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Andrew M Luks, Colin Grissom, Luanne Freer, Peter Hackett
Luks, Andrew M., Colin Grissom, Luanne Freer, and Peter Hackett. Medication use among mount Everest climbers: practice and attitudes. High Alt Med Biol. 00:000-000, 2016.-The lay public, media, and medical experts have expressed concern about the ethics of climbers using medications to improve performance and increase the odds of summit success while climbing at high altitude, but the true incidence of this practice remains unclear. We conducted an anonymous survey of climbers who have attempted to climb Mt...
October 20, 2016: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
Samuel Ginot, Lionel Hautier, Laurent Marivaux, Monique Vianey-Liaud
Studies linking postcranial morphology with locomotion in mammals are common. However, such studies are mostly restricted to caviomorphs in rodents. We present here data from various families, belonging to the three main groups of rodents (Sciuroidea, Myodonta, and Ctenohystrica). The aim of this study is to define morphological indicators for the astragalus and calcaneus, which allow for inferences to be made about the locomotor behaviours in rodents. Several specimens were dissected and described to bridge the myology of the leg with the morphology of the bones of interest...
2016: PeerJ
Andrew Melvin, Jacob George
BACKGROUND: Hot aches, also known as the screaming barfies in North America, are a recognised phenomenon amongst winter climbers, assumed to be triggered by the reperfusion of cold peripheries which then rapidly progresses to a systemic vasodilatory syndrome. Symptoms experienced in the hands include pain, numbness and throbbing followed by systemic symptoms such as nausea, irritability, dizziness and in extreme cases a transient loss of vision and hearing. Despite being well known amongst the winter climbing community, there are no publications in the scientific literature characterising the hot aches...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
Peter James Barron, Katherine Burgess, Kay Cooper, Arthur D Stewart
'Climb assist' claims to reduce strain when climbing ladders; however, no research has yet substantiated this. The purpose of this study was to assess the physiological and psychophysical effects of climb assist on 30 m ladder climbing at a minimum acceptable speed. Eight participants (six male and two female) climbed a 30 m ladder at 24 rungs per minute with and without climb assist, and were monitored for heart rate (HR), [Formula: see text]O2 and rate of perceived exertion (RPE). All three variables decreased significantly (p < 0...
October 15, 2016: Ergonomics
Jorge Delgado, Diego Jaramillo, Nancy A Chauvin
Increased physical activity in childhood has resulted in a large number of sports-related injuries. Although there is overlap between the sports-related injuries seen in pediatric and adult patients, important differences exist in the injury patterns of pediatric patients. These differences are related to the continuous changes in the developing skeleton and its relationship with adjacent soft tissues. The imbalance in strength between the growing bones and the nearby tendons and ligaments makes the bones prone to acute and chronic injuries...
October 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Chester E Sutterlin
At noon on Saturday, 25 April 2015, a 7.8 magnitude earthquake struck Nepal. It was centered in the Himalaya northwest of Kathmandu, the capital of over 1 million people. The violent tremors were felt as far away as New Delhi, India 1,000 km from the epicenter, but the worst of its destructive force was experienced in the heavily populated Kathmandu valley and in the remote mountainous villages of the Himalaya. Ancient temples crumbled; poorly constructed buildings collapsed; men, women, and children were trapped and injured, sometimes fatally...
December 2015: J Spine Surg
Ernesto Gianoli, Cristian Torres-Díaz, Eduardo Ruiz, Cristian Salgado-Luarte, Marco A Molina-Montenegro, Alfredo Saldaña, Rodrigo S Ríos
The climbing habit is a key innovation in plants: climbing taxa have higher species richness than non-climbing sister groups. We evaluated the hypothesis that climbing plant species show greater among-population genetic differentiation than non-climber species. We compared the among-population genetic distance in woody climbers (8 species, 30 populations) and trees (7 species, 29 populations) coexisting in 9 communities in a temperate rainforest. We also compared within-population genetic diversity in co-occurring woody climbers and trees in two communities...
September 27, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Neil F Adams, Margaret E Collinson, Selena Y Smith, Marion K Bamford, Félix Forest, Panagiota Malakasi, Federica Marone, Dan Sykes
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Fossilized seeds similar to Cissus (Vitaceae) have been recognized from the Miocene of Kenya, though some were previously assigned to the Menispermaceae. We undertook a comparative survey of extant African Cissus seeds to identify the fossils and consider their implications for the evolution and biogeography of Cissus and for African early Miocene paleoenvironments. METHODS: Micro-computed tomography (µCT) and synchrotron-based X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM) were used to study seed morphology and anatomy...
September 2016: American Journal of Botany
Matthew A Kilgas, Scott N Drum, Randall L Jensen, Kevin C Phillips, Phillip B Watts
Rock climbers believe chalk dries the hands of sweat and improves the static coefficient of friction between the hands and the surface of the rock. The purpose of this study was to assess whether or not chalk affects geometric entropy or muscular activity during rock climbing. Nineteen experienced recreational rock climbers (13 males, 6 females; 173.5 ± 7.0 cm; 67.5 ± 3.4 kg) completed two climbing trails with and without chalk. The body position of the climber, and muscular activity of the finger flexors was recorded throughout the trial...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Evgeny Mashkovskiy, Piotr Szawarski, Pavel Ryzhkov, Tomaz Goslar, Irena Mrak
Prolonged altitude exposure even with acclimatization continues to present a physiological challenge to all organ systems including the central nervous system. We describe a case of a 41-year-old Caucasian female climber who suffered severe visual loss that was due to possible optic nerve pathology occurring during a high altitude expedition in the Himalayas. This case is atypical of classic high altitude cerebral oedema and highlights yet another danger of prolonged sojourn at extreme altitudes.
June 2016: Journal of Travel Medicine
Soumyajit Biswas, Rupa Shaw, Sanjay Bala, Asis Mazumdar
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Medicinal Plant resources of forest origin are extensively used in India for various systems of medicine like Ayurveda, Unani, Homeopathy, Allopathy, Siddha and Ethnic etc. The tribal communities around the Kakrajhore forest in West Medinipur district of West Bengal have their own traditional knowledge based system of curing many diseases using the forest based plant resources similar to ayurveda. The forest comprises of one of the unique treasure and rich source of diversified ethno-botanical wealth and therefore extensive studies is required for proper documentation including ethnomedicinal knowledge of local tribes...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Enrico Donegani, Peter Paal, Thomas Küpper, Urs Hefti, Buddha Basnyat, Anna Carceller, Pierre Bouzat, Rianne van der Spek, David Hillebrandt
: Donegani, Enrico, Peter Paal, Thomas Küpper, Urs Hefti, Buddha Basnyat, Anna Carceller, Pierre Bouzat, Rianne van der Spek, and David Hillebrandt. Drug use and misuse in the mountains: a UIAA MedCom consensus guide for medical professionals. High Alt Med Biol. 17:157-184, 2016.-Aims: The aim of this review is to inform mountaineers about drugs commonly used in mountains. For many years, drugs have been used to enhance performance in mountaineering. It is the UIAA (International Climbing and Mountaineering Federation-Union International des Associations d'Alpinisme) Medcom's duty to protect mountaineers from possible harm caused by uninformed drug use...
September 2016: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
Tim Halsey, Nigel Callender
We read with interest the authors' paper on this important area of climbing physiology. We however wish to highlight the incorrect identification of flexor carpi radialis (FCR) as a finger flexor and the implications it has for the conclusions described. FCR is a wrist flexor and has no direct bearing on flexion of the fingers during a climbing grip and thus could be expected to have a reduced oxygenation response compared to flexor digitorum profundus. We also would like to seek clarification from the authors regarding their confidence in their method for locating the two muscles under investigation as we feel this may not be accurately possible using the method described...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Carine Malle, Benoît Ginon, Cyprien Bourrilhon
: Malle, Carine, Benoît Ginon, and Cyprien Bourrilhon. Brief working memory and physiological monitoring during a high-altitude expedition. High Alt Med Biol 00:000-000, 2016. BACKGROUND: Various studies have shown the deleterious effects of high-altitude hypoxia on cognitive functions, including attention and memory. Since optimal cognitive abilities may be crucial for mountain safety, this study was aimed to assess the relevance of a brief working memory test to quickly assess cognition at high altitude...
August 22, 2016: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
Dafna Sobel, Naama Constantin, Omer Or
Rock climbing is becoming an increasingly popular sport in Israel with more and more climbing walls being built in the cities and new routes being traced on cliffs around the country. Our account describes the case of a 15 years old climber with chronic pain (without trauma) in the 3rd finger of the right hand. A stress fracture, involving the proximal interphalangeal joint (SH3) of the middle phalanx, was diagnosed. The fracture healed following two months of rest with gradual return to activity. As this sport becomes more common, there is an increasing need for knowledge about the characteristic injuries, their diagnosis and treatment...
June 2016: Harefuah
Jiří Baláš, Michail Michailov, David Giles, Jan Kodejška, Michaela Panáčková, Simon Fryer
This study aimed to (1) evaluate the effect of hand shaking during recovery phases of intermittent testing on the time-force characteristics of performance and muscle oxygenation, and (2) assess inter-individual variability in the time to achieve the target force during intermittent testing in rock climbers. Twenty-two participants undertook three finger flexor endurance tests at 60% of their maximal voluntary contraction until failure. Performances of a sustained contraction and two intermittent contractions, each with different recovery strategies, were analysed by time-force parameters and near-infrared spectroscopy...
October 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
A Pozzi, G Pivato, L Pegoli
With the amazing increasing in number of participants, rock climbing has become a popular sport in the last decade. A growing number of participants, with different skill level, inevitably leads to an increased number of injuries related to this practice. The kind of lesions that can be observed in rock-climbers is very specific and often involves the hand. For this reason is very important for any hand surgeon that is exposed to sport injuries to know which and the most common injuries related to this sport and which are the basic principles for the treatment of those...
February 2016: J Hand Surg Asian Pac Vol
Armin Runer, Kathrin Lampl, Daniel Neunhäuserer, Florian Runer, Nora Frick, Gerd Seitlinger, Herbert Resch, Philipp Moroder
OBJECTIVE: To describe rates, patterns, and causes of acute injuries in an increasingly popular outdoor sport. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: One winter season ranging from November 2011 to March 2011. PARTICIPANTS: Seventy ice climbers from 13 different countries and various performance levels. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Participants were asked to complete a monthly Internet-based survey regarding their completed hours of training and competitions and eventual sustained injuries...
July 15, 2016: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
Adhityo Wicaksono, Saifullah Hidayat, Yudithia Damayanti, Desmond Soo Mun Jin, Erly Sintya, Bambang Retnoaji, Parvez Alam
In this article, we compare the characteristics of biomechanical attachment exhibited by two morphologically different mudskipper species, Boleophthalmus boddarti (with fused pelvic fins) and Periophthalmus variabilis (with unfused pelvic fins). P. variabilis is a tree and rock climber while B. boddarti dwells in the muddy shallows and is unable to climb. Our aim in this article is to determine whether it is predominantly chemical or morphological properties of the pelvic fins from each species that may allow P...
June 18, 2016: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
Jiří Baláš, David Giles, Leona Chrastinová, Kateřina Kárníková, Jan Kodejška, Alžběta Hlaváčková, Ladislav Vomáčko, Nick Draper
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of alterations in potential lead fall distance on the hormonal responses of rock climbers. Nine advanced female climbers completed two routes while clipping all (PRO-all) or half (PRO-½) of the fixed points of protection. Venous blood samples were analysed for total catecholamines, noradrenaline (norepinephrine), adrenaline (epinephrine), dopamine, lactate, cortisol and serotonin. Differences between the two conditions pre, immediately post and 15 min post climbing were assessed using a 2 × 3 repeated measures ANOVA...
July 11, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
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