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Chemical restraint

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329403/host-tree-selection-by-the-invasive-argentine-ant-hymenoptera-formicidae-in-relation-to-honeydew-producing-insects
#1
Yugo Seko, Daisuke Hayasaka, Atsushi Nishino, Taizo Uchida, Francisco Sánchez-Bayo, Takuo Sawahata
The Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr; Hymenoptera: Formicidae), is one of the world's most hazardous invasive species, and thus its eradication from Japan is important. Physical and chemical controls can be expensive and cause strong adverse effects on local terrestrial ecosystems regardless of their high efficacy. Here, presence/absence of host-tree selection by Argentine ants was investigated to understand the ant-honeydew-producing insects interactions in order to develop new cultural controls compatible with biodiversity conservation...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314245/accurate-geometries-for-mountain-pass-regions-of-the-ramachandran-plot-using-quantum-chemical-calculations
#2
Zhongming Jiang, Malgorzata Biczysko, Nigel W Moriarty
Unusual local arrangements of protein in Ramachandran space is not well represented by standard geometry tools used in either protein structure refinement using simple harmonic geometry restraints or in protein simulations using molecular mechanics force fields. By contrast, quantum chemical computations using small poly-peptide molecular models can predict accurate geometries for any well-defined backbone Ramachandran orientation. For conformations along transition regions - ϕ from -60 to 60° - a very good agreement with representative high-resolution experimental X-ray (≤1...
January 4, 2018: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277710/anxiety-neuroinflammation-cholinergic-and-gabaergic-abnormalities-are-early-markers-of-gulf-war-illness-in-a-mouse-model-of-the-disease
#3
Isabel Carreras, Nurgul Aytan, Tiffany Mellott, Ji-Kyung Choi, Margaret Lehar, Leah Crabtree, Kimberly Leite-Morris, Bruce G Jenkins, Jan Krzysztof Blusztajn, Alpaslan Dedeoglu
Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a chronic disease that affects the 1991 Gulf War (GW) veterans for which treatment is lacking. It has been hypothesized that drugs used to protect military personnel from chemical attacks and insects during the war: pyridostigmine bromide (PB),N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), and permethrin (PER) together with stress may have contributed collectively and synergistically to generate GWI. There is a need to find markers of pathology to be used in pre-clinical trials. For this purpose we employed a previously validated mouse model of GWI evoked by daily exposure to PB (1...
December 22, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199981/solving-the-scalability-issue-in-quantum-based-refinement-q-r-1
#4
Min Zheng, Nigel W Moriarty, Yanting Xu, Jeffrey R Reimers, Pavel V Afonine, Mark P Waller
Accurately refining biomacromolecules using a quantum-chemical method is challenging because the cost of a quantum-chemical calculation scales approximately as nm, where n is the number of atoms and m (≥3) is based on the quantum method of choice. This fundamental problem means that quantum-chemical calculations become intractable when the size of the system requires more computational resources than are available. In the development of the software package called Q|R, this issue is referred to as Q|R#1. A divide-and-conquer approach has been developed that fragments the atomic model into small manageable pieces in order to solve Q|R#1...
December 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190085/high-confidence-protein-ligand-complex-modeling-by-nmr-guided-docking-enables-early-hit-optimization
#5
Andrew Proudfoot, Dirksen E Bussiere, Andreas Lingel
Structure-based drug design is an integral part of modern day drug discovery and requires detailed structural characterization of protein-ligand interactions, which is most commonly performed by X-ray crystallography. However, the success rate of generating these costructures is often variable, in particular when working with dynamic proteins or weakly binding ligands. As a result, structural information is not routinely obtained in these scenarios, and ligand optimization is challenging or not pursued at all, representing a substantial limitation in chemical scaffolds and diversity...
November 30, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189927/solvent-saturation-transfer-to-proteins-sstp-for-structural-and-functional-characterization-of-proteins
#6
Pushpa Mishra, C Ashley Barnes, Madeleine Strickland, Nico Tjandra
Protein structure determination using NMR is dependent on experimentally acquired distance restraints. Often, however, an insufficient number of these restraints are available for determining a protein's correct fold, much less its detailed three-dimensional structure. In consideration of this problem, we propose a simple means to acquire supplemental structural restraints from protein surface accessibilities using solvent saturation transfer to proteins (SSTP), based on the principles of paramagnetic chemical-exchange saturation transfer...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular NMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183388/restraint-use-among-selected-hospitalized-elderly-patients-in-cairo-egypt
#7
Amira G Eltaliawi, Mohamed El-Shinawi, Angela Comer, Sarah Hamazah, Jon Mark Hirshon
OBJECTIVE: This study's primary objective was to investigate the prevalence of physical and chemical restraint use in selected elderly hospitalized patients. RESULTS: This study was conducted in April 2014 in four major acute care hospitals. Trained data collectors assessed the use of physical and chemical restraint among all admitted elderly patients. There were 287 elderly patients (median age 64 years, 46% women). 32 patients were restrained. The overall prevalence of restraints was 11...
November 28, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172512/structural-and-dynamical-impact-of-a-universal-fluorescent-nucleoside-analogue-based-on-3-hydroxychromone-inserted-into-a-dna-duplex
#8
Loussiné Zargarian, Akli Ben Imeddourene, Krishna Gavvala, Nicolas P F Barthes, Benoît Y Michel, Cyril Assongo Kenfack, Nelly Morellet, Brigitte René, Philippe Fossé, Alain Burger, Yves Mély, Olivier Mauffret
Recently, a 3-hydroxychromone based nucleoside 3HCnt has been developed as a highly environment-sensitive nucleoside surrogate to investigate protein-DNA interactions. When it is incorporated in DNA, the probe is up to 50-fold brighter than 2-aminopurine, the reference fluorescent nucleoside. Although the insertion of 3HCnt in DNA was previously shown to not alter the overall DNA structure, the possibility of the probe inducing local effects cannot be ruled out. Hence, a systematic structural and dynamic study is required to unveil the 3HCnt's limitations and to properly interpret the data obtained with this universal probe...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151095/violent-behavior
#9
Sophia Sopromadze, Alexander Tsiskaridze
Violence is a significant public health problem representing one of the leading causes of death worldwide for people aged 15-44 years. Although violence and aggression are more frequent in adolescence and early adult life and decline with advancing age, these conditions can still develop for the first time in old age especially in association with organic brain disorder. Rates of violent death vary according to country income levels and are twice as higher in low- to middle-income countries than in high-income countries...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129149/anaesthetic-and-cardiorespiratory-effects-of-ketamine-plus-dexmedetomidine-for-chemical-restraint-in-black-capuchin-monkeys-sapajus-nigritus
#10
J A B Chagas, L C P Santos, J R Silva Filho, C Bondan
AIMS: To evaluate the quality of anaesthesia and cardiorespiratory effects of ketamine and two doses of dexmedetomidine in captive black capuchin monkeys (Sapajus nigritus) undergoing routine clinical examination. METHODS: Twenty-four animals undergoing routine clinical examination were enrolled in the study. Animals were briefly physically restrained and examined to ensure no obvious illness was present and that they were healthy. Monkeys were randomly allocated to two groups (n=12 per group) and then treated with a combination of I/M 7...
November 12, 2017: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125364/improving-care-for-patients-with-dementia-in-the-recovery-room
#11
Helena Edis
Caring for patients with dementia emerging from general anaesthesia in the recovery room can be very challenging. Sedation is sometimes necessary in order to nurse patients effectively and avoid any negative consequences of poor post-anaesthetic care. No local or national guidelines could be found to suggest best nursing practice in this situation. Three small-scale innovations were introduced into the recovery room in one hospital as part of a quality improvement project to give alternatives to chemical restraint...
November 9, 2017: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050999/chemical-capture-of-impala-aepyceros-melampus-a-review-of-factors-contributing-to-morbidity-and-mortality
#12
REVIEW
Gareth E Zeiler, Leith C R Meyer
OBJECTIVE: To review the factors that contribute to morbidity and mortality of impala undergoing chemical capture, and discuss how they are potentially mitigated. DATABASES USED: PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar and Onderstepoort Veterinary Academic Hospital records. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Impala are an important species of antelope in Africa and are often captured during management procedures, veterinary interventions and research projects...
May 18, 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044728/comparison-of-nmr-and-crystal-structures-of-membrane-proteins-and-computational-refinement-to-improve-model-quality
#13
Julia Koehler Leman, Andrew R D'Avino, Yash Bhatnagar, Jeffrey J Gray
Membrane proteins are challenging to study and restraints for structure determination are typically sparse or of low resolution because the membrane environment that surrounds them leads to a variety of experimental challenges. When membrane protein structures are determined by different techniques in different environments, a natural question is "which structure is most biologically relevant?" Towards answering this question, we compiled a dataset of membrane proteins with known structures determined by both solution NMR and X-ray crystallography...
October 16, 2017: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986387/determination-of-reference-values-for-intraocular-pressure-and-schirmer-tear-test-results-in-clinically-normal-domestic-donkeys-equus-asinus
#14
Masoud Selk Ghaffari, Amin Sabzevari, SeyedMehdi Ghamsari, Hussein Shad
This study was conducted to establish normal reference range for the Schirmer tear test (STT) and intraocular pressure (IOP) in clinically normal donkeys for use in clinical practice. Sixteen adult Ethiopian domestic donkeys were used in this study. Complete ophthalmic examinations were performed without chemical restraint. STT values were evaluated in both eyes of all donkeys using a commercial STT strip. IOP was measured in both eyes with a Tono-Pen Vet (Reichert. USA) without using regional nerve blocks...
October 6, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973862/de-novo-design-of-covalently-constrained-mesosize-protein-scaffolds-with-unique-tertiary-structures
#15
Bobo Dang, Haifan Wu, Vikram Khipple Mulligan, Marco Mravic, Yibing Wu, Thomas Lemmin, Alexander Ford, Daniel-Adriano Silva, David Baker, William F DeGrado
The folding of natural proteins typically relies on hydrophobic packing, metal binding, or disulfide bond formation in the protein core. Alternatively, a 3D structure can be defined by incorporating a multivalent cross-linking agent, and this approach has been successfully developed for the selection of bicyclic peptides from large random-sequence libraries. By contrast, there is no general method for the de novo computational design of multicross-linked proteins with predictable and well-defined folds, including ones not found in nature...
October 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945353/characterizing-protein-dynamics-with-integrative-use-of-bulk-and-single-molecule-techniques
#16
Zhu Liu, Zhou Gong, Yong Cao, Yue-He Ding, Meng-Qiu Dong, Yun-Bi Lu, Wei-Ping Zhang, Chun Tang
A protein dynamically samples multiple conformations, and the conformational dynamics enables protein function. Most biophysical measurements are ensemble-based, with the observables averaged over all members of the ensemble. Though attainable, the decomposition of the observables to the constituent conformational states can be computationally expensive and ambiguous. Here we show that the incorporation of single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) data resolves the ambiguity and affords protein ensemble structures that are more precise and accurate...
October 2, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915909/differential-signal-sensitivities-can-contribute-to-the-stability-of-multispecies-bacterial-communities
#17
János Juhász, Dóra Bihary, Attila Jády, Sándor Pongor, Balázs Ligeti
BACKGROUND: Bacterial species present in multispecies microbial communities often react to the same chemical signal but at vastly different concentrations. The existence of different response thresholds with respect to the same signal molecule has been well documented in quorum sensing which is one of the best studied inter-cellular signalling mechanisms in bacteria. The biological significance of this phenomenon is still poorly understood, and cannot be easily studied in nature or in laboratory models...
September 15, 2017: Biology Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891701/sedative-effects-of-intranasal-midazolam-administration-in-wild-caught-blue-fronted-amazon-amazona-aestiva-and-orange-winged-amazon-amazona-amazonica-parrots
#18
Débora P H Schaffer, Nayone L L C de Araújo, Ana Cláudia S Raposo, Emanoel F Martins Filho, João Victor R Vieira, Arianne P Oriá
Safe and effective sedation protocols are important for chemical restraint of birds in clinical and diagnostic procedures, such as clinical evaluations, radiographic positioning, and blood collection. These protocols may reduce stress and ease the management of wild-caught birds, which are susceptible to injury or death when exposed to stressful situations. We compare the sedative effect of intranasal midazolam in wild-caught blue-fronted (Amazona aestiva) and orange-winged (Amazona amazonica) Amazon parrots...
September 2017: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887093/repeated-restraint-stress-increases-seizure-susceptibility-by-activation-of-hippocampal-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#19
Xinjian Zhu, Jingde Dong, Zhengrong Xia, Aifeng Zhang, Jie Chao, Honghong Yao
A growing body of evidence suggests that stress triggers a variety of pathophysiological responses. Recent studies show that stress produces enduring effects on structure and function of hippocampus, which is one of the most important structures involved in epilepsy. In the present study, we determined the effect of repeated restraint stress exposure on the susceptibility of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures and the possible mechanisms involved using a rodent model. Our results show that mice subjected to repeated restraint stress exhibited shorter latency to PTZ-induced tonic-clonic seizures and higher seizure severity, suggesting chronic restraint stress increases seizure susceptibility...
September 5, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862842/cyanine-conformational-restraint-in-the-far-red-range
#20
Megan S Michie, Ralph Götz, Christian Franke, Matthew Bowler, Nikita Kumari, Valentin Magidson, Marcia Levitus, Jadranka Loncarek, Markus Sauer, Martin J Schnermann
Far-red cyanine fluorophores find extensive use in modern microscopy despite modest quantum yields. To improve the photon output of these molecules, we report a synthetic strategy that blocks the major deactivation pathway: excited-state trans-to-cis polyene rotation. In the key transformation, a protected dialdehyde precursor undergoes a cascade reaction to install the requisite tetracyclic ring system. The resulting molecules exhibit the characteristic features of conformational restraint, including improved fluorescence quantum yield and extended lifetime...
September 1, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
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