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Anne K Lorentzen, Luit Penninga
Greenland is not only the largest island in the world, it is also the least densely populated country on the globe. The majority of Greenland's landmass lies within the Arctic Circle. Weather conditions in Arctic areas can be extreme, thus exposing locals and visitors to a high risk of acquiring frostbite injuries. More than two thirds of Greenland is covered by a permanent ice sheet, and temperatures can drop to below -70°C. In addition, frequent storms, occupational exposure, and alcohol all contribute to an increased risk for frostbite injury...
June 12, 2018: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Alison Irene Dempsey, Kempland Walley, Joslyn Sciacca Kirby
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2018: JAMA Dermatology
Prativa Pandey, Ravi Vadlamudi, Rashila Pradhan, Kishore R Pandey, Alex Kumar, Peter Hackett
Severe frostbite occurs frequently at extreme altitude in the Himalayas, often resulting in amputations. Recent advances in treatment of frostbite injuries with either intravenous or intra-arterial tissue plasminogen activator, or with iloprost, have improved outcomes in frostbite injuries, but only if the patient has access to these within 24 to 48 h postinjury, and ideally even sooner. Frostbitten Himalayan climbers are seldom able to reach medical care in this time frame. We wished to see if delayed iloprost use (up to 72 h) would help reduce tissue loss in grade 3 to 4 frostbite...
June 7, 2018: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Albin Stjernbrandt, Daniel Carlsson, Hans Pettersson, Ingrid Liljelind, Tohr Nilsson, Jens Wahlström
PURPOSE: To identify factors associated with the reporting of cold sensitivity, by comparing cases to controls with regard to anthropometry, previous illnesses and injuries, as well as external exposures such as hand-arm vibration (HAV) and ambient cold. METHODS: Through a questionnaire responded to by the general population, ages 18-70, living in Northern Sweden (N = 12,627), cold sensitivity cases (N = 502) and matched controls (N = 1004) were identified, and asked to respond to a second questionnaire focusing on different aspects of cold sensitivity as well as individual and external exposure factors suggested to be related to the condition...
May 28, 2018: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
V C Divya, B Saravanakarthikeyan
Current lifestyle trends encouraging the rise in use of liquid nitrogen in food and beverages may eventually increase the episodes of injuries reported as well. Here, we report the first case of intraoral frostbite as a result of direct injury to the tissues due to ingestion of liquid nitrogen. The mechanism of injury to the oral mucosa in the absence of any injury to the gastric mucosa is explained correlating it to the Leidenfrost phenomenon. Awareness and proper regulations for the use of liquid nitrogen are unavailable and must be created in order to avoid any potential mortality...
April 21, 2018: Australian Dental Journal
Ming-San Miao, Li-Ling Xiang, Ming Bai, Li-Hua Cao
Frostbite is a common disease in winter, and systemic or local injury caused by low temperature invasion. Frostbite sites are commonly face, ears, nose, hands, feet and other peripheral blood circulation parts. The main symptoms are pale skin, cold, pain and numbness, skin itching in high temperature, and severe cases may suffer from skin erosions and ulcers. Frostbite model is a pathological model mainly based on Western medicine index. Based on the analysis of clinical symptoms of frostbite in traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine, and a large number of experimental studies on the existing animal models, the animal model preparation of specifications (draft) was formulated as follows...
January 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Khalel Imanbayev, Abay Makishev, Murat Zhagiparov, Pauline McLoone
The association between ultraviolet radiation exposure and skin cancer is well established. Limited studies have reported an association between frostbite and the development of non-melanoma skin cancer but evidence for a proven link is insufficient and possible carcinogenic mechanisms have not been fully explored. In this report, 3 cases of non-melanoma skin cancer (1 case of basal cell carcinoma and 2 cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin) which developed at a site of previous frostbite caused by exposure to extremely cold temperatures in Astana, the capital city of Kazakhstan, are described...
January 2018: Case Reports in Dermatology
Roberto A Brandão, Jason M St John, Travis M Langan, Brian J Schneekloth, Patrick R Burns
Acute compartment syndrome of the foot and ankle is a relatively rare clinical finding. Lower extremity compartment syndrome is customarily due to vascular or orthopedic traumatic limb-threatening pathologic issues. Clinical correlation and measurement of intracompartmental pressure are paramount to efficient diagnosis and treatment. Delayed treatment can lead to local and systemically adverse consequences. Frostbite, a comparatively more common pathologic entity of the distal extremities, occurs when tissues are exposed to freezing temperatures...
March 2018: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
Ingrid Lefebvre de Plinval, Justine Josnard, Myriam Honnorat, Hugues Lefort, Romain Kedzierewicz
Frostbites are cold-freezing injuries of the extremities due to the exposure to temperatures below 0°C. The risk, in the absence of treatment, is the amputation of frostbitten areas which become gangrenous. Victims of frostbite must be treated and evacuated urgently. Nurses play an active role in the secondary long-term treatment.
February 2018: Revue de L'infirmière
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Nursing
Linda Laskowski-Jones, Lawrence J Jones
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Nursing
Katharina Hüfner, Hermann Brugger, Eva Kuster, Franziska Dünsser, Agnieszka E Stawinoga, Rachel Turner, Iztok Tomazin, Barbara Sperner-Unterweger
BACKGROUND: Psychotic episodes during exposure to very high or extreme altitude have been frequently reported in mountain literature, but not systematically analysed and acknowledged as a distinct clinical entity. METHODS: Episodes reported above 3500 m altitude with possible psychosis were collected from the lay literature and provide the basis for this observational study. Dimensional criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders were used for psychosis, and the Lake Louise Scoring criteria for acute mountain sickness and high-altitude cerebral oedema (HACE)...
December 5, 2017: Psychological Medicine
Reza Khalili, Navid Ayoobian, Mehrdad Jafarpour, Babak Shirani
In this study, the effect of gamma irradiation on the shelf life and properties of cucumber was investigated. These properties include weight reduction, fruit density, juice, tissue firmness, total soluble solids (TSS), total titratable acidity, chlorophyll and vitamin C, pH, marketability, flavor, frostbite and fungal effects. For this purpose, cucumbers were irradiated with dose of 2, 2.5 and 3 kGy. The exposure time was calculated by MCNP4C; the Monte Carlo particle transport code. Three types of fungi ( white - Sclerotinia sclerotiorum , gray - Botrytis cinerea and olive- Cladosporium cucumerinum ), were used to infect some samples...
December 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Y Pan, D Thapa, L Baldissera, F Argunhan, A A Aubdool, S D Brain
Cold exposure is directly related to skin conditions, such as frostbite. This is due to the cold exposure inducing a vasoconstriction to reduce cutaneous blood flow and protect against heat loss. However, a long-term constriction will cause ischaemia and potentially irreversible damage. We have developed techniques to elucidate the mechanisms of the vascular cold response. We focused on two ligand-gated transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, namely, the established "cold sensors" TRP ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) and TRP melastin (TRPM8)...
November 21, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Ishan Garg, Maria J Baladron Zanetti, Ayse T Kendi
A 39-year-old male presented to the emergency department (ED) with frostbite to the fingers of both hands. In the ED, he received warm baths, acetylsalicylic acid, clopidogrel, and heparin. A three-phase bone scintigraphy with technetium-99m-methylene diphosphonate revealed absent radiotracer uptake in distal phalanges of both hands. The patient received acetylsalicylic acid, clopidogrel and wound care for the next 5 days and made an excellent recovery with satisfactory wound healing in both hands. Early rapid rewarming and reperfusion can improve the prognosis significantly and therefore bone scan done within first 1-2 days may give spurious results...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Nuclear Medicine: IJNM: the Official Journal of the Society of Nuclear Medicine, India
Francis L O'Donnell, Shauna Stahlman, Alexis A Oetting
From July 2016 through June 2017, a total of 387 members of the active (n=328) and reserve (n=59) components had at least one medical encounter with a primary diagnosis of cold injury. Among active component service members, the total number of cold injuries in the 2016-2017 cold season was the lowest since 1999 and the overall incidence rate was lower than in any of the previous four cold seasons. Frostbite was the most common type of cold injury. During the five cold seasons in the surveillance period (2012-2017), rates tended to be higher among service members who were in the youngest age groups, female, non-Hispanic black, or in the Army...
October 2017: MSMR
Emmy De Buck
A short cut review was carried out to establish whether routine use of emollients on the face reduced the incidence of frostbite in cold environments. 126 papers were found using the reported searches, of which three presented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The author, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results and study weaknesses of these papers are tabulated. It is concluded that the use of emollients on the face is not a good protection against frostbite and may even result in a higher risk...
November 2017: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
Amir Fallahi, Mohammad Reza Salimpour, Ebrahim Shirani
Frostbite is considered the severest form of cold injury and can lead to necrosis and loss of peripheral appendages. Therefore, prediction of endurance time of limb's tissue in cold condition is not only necessary but also crucial to estimate cold injury intensity and to choose appropriate clothing. According to the previous work which applied a 3-D thermal model for human finger to analyze cold stress, in this study, an expression is presented for endurance time in cold conditions to prevent cold injury. A formula is also recommended to select a proper glove with specific thermal resistance based on the ambient situation and cold exposure time...
October 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
Margo Kaller
A short cut review was carried out to establish whether an infusion of iloprost can be used to treat frostbite to reduce the risk of needing an amputation. Three studies were directly relevant to the question. The author, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results and study weaknesses of these papers are tabulated. The clinical bottom line is that iloprost may reduce the risk of amputation after frostbite.
October 2017: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
Wendy Sullivan-Kwantes, Paul Dhillon, Len Goodman, Joseph J Knapik
The Arctic Ram Exercise was conducted in February 2016, near Resolute Bay on Cornwallis Island in Nunavut, Canada, to demonstrate the ability of the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) to rapidly deploy to the arctic as an immediate response team. This report describes medical problems experienced by the 187 CAF and 28 U.S. forces involved in the exercise. Sixty-six airborne soldiers performed tactical static line jumps and linked up with soldiers on the ground for the exercise. Medical events were recorded by medics on the drop zone and by medical personnel at the Unit Medical Station in Resolute Bay...
September 2017: Military Medicine
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