adaptations...
March 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Ann-Sophie Van Hoecke, Jan Seghers, Filip Boen
PURPOSE: To evaluate the impact of footprints on stair climbing in different settings. DESIGN: Interrupted time-series design. SETTING: A company (stair/elevator choice) and a mall (stair/escalator choice). PARTICIPANTS: Employees (n = 5676) and visitors of the mall (n = 12 623). INTERVENTION: An intervention comprising 3 consecutive phases was implemented-(1) footprints leading to the stairs were stuck on the floor, (2) a health message referring to the footprints was introduced, and (3) passersby were congratulated for their increased stair use...
March 2018: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
Katharina Hüfner, Hermann Brugger, Eva Kuster, Franziska Dünsser, Agnieszka E Stawinoga, Rachel Turner, Iztok Tomazin, Barbara Sperner-Unterweger
BACKGROUND: Psychotic episodes during exposure to very high or extreme altitude have been frequently reported in mountain literature, but not systematically analysed and acknowledged as a distinct clinical entity. METHODS: Episodes reported above 3500 m altitude with possible psychosis were collected from the lay literature and provide the basis for this observational study. Dimensional criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders were used for psychosis, and the Lake Louise Scoring criteria for acute mountain sickness and high-altitude cerebral oedema (HACE)...
December 5, 2017: Psychological Medicine
Mohit S Verma, Alar Ainla, Dian Yang, Daniel Harburg, George M Whitesides
This article demonstrates a pneumatically actuated soft robot capable of navigating the inside of a tube. This robot was built using buckling pneumatic actuators (vacuum-actuated muscle-inspired pneumatic structures, or VAMPs). The tube climber can navigate through a tube with turns, inclines, and varying diameters. The robot is also able to remove obstacles (of more than 10 times its own weight) from tubes to perform a clearing function. It maintains climbing and clearing performance in wet conditions and under water...
November 30, 2017: Soft Robotics
Jason N Burris, Scott C Lenaghan, C Neal Stewart
Climbing plants have unique adaptations to enable them to compete for sunlight, for which they invest minimal resources for vertical growth. Indeed, their stems bear relatively little weight, as they traverse their host substrates skyward. Climbers possess high tensile strength and flexibility, which allows them to utilize natural and manmade structures for support and growth. The climbing strategies of plants have intrigued scientists for centuries, yet our understanding about biochemical adaptations and their molecular undergirding is still in the early stages of research...
November 29, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
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