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Pharmacoresistant epilepsy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527108/increased-expression-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-transcripts-i-and-vi-camp-response-element-binding-and-glucocorticoid-receptor-in-the-cortex-of-patients-with-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#1
G A Martínez-Levy, L Rocha, F Rodríguez-Pineda, M A Alonso-Vanegas, A Nani, R M Buentello-García, M Briones-Velasco, D San-Juan, J Cienfuegos, C S Cruz-Fuentes
A body of evidence supports a relevant role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Magnetic resonance data reveal that the cerebral atrophy extends to regions that are functionally and anatomically connected with the hippocampus, especially the temporal cortex. We previously reported an increased expression of BDNF messenger for the exon VI in the hippocampus of temporal lobe epilepsy patients compared to an autopsy control group. Altered levels of this particular transcript were also associated with pre-surgical use of certain psychotropic...
May 19, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502217/hippocampal-low-frequency-stimulation-inhibits-afterdischarge-and-increases-gaba-a-receptor-expression-in-amygdala-kindled-pharmacoresistant-epileptic-rats
#2
Guofeng Wu, Likun Wang, Zhen Hong, Siying Ren, Feng Zhou
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to observe the effects of hippocampal low-frequency stimulation (Hip-LFS) on amygdala afterdischarge and GABA (A) receptor expression in pharmacoresistant epileptic (PRE) rats. METHODS: A total of 110 healthy adult male Wistar rats were used to generate a model of epilepsy by chronic stimulation of the amygdala. Sixteen PRE rats were selected from 70 amygdala-kindled rats by testing their response to Phenytoin and Phenobarbital, and they were randomly assigned to a pharmacoresistant stimulation group (PRS group, 8 rats) or a pharmacoresistant control group (PRC group, 8 rats)...
May 14, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495218/effects-of-hippocampal-low-frequency-stimulation-in-idiopathic-non-human-primate-epilepsy-assessed-via-a-remote-sensing-enabled-neurostimulator
#3
Thomas A Wozny, Witold J Lipski, Ahmad Alhourani, Efstathios D Kondylis, Arun Antony, R Mark Richardson
Individuals with pharmacoresistant epilepsy remain a large and under-treated patient population. Continued technologic advancements in implantable neurostimulators have spurred considerable research efforts directed towards the development of novel antiepileptic stimulation therapies. However, the lack of adequate preclinical experimental platforms has precluded a detailed understanding of the differential effects of stimulation parameters on neuronal activity within seizure networks. In order to chronically monitor seizures and the effects of stimulation in a freely-behaving non-human primate with idiopathic epilepsy, we employed a novel simultaneous video-intracranial EEG recording platform using a state-of-the-art sensing-enabled, rechargeable clinical neurostimulator with real-time seizure detection and wireless data streaming capabilities...
May 7, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468530/the-epigenetics-of-epilepsy-and-its-progression
#4
Rebecca M Hauser, David C Henshall, Farah D Lubin
Epilepsy is a common and devastating neurological disorder characterized by recurrent and unprovoked spontaneous seizures. One leading hypothesis for the development and progression of epilepsy is that large-scale changes in gene transcription and protein expression contribute to aberrant network restructuring and hyperexcitability, resulting in the genesis of repeated seizures. Current research shows that epigenetic mechanisms, including posttranslational alterations to the proteins around which DNA is coiled, chemical modifications to DNA, and the activity of various noncoding RNA molecules exert important influences on these gene networks in experimental epilepsy...
May 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449218/development-and-pharmacologic-characterization-of-the-rat-6-hz-model-of-partial-seizures
#5
Cameron S Metcalf, Peter J West, Kyle E Thomson, Sharon F Edwards, Misty D Smith, H S White, Karen S Wilcox
OBJECTIVE: The mouse 6 Hz model of psychomotor seizures is a well-established and commonly used preclinical model for antiseizure drug (ASD) discovery. Despite its widespread use both in the identification and differentiation of novel ASDs in mice, a corresponding assay in rats has not been developed. We established a method for 6 Hz seizure induction in rats, with seizure behaviors similar to those observed in mice including head nod, jaw clonus, and forelimb clonus. METHODS: A convulsive current that elicits these seizure behaviors in 97% of rats (CC97 ) was determined using a Probit analysis...
April 27, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441636/psychological-features-and-quality-of-life-in-50-adult-patients-with-epilepsy-and-their-caregivers-from-the-lecco-epilepsy-center-italy
#6
Alessandra Petruzzi, Andrea Rigamonti, Claudia Yvonne Finocchiaro, Paolo Borelli, Elena Lamperti, Antonio Silvani, Rossana Regazzoni, Lorenzo Stanzani, Andrea Salmaggi
Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders. To the best of our knowledge, in Italy, the relationship between patients' and caregivers' psychological state has rarely been analyzed. Thus, we sought to evaluate both the psychological state of patients with epilepsy and that of their caregivers and the interrelationship between them. We also assessed the existing relation between psychological features and some clinical and demographic information, such as number of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), epilepsy duration and education level of patients and their caregivers...
April 22, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427025/psychiatric-symptoms-after-temporal-epilepsy-surgery-a-one-year-follow-up-study
#7
Carmen Iranzo-Tatay, Teresa Rubio-Granero, Antonio Gutierrez, Mercedes Garcés, Rebeca Conde, Asier Gómez-Ibáñez, Sergio Arques-Egea, Lucia Sancho-Miñana, David Hervas-Marín, Vicente Villanueva
Psychiatric symptoms must be considered in patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy after epilepsy surgery. The main objectives of our study were to describe clinical and socio-demographical characteristics of a cohort of patients with pharmacoresistant temporal lobe epilepsy who underwent temporal lobe epilepsy surgery, and moreover, to evaluate possible risk factors for developing psychiatric symptoms. In order to achieve those goals, we conducted a prospective evaluation of psychopathology throughout the first year after surgery in a clinical sample of 72 patients, by means of three clinical rated measures; the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS), the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS)...
May 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414069/complications-associated-with-antibiotic-administration-neurological-adverse-events-and-interference-with-antiepileptic-drugs
#8
REVIEW
Susanna Esposito, Maria Paola Canevini, Nicola Principi
Antibiotic use is associated with toxic effects involving the peripheral and central nervous systems and it may interfere with antiepileptic drugs, causing significant variations in their serum levels and activity. Prompt identification of neurological complications during antibiotic therapy is important in order to make appropriate modifications to medication. Characteristics of the drug and the patient, including age and underlying diseases, may favour these complications. The main aim of this study was to review the neurological adverse events that may follow antibiotic administration, the mechanisms that cause them, and the possibility of prevention and treatment...
April 13, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409335/multichannel-interictal-spike-activity-detection-using-time-frequency-entropy-measure
#9
Palani Thanaraj, B Parvathavarthini
Localization of interictal spikes is an important clinical step in the pre-surgical assessment of pharmacoresistant epileptic patients. The manual selection of interictal spike periods is cumbersome and involves a considerable amount of analysis workload for the physician. The primary focus of this paper is to automate the detection of interictal spikes for clinical applications in epilepsy localization. The epilepsy localization procedure involves detection of spikes in a multichannel EEG epoch. Therefore, a multichannel Time-Frequency (T-F) entropy measure is proposed to extract features related to the interictal spike activity...
April 13, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384161/microrna-hsa-mir-134-is-a-circulating-biomarker-for-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#10
Simoni H Avansini, Beatriz Pereira de Sousa Lima, Rodrigo Secolin, Marilza L Santos, Ana Carolina Coan, André S Vieira, Fábio R Torres, Benilton S Carvalho, Marina K M Alvim, Márcia E Morita, Clarissa L Yasuda, Luciana R Pimentel-Silva, Danyella B Dogini, Fabio Rogerio, Fernando Cendes, Iscia Lopes-Cendes
Epilepsy is misdiagnosed in up to 25% of patients, leading to serious and long-lasting consequences. Recently, circulating microRNAs have emerged as potential biomarkers in a number of clinical scenarios. The purpose of this study was to identify and to validate circulating microRNAs that could be used as biomarkers in the diagnosis of epilepsy. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to measure plasma levels of three candidate microRNAs in two phases of study: an initial discovery phase with 14 patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE), 13 with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) and 16 controls; and a validation cohort constituted of an independent cohort of 65 patients with MTLE and 83 controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320117/use-of-social-media-to-assess-the-effectiveness-of-vagal-nerve-stimulation-in-dravet-syndrome-a-caregiver-s-perspective
#11
Rushna Ali, Mona Elsayed, Manpreet Kaur, Ellen Air, Naznin Mahmood, Jules Constantinou, Jason Schwalb
BACKGROUND: Dravet syndrome (DS) is a rare genetic epilepsy syndrome which is particularly pharmacoresistant. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is commonly used in the treatment of DS as an adjunct to medical therapy. A meaningful assessment of post-surgical outcomes with VNS is difficult given the rarity of the condition. OBJECTIVE: In a novel approach, we used social media to contact patients with DS to gather data on post-surgical seizure reduction and overall satisfaction with VNS...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317156/synthesis-and-anticonvulsant-properties-of-new-3-3-diphenyl-2-5-dioxo-pyrrolidin-1-yl-acetamides-and-3-3-diphenyl-propionamides
#12
Jolanta Obniska, Anna Rapacz, Sabina Rybka, Małgorzata Góra, Paweł Żmudzki, Krzysztof Kamiński
The focused library of new amides derived from 3,3-diphenyl-2,5-dioxo-pyrrolidin-1-yl-acetic acid (2a-t) and 3,3-diphenyl-propionic acid (3a-t) as potential anticonvulsant agents was synthesized. The final products were obtained in the amidation reaction of the given carboxylic acid (2, 3) with appropriate secondary amines in the presence of carbonyldiimidazole (CDI) as a coupling reagent. The initial anticonvulsant screening was performed in mice intraperitoneally (i.p.) using the "classical" maximal electroshock (MES) and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ) seizure models, whereas the acute neurological toxicity was determined applying the rotarod test...
April 2017: Archiv der Pharmazie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303498/validation-of-a-preclinical-drug-screening-platform-for-pharmacoresistant-epilepsy
#13
Melissa L Barker-Haliski, Kristina Johnson, Peggy Billingsley, Jennifer Huff, Laura J Handy, Rizvana Khaleel, Zhenmei Lu, Matthew J Mau, Timothy H Pruess, Carlos Rueda, Gerald Saunders, Tristan K Underwood, Fabiola Vanegas, Misty D Smith, Peter J West, Karen S Wilcox
The successful identification of promising investigational therapies for the treatment of epilepsy can be credited to the use of numerous animal models of seizure and epilepsy for over 80 years. In this time, the maximal electroshock test in mice and rats, the subcutaneous pentylenetetrazol test in mice and rats, and more recently the 6 Hz assay in mice, have been utilized as primary models of electrically or chemically-evoked seizures in neurologically intact rodents. In addition, rodent kindling models, in which chronic network hyperexcitability has developed, have been used to identify new agents...
March 16, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295557/parachlorophenylalanine-induced-5-ht-depletion-alters-behavioral-and-brain-neurotransmitters-levels-in-6-hz-psychomotor-seizure-model-in-mice
#14
Kausar Jahan, Krishna K Pillai, Divya Vohora
The present study was designed to investigate the role of serotonin and other neurotransmitters namely dopamine (DA), histamine, nor-epinephrine (NE), glutamate, and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the 6-Hz-induced psychomotor seizures in Swiss albino mice. Parachlorophenylalanine (PCPA, 300 mg/kg/day, i.p for 3 days)-treated mice were given 6-Hz stimulation. Sodium valproate (SVP) (200 mg/kg/day, p.o for 3 days) was used as a reference antiepileptic drug. The behavioral changes induced by 6 Hz including increased rearing and grooming, Straub's tail, behavioral arrest, stun position were amplified by PCPA...
March 10, 2017: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290134/animal-models-of-seizures-and-epilepsy-past-present-and-future-role-for-the-discovery-of-antiseizure-drugs
#15
Wolfgang Löscher
The identification of potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of epilepsy requires the use of seizure models. Except for some early treatments, including bromides and phenobarbital, the antiseizure activity of all clinically used drugs was, for the most part, defined by acute seizure models in rodents using the maximal electroshock and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole seizure tests and the electrically kindled rat. Unfortunately, the clinical evidence to date would suggest that none of these models, albeit useful, are likely to identify those therapeutics that will effectively manage patients with drug resistant seizures...
March 13, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281007/seizure-outcomes-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-surgery-in-patients-with-normal-mri-and-without-specific-histopathology
#16
Jugoslav Ivanovic, Pål G Larsson, Ylva Østby, John Hald, Bård K Krossnes, Jan G Fjeld, Are H Pripp, Kristin Å Alfstad, Arild Egge, Milo Stanisic
BACKGROUND: Seizure outcome following surgery in pharmacoresistant temporal lobe epilepsy patients with normal magnetic resonance imaging and normal or non-specific histopathology is not sufficiently presented in the literature. METHODS: In a retrospective design, we reviewed data of 263 patients who had undergone temporal lobe epilepsy surgery and identified 26 (9.9%) who met the inclusion criteria. Seizure outcomes were determined at 2-year follow-up. Potential predictors of Engel class I (satisfactory outcome) were identified by logistic regression analyses...
May 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264441/effect-of-oxidative-stress-on-abc-transporters-contribution-to-epilepsy-pharmacoresistance
#17
REVIEW
Gurpreet Kaur Grewal, Samiksha Kukal, Neha Kanojia, Luciano Saso, Shrikant Kukreti, Ritushree Kukreti
Epilepsy is a neurological disorder affecting around 1%-2% of population worldwide and its treatment includes use of antiepileptic drugs to control seizures. Failure to respond to antiepileptic drug therapy is a major clinical problem and over expression of ATP-binding cassette transporters is considered one of the major reasons for pharmacoresistance. In this review, we have summarized the regulation of ABC transporters in response to oxidative stress due to disease and antiepileptic drugs. Further, ketogenic diet and antioxidants were examined for their role in pharmacoresistance...
February 27, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259063/to-what-extent-does-depression-influence-quality-of-life-of-people-with-pharmacoresistant-epilepsy-in-argentina
#18
Laura Scévola, Mercedes Sarudiansky, Alejandra Lanzillotti, Silvia Oddo, Silvia Kochen, Luciana D'Alessio
INTRODUCTION: Depression is the most frequent psychiatric co-morbidity in patients with epilepsy. Lifetime prevalence of depression is reported more frequently in temporal lobe epilepsy and is estimated at 35%. This co-morbidity appears to be related with various mechanisms. The aim of this study was to determine the quality of life (QoL) of patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy with and without co-morbid depression in an Argentinean population. METHODS: Patients admitted to the video-EEG monitoring unit during the period 2010-2013 went through a standardized psychiatric assessment using SCID-I (Structured Clinical Interview for Axis I diagnoses of DSM-IV), BDI II (Beck Depression Inventory) GAF (Global assessment of functioning), and Q LES Q-SF (for quality of life)...
April 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229367/inhibition-of-mtor-pathway-by-rapamycin-decreases-p-glycoprotein-expression-and-spontaneous-seizures-in-pharmacoresistant-epilepsy
#19
Xiaosa Chi, Cheng Huang, Rui Li, Wei Wang, Mengqian Wu, Jinmei Li, Dong Zhou
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has been demonstrated to mediate multidrug resistance in various tumors by inducing P-glycoprotein (P-gp) overexpression. Here, we investigated the correlation between the mTOR pathway and P-gp expression in pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Temporal cortex specimens were obtained from patients with refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) and age-matched controls who underwent surgeries at West China Hospital of Sichuan University between June 2014 and May 2015. We established a rat model of epilepsy kindled by coriaria lactone (CL) and screened pharmacoresistant rats (non-responders) using phenytoin...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206669/characterization-of-focal-cortical-dysplasia-with-balloon-cells-by-layer-specific-markers-evidence-for-differential-vulnerability-of-interneurons
#20
Julia M Nakagawa, Catharina Donkels, Susanne Fauser, Andreas Schulze-Bonhage, Marco Prinz, Josef Zentner, Carola A Haas
OBJECTIVE: Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is a major cause of pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy. Little is known about the pathomechanisms underlying the characteristic cytoarchitectural abnormalities associated with FCD. In the present study, a broad panel of markers identifying layer-specific neuron subpopulations was applied to characterize dyslamination and structural alterations in FCD with balloon cells (FCD 2b). METHODS: Pan-neuronal neuronal nuclei (NeuN) and layer-specific protein expression (Reelin, Calbindin, Calretinin, SMI32 (nonphosphorylated neurofilament H), Parvalbumin, transducin-like enhancer protein 4 (TLE4), and Vimentin) was studied by immunohistochemistry on paraffin sections of FCD2b cases (n = 22) and was compared to two control groups with (n = 7) or without epilepsy (n = 4 postmortem cases)...
April 2017: Epilepsia
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