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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921037/acute-kidney-injury-in-western-countries
#1
REVIEW
Josée Bouchard, Ravindra L Mehta
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is frequent and is associated with poor outcomes, including increased mortality, higher risk of chronic kidney disease, and prolonged hospital lengths of stay. The epidemiology of AKI mainly derives from studies performed in Western high-income countries. More limited data are available from Western low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) located in Central and South America. SUMMARY: In this review, we summarize the most recent data on the epidemiology of AKI in Western countries, aiming to contrast results from industrialized high-income countries with LMICs...
October 2016: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914709/podocyte-specific-chemokine-c-c-motif-receptor-2%C3%A2-overexpression-mediates-diabetic-renal-injury-in%C3%A2-mice
#2
Hanning You, Ting Gao, Wesley M Raup-Konsavage, Timothy K Cooper, Sarah K Bronson, W Brian Reeves, Alaa S Awad
Inflammation is a central pathophysiologic mechanism that contributes to diabetes mellitus and diabetic nephropathy. Recently, we showed that macrophages directly contribute to diabetic renal injury and that pharmacological blockade or genetic deficiency of chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 2 (CCR2) confers kidney protection in diabetic nephropathy. However, the direct role of CCR2 in kidney-derived cells such as podocytes in diabetic nephropathy remains unclear. To study this, we developed a transgenic mouse model expressing CCR2 specifically in podocytes (Tg[NPHS2-Ccr2]) on a nephropathy-prone (DBA/2J) and CCR2-deficient (Ccr2(-/-)) background with heterozygous Ccr2(+/-) littermate controls...
November 30, 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914707/adiponectin-alters-renal-calcium-and-phosphate-excretion-through-regulation-of-klotho-expression
#3
Joseph M Rutkowski, Johanne Pastor, Kai Sun, Sun K Park, I Alexandru Bobulescu, Christopher T Chen, Orson W Moe, Philipp E Scherer
The kidney controls systemic calcium and phosphate levels and disturbances of its control mechanisms can lead to a variety of diseases. The insulin-sensitizing adipokine adiponectin is renoprotective and accelerates functional recovery following renal injury. However, unlike other adipokines, adiponectin is reduced in obesity. High adiponectin levels are also correlated with bone loss, suggestive of an additional action in mineral metabolism. Using knockout, wild-type, and adiponectin-overexpressing transgenic mice, we sought to identify the mechanistic basis for adiponectin's ability to regulate calcium and phosphate balance at the level of the kidney...
November 30, 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898522/context-dependent-effects-of-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitors
#4
Edwin K Jackson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The antidiabetic mechanism of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitors is attributed to attenuation of incretin metabolism. Because DPP4 has at least 45 substrates, context-dependent off-target effects of DPP4 inhibitors are likely. Here, we consider the clinical ramifications of the context-dependent effects of DPP4 inhibitors. RECENT FINDINGS: Although incretins protect organs from diabetic injury, nonincretin DPP4 substrates also accumulate when DPP4 is inhibited...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898408/sulodexide-protects-contrast-induced-nephropathy-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#5
Qing Zhao, Jianyong Yin, Zeyuan Lu, Yiwei Kong, Guangyuan Zhang, Binghui Zhao, Feng Wang
BACKGROUND: Sulodexide is a powerful antithrombin agent with reno-protective property. However, whether it has beneficial effects on Contrast-Induced Nephropathy (CIN) remained elusive. In the current study, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of Sulodexide on CIN and investigated the potential mechanisms. METHODS: CIN model was induced by intravenous injection of indomethacin, followed by Ioversol and L-NAME. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups: control group, CIN group, CIN+vehicle group (CIN rats pretreated with vehicle) and CIN+ Sulodexide (CIN rats pretreated with Sulodexide)...
November 30, 2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895019/nephrotoxicity-during-vancomycin-therapy-in-combination-with-piperacillin-tazobactam-or-cefepime
#6
W Cliff Rutter, Jessica N Cox, Craig A Martin, Donna R Burgess, David S Burgess
BACKGROUND: Recent reports have demonstrated that vancomycin (VAN) may lead to an increase in acute kidney injury (AKI) when combined with anti-pseudomonal beta-lactams. This study compared the incidence of AKI associated with VAN plus piperacillin-tazobactam (TZP) or cefepime (FEP). METHODS: This was a retrospective, matched cohort study at an academic medical center between September 2010 and September 2014 including adult patients receiving TZP-VAN or FEP-VAN for at least 48 hours and without severe chronic or structural kidney disease, dialysis, pregnancy, cystic fibrosis, or hospital transfer...
November 28, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889773/evaluation-of-kim-1-and-ngal-as-early-indicators-for-assessment-of-gentamycin-induced-nephrotoxicity-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#7
Qi-Hui Luo, Meng-Lu Chen, Zheng-Li Chen, Chao Huang, An-Chun Cheng, Jing Fang, Li Tang, Yi Geng
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The aminolycoside Gentamicin is a widely used antibiotic, applied in equine medicine. Despite its clinical use, concerns remain regarding the potential toxic side-effects, such as nephrotoxicity. Early detection of renal damage is critical in preclinical drug development. This study was aimed to determine whether kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) may be early indicators in the assessment of Gentamycin-induced nephrotoxicity...
November 28, 2016: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887768/evaluation-of-acute-kidney-injury-using-contrast-ultrasonography-in-a-rabbit-model-of-crush-syndrome
#8
Chundong Zhang, Xin Wang, Jie Tang
This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of evaluating acute kidney injury (AKI) using contrast ultrasonography in a rabbit model of crush syndrome. Sixty-four New Zealand white rabbits were anesthetized and the left hind limb was wrapped and compressed for 4 h with a sphygmomanometer. Contrast ultrasonography of the left kidney using microbubbles as the contrast medium was performed. The serum levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatine (Cr), creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were significantly increased in comparison to before the compression...
November 22, 2016: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883184/epigenetics-in-reactive-and-reparative-cardiac-fibrogenesis-the-promise-of-epigenetic-therapy
#9
REVIEW
Asish K Ghosh, Rahul Rai, Panagiotis Flevaris, Douglas E Vaughan
Epigenetic changes play a pivotal role in the development of a wide spectrum of human diseases including cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, and intellectual disabilities. Cardiac fibrogenesis is a common pathophysiological process seen during chronic and stress-induced accelerated cardiac aging. While adequate production of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins is necessary for post-injury wound healing, excessive synthesis and accumulation of extracellular matrix protein in the stressed or injured hearts causes decreased or loss of lusitropy that leads to cardiac failure...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882134/expression-of-neutrophil-gelatinase-associated-lipocalin-in-low-osmolar-contrast-induced-nephropathy-in-rats-and-the-effect-of-n-acetylcysteine
#10
Wen-Hua Li, Lin Wang, Hai-Yan He, Jing Chen, Ya-Ren Yu
Serum creatinine (Scr), which is a conventional indicator of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN), is unable to reflect the damage of kidney promptly. The present study aimed to investigate the value of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in kidney and serum of CIN rats to observe whether NGAL can be used as a superior indicator of CIN. Furthermore, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) was used to assess its effect on CIN. A total of 120 adult male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=30/group): CIN rats (CIN), normal rats treated with NAC (NAC), CIN rats treated with NAC (NAC+CIN) and the control group (CON)...
November 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875446/2-ce-test-hours-preventing-contrast-induced-acute-kidney-injury
#11
Emily Contrada
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: American Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849738/58-a-propensity-matched-study-of-the-association-of-contrast-and-acute-kidney-injury-in-icu-patients
#12
Lisa-Mae Williams, Gail Walker, Louis Gidel, James Loewenherz, Gloria Kelly, Maria Ojeda
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834856/stearoyl-coa-desaturase-1-protects-cells-against-lipotoxicity-mediated-apoptosis-in-proximal-tubular-cells
#13
Tamaki Iwai, Shinji Kume, Masami Chin-Kanasaki, Shogo Kuwagata, Hisazumi Araki, Naoko Takeda, Takeshi Sugaya, Takashi Uzu, Hiroshi Maegawa, Shin-Ichi Araki
Saturated fatty acid (SFA)-related lipotoxicity is a pathogenesis of diabetes-related renal proximal tubular epithelial cell (PTEC) damage, closely associated with a progressive decline in renal function. This study was designed to identify a free fatty acid (FFA) metabolism-related enzyme that can protect PTECs from SFA-related lipotoxicity. Among several enzymes involved in FFA metabolism, we identified stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1), whose expression level significantly decreased in the kidneys of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced diabetic mice, compared with non-diabetic mice...
November 9, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834446/high-cut-off-hemofiltration-versus-standard-hemofiltration-effect-on-plasma-cytokines
#14
Rafidah Atan, Leah Peck, Kumar Visvanathan, Narelle Skinner, Glenn Eastwood, Rinaldo Bellomo, Markus Storr, Hermann Goehl
PURPOSE: To study the effects of continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH) with high cut-off filters (CVVH-HCO) on plasma cytokine levels, sieving coefficient and clearance compared to CVVH using standard filters (CVVH-Std) in a nested cohort within a double-blind randomized controlled trial in severe acute kidney injury (AKI) patients. METHODS: We measured plasma and post-filter levels of IL-6, TNF-alpha, IL-8, IL-1 beta, RANTES, IL-10, IFN-gamma and IFN-alpha in both study groups...
November 11, 2016: International Journal of Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832559/balancing-the-risks-and-benefits-of-using-emergency-diagnostic-radiocontrast-studies-to-diagnose-life-threatening-illness-in-critically-ill-patients-a-decision-analysis
#15
K M Ho
Diagnosis of many life-threatening illnesses, including acute pulmonary embolism, aortic dissection, and ischaemic bowel disease, requires confirmatory radiological imaging with radiocontrast. It is well established that radiocontrast can induce acute kidney injury, especially in patients with pre-existing renal impairment. The decision to proceed with a radiological study with radiocontrast to confirm or exclude a life-threatening, but potentially reversible, illness in patients with renal impairment is difficult...
November 2016: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831955/ce-preventing-contrast-induced-acute-kidney-injury
#16
Yvonne Gallegos, Asma Ali Taha, Dana N Rutledge
: Diagnostic radiographic imaging scans using intravascular iodinated contrast media can lead to various complications. The most salient of these is contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) or contrast-induced nephropathy, a potentially costly and serious patient safety concern. Prevention strategies are the cornerstone of evidence-based clinical management for patients receiving contrast agents. These include preprocedure screening, stratification of patients based on risk factors, and protective interventions, the most important of which is hydration both before and after the radiographic imaging scan...
December 2016: American Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822039/carbon-monoxide-bound-hemoglobin-vesicles-ameliorate-multiorgan-injuries-induced-by-severe-acute-pancreatitis-in-mice-by-their-anti-inflammatory-and-antioxidant-properties
#17
Saori Nagao, Kazuaki Taguchi, Hiromi Sakai, Keishi Yamasaki, Hiroshi Watanabe, Masaki Otagiri, Toru Maruyama
Carbon monoxide (CO) has attracted attention as a possible therapeutic agent for affecting anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Previously, CO-bound hemoglobin vesicle (CO-HbV) was developed as a nanotechnology-based CO donor, and its safety profile and therapeutic potential as a clinically applicable carrier of CO were examined in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, the therapeutic efficacy of CO-HbV against severe acute pancreatitis was examined with secondary distal organ-injured model mice that were fed with a choline-deficient ethionine-supplemented diet...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821094/outcomes-risk-factors-and-health-burden-of-contrast-induced-acute-kidney-injury-an-observational-study-of-one-million-hospitalizations-with-image-guided-cardiovascular-procedures
#18
Pierre Aubry, Georges Brillet, Laura Catella, Aurélie Schmidt, Stève Bénard
BACKGROUND: Despite the use of low-osmolar contrast media that have significantly reduced the occurrence of severe adverse reactions, contrast-induced (CI) acute kidney injury (AKI) remains the third cause of AKI in hospitals. We sought to estimate the frequency of CI-AKI among hospitalized patients undergoing image-guided cardiovascular procedures, to quantify the effect of risk factors on the development of this complication and to assess relative organizational and economic burden in healthcare...
November 8, 2016: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820741/does-fluid-management-affect-the-occurrence-of-acute-kidney-injury
#19
Johan Mårtensson, Rinaldo Bellomo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe the potential impact of different fluid management strategies on renal outcomes in critically ill and postoperative patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Uncritical fluid administration may induce renal compartment syndrome and renal venous congestion, which contribute to kidney dysfunction. In more than 5000 randomized surgical or septic patients, goal-directed therapy did not reduce fluid accumulation, acute kidney injury (AKI) development or need for renal replacement therapy...
November 4, 2016: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811014/regulated-necrosis-related-molecule-mrna-expression-in-humans-mice-and-murine-acute-tissue-injury-systemic-autoimmunity-leading-to-progressive-organ-damage-and-progressive-fibrosis
#20
Mohsen Honarpisheh, Jyaysi Desai, Julian A Marschner, Marc Weidenbusch, Maciej Lech, Volker Vielhauer, Hans-Joachim Anders, Shrikant R Mulay
The species-specific, as well as organ-specific expression of regulated necrosis (RN)-related molecules, is not known. We determined the expression levels of TNFR1, RIPK1, RIPK3, MLKL, CASP8, FADD, CIAP1, CIAP2, GPX4, CYPD, CASP1, NLRP3, and PARP1 in human and mouse solid organs. We observed significant differences in expression of these molecules between human and mice. In addition, we characterized their expression profiles in acute as well as persistent tissue injury and chronic tissue remodeling using acute and chronic kidney injury models...
November 3, 2016: Bioscience Reports
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