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Chemical restraint

Mostafa Araghi, Saeed Azizi, Nasser Vesal, Bahram Dalir-Naghade
The sedative effects of diazepam, midazolam, and xylazine after intranasal administration were evaluated in 72 (36 male and 36 female) juvenile healthy ostriches ( Struthio camelus ), weighing 50-61 kg and aged 4-5 months. The birds were randomly divided into 3 groups (n = 24), then each group was further subdivided to 4 subgroups (n = 6). For each drug, 4 different doses were chosen and the total calculated dose was equally administered into either naris of the individual bird. The appropriate dose of each drug to produce standing chemical restraint or sternal recumbency was evaluated based on the onset time, the duration of maximum effect, and the duration of sedation...
September 2016: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
Jiuyang Liu, Jia Gao, Fudong Li, Rongsheng Ma, Qingtao Wei, Aidong Wang, Jihui Wu, Ke Ruan
BACKGROUND: The delineation of intrinsically weak interactions between novel targets and fragment screening hits has long limited the pace of hit-to-lead evolution. Rho guanine-nucleotide dissociation inhibitor 2 (RhoGDI2) is a novel target that lacks any chemical probes for the treatment of tumor metastasis. METHODS: Protein-observed and ligand-observed NMR spectroscopy was used to characterize the weak interactions between RhoGDI2 and fragment screening hits. RESULTS: We identified three hits of RhoGDI2 using streamlined NMR fragment-based screening...
October 6, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Valéria Amorim Conforti, Fernando Cesar Cascelli de Azevedo, Otávio Luís de Oliveira Henriques Paulo, Wanderlei de Moraes, James Albert Deddens
We describe the use of a combination of tiletamine and zolazepam (Zoletil() for chemical restraint of South American coatis ( Nasua nasua ) under field conditions. We immobilized 53 coatis from a free-ranging population at Iguaçu National Park, Brazil, with Zoletil. Males and females (1.0-8.7 kg) of different age groups participated in the study. Four dosage (milligram per kilogram body weight) groups were created based on quartiles as follows: 1) 4.76-6.68 mg/kg (n=13), 2) 6.83-7.71 mg/kg (n=13), 3) 7.72-8...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Jonathan L Chen, Stanislav Bellaousov, Douglas H Turner
Dynamic programming methods for predicting RNA secondary structure often use thermodynamics and experimental restraints and/or constraints to limit folding space. Chemical mapping results typically restrain certain nucleotides not to be in AU or GC pairs. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra can reveal the order of AU, GC, and GU pairs in double helixes. This chapter describes a program, NMR-assisted prediction of secondary structure and chemical shifts (NAPSS-CS), that constrains possible secondary structures on the basis of the NMR determined order and 5'-3' direction of AU, GC, and GU pairs in helixes...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Destiny J Davis, Byung-Ho Kang, Angelo S Heringer, Thomas E Wilkop, Georgia Drakakaki
Unconventional protein secretion (UPS) describes secretion pathways that bypass one or several of the canonical secretion pit-stops on the way to the plasma membrane, and/or involve the secretion of leaderless proteins. So far, alternatives to conventional secretion were primarily observed and studied in yeast and animal cells. The sessile lifestyle of plants brings with it unique restraints on how they adapt to adverse conditions and environmental challenges. Recently, attention towards unconventional secretion pathways in plant cells has substantially increased, with the large number of leaderless proteins identified through proteomic studies...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Matthew C Nattinger, Brian Kaskie
Continued growth in the number of individuals with dementia residing in assisted living (AL) facilities raises concerns about their safety and protection. However, unlike federally regulated nursing facilities, AL facilities are state-regulated and there is a high degree of variation among policies designed to protect persons with dementia. Despite the important role these protection policies have in shaping the quality of life of persons with dementia residing in AL facilities, little is known about their formation...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Aging & Social Policy
Sylvain Nichols
This article is a review of the most frequent disorders affecting the upper airway of cattle that are suitable for surgery. Information regarding the clinical signs, diagnostic methods, and the chemical restraint of cattle in respiratory distress are highlighted. Surgeries that can be performed in a field setting are thoroughly described.
November 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
Pawel A Janowski, Nigel W Moriarty, Brian P Kelley, David A Case, Darrin M York, Paul D Adams, Gregory L Warren
Modern crystal structure refinement programs rely on geometry restraints to overcome the challenge of a low data-to-parameter ratio. While the classical Engh and Huber restraints work well for standard amino-acid residues, the chemical complexity of small-molecule ligands presents a particular challenge. Most current approaches either limit ligand restraints to those that can be readily described in the Crystallographic Information File (CIF) format, thus sacrificing chemical flexibility and energetic accuracy, or they employ protocols that substantially lengthen the refinement time, potentially hindering rapid automated refinement workflows...
September 2016: Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Structural Biology
Shenlin Wang, Christopher Ing, Sanaz Emami, Yunjiang Jiang, Hongjun Liang, Régis Pomès, Leonid S Brown, Vladimir Ladizhansky
Multiple moderate-resolution crystal structures of human aquaporin-1 have provided a foundation for understanding the molecular mechanism of selective water translocation in human cells. To gain insight into the interfacial structure and dynamics of human aquaporin-1 in a lipid environment, we performed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations. Using magic angle spinning solid-state NMR, we report a near complete resonance assignment of the human aquaporin-1. Chemical shift analysis of the secondary structure identified pronounced deviations from crystallographic structures in extracellular loops A and C, including the cis Y37-P38 bond in loop A, as well as ordering and immobilization of loop C...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Robert F Cook
Multiple length-scale effects are demonstrated in indentation-strength measurements of a range of ceramic materials under inert and reactive conditions. Meso-scale effects associated with flaw disruption by lateral cracking at large indentation loads are shown to increase strengths above the ideal indentation response. Micro-scale effects associated with toughening by microstructural restraints at small indentation loads are shown to decrease strengths below the ideal response. A combined meso-micro-scale analysis is developed that describes ceramic inert strength behaviors over the complete indentation flaw size range...
October 2015: Journal of the American Ceramic Society
Matthias Trautwein, Kai Fredriksson, Heiko M Möller, Thomas E Exner
Apart from their central role during 3D structure determination of proteins the backbone chemical shift assignment is the basis for a number of applications, like chemical shift perturbation mapping and studies on the dynamics of proteins. This assignment is not a trivial task even if a 3D protein structure is known and needs almost as much effort as the assignment for structure prediction if performed manually. We present here a new algorithm based solely on 4D [(1)H,(15)N]-HSQC-NOESY-[(1)H,(15)N]-HSQC spectra which is able to assign a large percentage of chemical shifts (73-82 %) unambiguously, demonstrated with proteins up to a size of 250 residues...
August 2016: Journal of Biomolecular NMR
Zeynep Yurtsever, Dhara A Patel, Daniel L Kober, Alvin Su, Chantel A Miller, Arthur G Romero, Michael J Holtzman, Tom J Brett
BACKGROUND: P38 MAP kinases are centrally involved in mediating extracellular signaling in various diseases. While much attention has previously been focused on the ubiquitously expressed family member MAPK14 (p38α), recent studies indicate that family members such as MAPK13 (p38δ) display a more selective cellular and tissue expression and might therefore represent a specific kinase to target in certain diseases. METHODS: To facilitate the design of potent and specific inhibitors, we present here the structural, biophysical, and functional characterization of two new MAPK13-inhibitor complexes, as well as the first comprehensive structural, biophysical, and functional analysis of MAPK13 complexes with four different inhibitor compounds of greatly varying potency...
November 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Geir Villy Isaksen, Johan Åqvist, Bjørn Olav Brandsdal
The structural origin of enzyme adaptation to low temperature, allowing efficient catalysis of chemical reactions even near the freezing point of water, remains a fundamental puzzle in biocatalysis. A remarkable universal fingerprint shared by all cold-active enzymes is a reduction of the activation enthalpy accompanied by a more negative entropy, which alleviates the exponential decrease in chemical reaction rates caused by lowering of the temperature. Herein, we explore the role of protein surface mobility in determining this enthalpy-entropy balance...
July 12, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Marvin J Bayro, Robert Tycko
The HIV-1 capsid protein (CA) forms the capsid shell that encloses RNA within a mature HIV-1 virion. Previous studies by electron microscopy have shown that the capsid shell is primarily a triangular lattice of CA hexamers, with variable curvature that destroys the ideal symmetry of a planar lattice. The mature CA lattice depends on CA dimerization, which occurs through interactions between helix 9 segments of the C-terminal domain (CTD) of CA. Several high-resolution structures of the CTD-CTD dimerization interface have been reported, based on X-ray crystallography and multidimensional solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), with significant differences in amino acid side chain conformations and helix 9-helix 9 orientations...
July 13, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Yu Hirano, Kazuki Takeda, Kunio Miki
The fine structures of proteins, such as the positions of hydrogen atoms, distributions of valence electrons and orientations of bound waters, are critical factors for determining the dynamic and chemical properties of proteins. Such information cannot be obtained by conventional protein X-ray analyses at 3.0-1.5 Å resolution, in which amino acids are fitted into atomically unresolved electron-density maps and refinement calculations are performed under strong restraints. Therefore, we usually supplement the information on hydrogen atoms and valence electrons in proteins with pre-existing common knowledge obtained by chemistry in small molecules...
June 9, 2016: Nature
Anne Gulland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Branden M Maxwell, Marla K Brunell, Cara H Olsen, David E Bentzel
Body temperature is a common physiologic parameter measured in both clinical and research settings, with rectal thermometry being implied as the 'gold standard.' However, rectal thermometry usually requires physical or chemical restraint, potentially causing falsely elevated readings due to animal stress. A less stressful method may eliminate this confounding variable. The current study compared 2 types of digital rectal thermometers-a calibrated digital thermometer and a common digital thermometer-with an implantable subcutaneous transponder microchip...
2016: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
Stephen E Gordon, Alyssa B Dufour, Sara M Monti, Melissa L P Mattison, Angela G Catic, Cindy P Thomas, Lewis A Lipsitz
OBJECTIVES: US nursing homes care for increasing numbers of residents with dementia and associated behavioral problems. They often lack access to specialized clinical expertise relevant to managing these problems. Project ECHO-AGE provides this expertise through videoconference sessions between frontline nursing home staff and clinical experts at an academic medical center. We hypothesized that ECHO-AGE would result in less use of physical and chemical restraints and other quality improvements in participating facilities...
June 1, 2016: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
Joerg Schaarschmidt, Marcus B M Nagel, Sandra Huth, Holger Jaeschke, Rocco Moretti, Vera Hintze, Martin von Bergen, Stefan Kalkhof, Jens Meiler, Ralf Paschke
The thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) with a characteristic large extracellular domain (ECD). TSHR activation is initiated by binding of the hormone ligand TSH to the ECD. How the extracellular binding event triggers the conformational changes in the transmembrane domain (TMD) necessary for intracellular G protein activation is poorly understood. To gain insight in this process, the knowledge on the relative positioning of ECD and TMD and the conformation of the linker region at the interface of ECD and TMD are of particular importance...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Mathias Ferber, Jan Kosinski, Alessandro Ori, Umar J Rashid, María Moreno-Morcillo, Bernd Simon, Guillaume Bouvier, Paulo Ricardo Batista, Christoph W Müller, Martin Beck, Michael Nilges
Crosslinking mass spectrometry is increasingly used for structural characterization of multisubunit protein complexes. Chemical crosslinking captures conformational heterogeneity, which typically results in conflicting crosslinks that cannot be satisfied in a single model, making detailed modeling a challenging task. Here we introduce an automated modeling method dedicated to large protein assemblies ('XL-MOD' software is available at that (i) uses a form of spatial restraints that realistically reflects the distribution of experimentally observed crosslinked distances; (ii) automatically deals with ambiguous and/or conflicting crosslinks and identifies alternative conformations within a Bayesian framework; and (iii) allows subunit structures to be flexible during conformational sampling...
June 2016: Nature Methods
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