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MRSA rat

Cassandra L Brinkman, Suzannah M Schmidt-Malan, Jayawant N Mandrekar, Robin Patel
Staphylococcal prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) are associated with biofilm formation, making them difficult to treat; if managed with débridement and implant retention, rifampin-based therapy is usually employed. Rifampin resistance potentially challenges PJI treatment. In investigating the effects of rifampin monotherapy on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) foreign body osteomyelitis in rats, we previously demonstrated that rifampin resistance was selected but that it disappeared 14 days following rifampin monotherapy (1) and that rifampin resistance occurred less frequently following two rounds than one round of rifampin monotherapy (2)...
November 14, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Bin'en Nie, Teng Long, Haiyong Ao, Jianliang Zhou, Tingting Tang, Bing Yue
Infection is the one of the most important causes of titanium implants failure in vivo A developing prophylactic method involves immobilisation of antibiotics, especially vancomycin, on the surface of the titanium implants. However, these methods have limited effect in curbing multiple bacteria infection due to the antibiotic specificity. In the current study, enoxacin was covalently bound to the amine-functionalised Ti surface by a polyethylene glycol (PEG) spacer, and the bactericidal effectiveness was investigated in vitro and in vivo, respectively...
October 31, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Yuliang Dong, Weiqing Liu, Yiling Lei, Tingxi Wu, Shiwen Zhang, Yuchen Guo, Yuan Liu, Demeng Chen, Quan Yuan, Yongyue Wang
Oral infectious diseases may lead to bone loss, which makes it difficult to achieve satisfactory restoration. The rise of multidrug resistant bacteria has put forward severe challenges to the use of antibiotics. Silver (Ag) has long been known as a strong antibacterial agent. In clinic, gelatin sponge with colloid silver is used to reduce tooth extraction complication. To investigate how this material affect infected bone defects, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infected 3-mm-diameter cranial defects were created in adult female Sprague-Dawley rats...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
H Y Shi, Q D Li, X Y Wan
Objective: To investigate the destructive effects of erythromycin on biofilm of MRSA and find the effect of erythromycin on QS related factors. Methods: Tested the MBC of erythromycin on MRSA.Established the model of biofilm.Erythromycin was added into the medium when bacteria were inoculated for 24 h. Tested the biofilm and collected the supernatant or serum of rat at 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 h and 7 d after adding erythromycin to detect the concentration of autoinducing peptides (AIP). Results: The MBC of the erythromycin on standard strains of MRSA was 256 g/L...
October 11, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Jiaul Hoque, Padma Akkapeddi, Chandradhish Ghosh, Divakara S S M Uppu, Jayanta Haldar
Bacterial colonization and subsequent formation of biofilms onto surfaces of medical devices and implants is a major source of nosocomial infections. Most antibacterial coatings to combat infections are either metal-based or nondegradable-polymer-based and hence limited by their nondegradability and unpredictable toxicity. Moreover, to combat infections effectively, the coatings are required to display simultaneous antibacterial and antibiofilm activity. Herein we report biocompatible and biodegradable coatings based on organo-soluble quaternary chitin polymers which were immobilized noncovalently onto surfaces as bactericidal paint...
November 2, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Cristina El Haj, Oscar Murillo, Alba Ribera, Dolors Garcia-Somoza, Fe Tubau, Carmen Cabellos, Javier Cabo, Javier Ariza
Using a tissue cage infection rat model, we test the anti-biofilm effect of clarithromycin on the efficacy of daptomycin and a daptomycin + rifampicin combination against methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In vitro: kill curves, daptomycin exposure studies and clarithromycin activity against biofilm were studied. In vivo: the efficacies of clarithromycin, daptomycin or daptomycin + clarithromycin, daptomycin + rifampicin and daptomycin + rifampicin + clarithromycin combinations were evaluated...
September 17, 2016: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Natália Gomes de Morais, Thacianna Barreto da Costa, Joana Maria Bezerra de Lira, Suênia da Cunha Gonçalves de Albuquerque, Valéria Rêgo Alves Pereira, Milena de Paiva Cavalcanti, Célia Maria Machado Barbosa de Castro
OBJECTIVES: Nutritional aggression in critical periods may lead to epigenetic changes that affect gene expression. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of neonatal malnutrition on the expression of toll-like receptor (TLR)-2, TLR-4, and NLRP3 receptors, caspase-1 enzyme, and interleukin (IL)-1 β production in macrophages infected with methicillin-resistant (MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive (MSSA) Staphylococcus aureus. METHODS: Wistar rats (N = 24) were divided in two distinct groups: nourished (17% casein) and malnourished (8% casein)...
January 2017: Nutrition
Kyung-Hwa Park, Kerryl E Greenwood-Quaintance, Jayawant Mandrekar, Robin Patel
BACKGROUND: We compared tedizolid alone and with rifampin against rifampin and vancomycin plus rifampin in rat model of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) foreign body-associated osteomyelitis. METHODS: The study strain was a prosthetic joint infection-associated isolate. Steady-state pharmacokinetics for intraperitoneal administration of tedizolid, vancomycin, and rifampin were determined in uninfected rats. MRSA was inoculated into the proximal tibia, and a wire was implanted...
August 22, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Peng Teng, Da Huo, Alekhya Nimmagadda, Jianfeng Wu, Fengyu She, Ma Su, Xiaoyang Lin, Jiyu Yan, Annie Cao, Chuanwu Xi, Yong Hu, Jianfeng Cai
Prevalence of drug-resistant bacteria has emerged to be one of the greatest threats in the 21st century. Herein, we report the development of a series of small molecular antibacterial agents that are based on the acylated reduced amide scaffold. These molecules display good potency against a panel of multidrug-resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. Meanwhile, they also effectively inhibit the biofilm formation. Mechanistic studies suggest that these compounds kill bacteria by compromising bacterial membranes, a mechanism analogous to that of host-defense peptides (HDPs)...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Catherine Loc-Carrillo, Caroline Wang, Ahranee Canden, Michael Burr, Jayant Agarwal
Current treatments for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections require intravenously delivered vancomycin; however, systemically delivered vancomycin has its problems. To determine the feasibility and safety of locally delivering vancomycin hydrochloride (~25 mg/Kg) to the medullary canal of long bones, we conducted a pharmacokinetics study using a rat tibia model. We found that administering the vancomycin intraosseously resulted in very low concentrations of vancomycin in the blood plasma and the muscle surrounding the tibia, reducing the risk for systemic toxicity, which is often seen with traditional intravenous administration of vancomycin...
2016: PloS One
Yu-Jia Li, Scott G Harroun, Yu-Chia Su, Chun-Fang Huang, Binesh Unnikrishnan, Han-Jia Lin, Chia-Hua Lin, Chih-Ching Huang
This study reports a two-step method to synthesize spermidine-capped fluorescent carbon quantum dots (Spd-CQDs) and their potential application as an antibacterial agent. Fluorescent carbon quantum dots (CQDs) are synthesized by pyrolysis of ammonium citrate in the solid state and then modified with spermidine by a simple heating treatment without a coupling agent. Spermidine, a naturally occurring polyamine, binds with DNA, lipids, and proteins involved in many important processes within organisms such as DNA stability, and cell growth, proliferation, and death...
October 2016: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Amna Ali Saddiq, Azza Mostafa Mohamed
The aim of this study was to explore the protective impact of aqueous extract of Saudi red propolis against rat lung damage induced by the pathogenic bacteria namely methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ATCC 6538 strain. Infected rats were received a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of bacterial suspension at a dose of 1 X 10(6) CFU / 100g body weight. Results showed that oral administration of an aqueous extract of propolis (50mg/100g body weight) daily for two weeks to infected rats simultaneously with bacterial infection, effectively ameliorated the alteration of oxidative stress biomarker, malondialdehyde (MDA), as well as the antioxidant markers, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), in lungs of infected rats compared with infected untreated ones...
July 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Dong Chai, Xu Liu, Rui Wang, Yan Bai, Yun Cai
As long-standing clinical problems, catheter-related infections and other chronic biofilm infections are more difficult to treat due to the high antibiotic resistance of biofilm. Therefore, new treatments are needed for more effective bacteria clearance. In this study, we evaluated the antibacterial activities of several common antibiotics alone and their combinations against biofilm-embedded methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections, both in vitro and in vivo. In brief, fosfomycin, levofloxacin, and rifampin alone or in combination with linezolid were tested in vitro against planktonic and biofilm-embedded MRSA infection in three MRSA stains...
2016: BioMed Research International
Myriam K S Ballo, Sami Rtimi, César Pulgarin, Nancy Hopf, Aurélie Berthet, John Kiwi, Philippe Moreillon, José M Entenza, Alain Bizzini
In this study, silver/copper (Ag/Cu)-coated catheters were investigated for their efficacy in preventing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in vitro and in vivo Ag and Cu were sputtered (67/33% atomic ratio) on polyurethane catheters by direct-current magnetron sputtering. In vitro, Ag/Cu-coated and uncoated catheters were immersed in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or rat plasma and exposed to MRSA ATCC 43300 at 10(4) to 10(8) CFU/ml. In vivo, Ag/Cu-coated and uncoated catheters were placed in the jugular vein of rats...
September 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Vanessa de Fátima Lima Paiva Medeiros, Ítalo Medeiros Azevedo, Amália Cínthia Meneses Rêgo, Eryvaldo Sócrates Tabosa do Egito, Irami Araújo-Filho, Aldo Cunha Medeiros
PURPOSE: To investigate the antimicrobial, immunological and healing effects of Melipona scutellaris honey on infected wounds of rat skin. METHODS: Twenty four Wistar rats were distributed in four groups (6-each). The uninfected skin wounds of group I rats were treated daily with saline for 7 days. Uninfected wounds (group II) rats were treated with honey. In group III (treated with saline) and group IV (treated with honey) wounds were inoculated with MRSA ATTC43300...
May 2016: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
Jordan Chia-Yung Lai, How-Yee Lai, Nalamolu Koteswara Rao, Shiow-Fern Ng
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Blechnum orientale Linn. (B. orientale) is a fern traditionally used by the natives as a poultice to treat wounds, boils, ulcers, blisters, abscesses, and sores on the skin. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the wound healing ability of a concentrated extract of B. orientale in a hydrogel formulation in healing diabetic ulcer wounds. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The water extract from the leaves of B. orientale was separated from the crude methanolic extract and subjected to flash column chromatography techniques to produce concentrated fractions...
August 2, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Camilla Björn, Margit Mahlapuu, Inger Mattsby-Baltzer, Joakim Håkansson
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have emerged as a new class of drug candidates for the treatment of infectious diseases. Here we describe a novel AMP, HLR1r, which is structurally derived from the human milk protein lactoferrin and demonstrates a broad spectrum microbicidal action in vitro. The minimum concentration of HLR1r needed for killing ≥99% of microorganisms in vitro, was in the range of 3-50μg/ml for common Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and for the yeast Candida albicans, when assessed in diluted brain-heart infusion medium...
July 2016: Peptides
Zengping Xu, Yuxiang Gao, Shuai Meng, Baochen Yang, Liyun Pang, Chen Wang, Tianjun Liu
Lysine-porphyrin conjugate 4i has potent photosensitive antibacterial effect on clinical isolated bacterial strains such as Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The mechanism of photodynamic antibacterial chemotherapy of 4i (4i-PACT) in vitro and the treatment effect in vivo was investigated in this paper. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed that 4i-PACT can effectively destroy membrane and wall of bacteria, resulting in leakage of its content...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yunus Güzel, Umut H Golge, Ferdi Goksel, Ahmet Vural, Muruvvet Akcay, Sait Elmas, Hakan Turkon, Ahmet Unver
We explored the ability of local and systemic applications of boric acid (BA) to reduce the numbers of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in a rat model of tibial osteomyelitis (OM), and compared boric acid with vancomycin (V). Implant-associated osteomyelitis was established in 35 rats. After 4 weeks, at which time OM was evident both radiologically and serologically in all animals, the rats were divided into five groups of equal number: group 1, control group (no local application of BA or other medication); group 2, V group; group 3, local BA + V group; group 4, local BA group; and group 5, local + systemic BA group...
October 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
Zhengyuan Zhou, Na Han, Zhihui Liu, Zehai Song, Peng Wu, Jingxuan Shao, Jia Ming Zhang, Jun Yin
In the present study, the in vitro antibacterial activity of an effective fraction (ESF) from Syringae Folium (SF) on Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was evaluated and then its in vivo activity was evaluated by using the MRSA-infected mouse peritonitis model. The ESF showed a significant in vitro and in vivo activity on decreasing the Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) and increasing the survival rate of mouse from 42.8% to 100%. Six iridoid glucosides (IGs) of ESF were characterized by UPLC-TOF-MS method and also isolated by column chromatography...
April 2016: Fitoterapia
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