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Tom A Ewing, Aster van Noord, Caroline E Paul, Willem J H van Berkel
Vanillyl alcohol oxidase (VAO) and eugenol oxidase (EUGO) are flavin-dependent enzymes that catalyse the oxidation of para-substituted phenols. This makes them potentially interesting biocatalysts for the conversion of lignin-derived aromatic monomers to value-added compounds. To facilitate their biocatalytic exploitation, it is important to develop methods by which variants of the enzymes can be rapidly screened for increased activity towards substrates of interest. Here, we present the development of a screening assay for the substrate specificity of para-phenol oxidases based on the detection of hydrogen peroxide using the ferric-xylenol orange complex method...
January 14, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
M Kazemi-Bonchenari, R Falahati, M Poorhamdollah, S R Heidari, A Pezeshki
The objective was to evaluate interactions between starter protein (180 vs. 200 g/kg, DM basis) and a mixture of essential oils (EOs; containing thymol, eugenol, vanillin, limonene and guaiacol) on growth, metabolic and ruminal functions of Holstein dairy calves. In a completely randomized 2 × 2 factorial design, 48 calves, 3 days old (averaging BW 42.7 ± 1.9 kg), were allocated into groups fed the following diets: (i) 180 g/kg CP with no EO (180P-NEO); (ii) 180 g/kg CP with EO (180P-EO); (iii) 200 g/kg CP with no EO (200P-NEO); and (iv) 200 g/kg CP with EO (200P-EO)...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
João Vito B Freitas, Elenilson G Alves Filho, Lorena Mara A Silva, Guilherme J Zocolo, Edy S de Brito, Nilce V Gramosa
The genus Ocimum (Labiatae) comprises 30 species found in tropical and subtropical regions of the planet, of which species O. basilicum L. and O. gratissimum are widely used in food and traditional medicine. Phytochemical studies on Ocimum have revealed a number of essential oil chemotypes, for example, eugenol, methyl chavicol, linalool, and methyl cinnamate. Since essential oils are commercially assessed according to their content, the aim of this study was to develop a simple and precise method for their qualitative and quantitative analysis using NMR spectroscopy combined with chemometrics...
April 1, 2018: Talanta
C A Poveda-Coronel, D Riaño-Jiménez, J R Cure
Colombian tropical dry forest is considered the most endangered tropical biome due to anthropic activities. Desierto de la Tatacoa (DsT) is an example of high disturbed tropical dry forest which still maintains a high biodiversity. The objective of the study was to record the diversity and phenology of wild bees in this place by monthly sampling between December 2014 and December 2016 in a 9-km2 area. During the study, there was a prolonged El Niño-Southern Oscillation period. Bees were collected by entomological nets, malaise traps, eugenol scent trapping, and nest traps...
January 12, 2018: Neotropical Entomology
Geetanjali Meher, Hirak Chakraborty
Eugenol is known for its antimicrobial effects against microorganisms responsible for infectious diseases in human, food borne pathogens and oral pathogens. In spite of several reports on the antimicrobial function of eugenol by modulating the structural properties of cell membrane there was no direct information on the influence of eugenol in the lipid membrane. In this work, we explored the effect of eugenol on organization and dynamics of large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) of DMPC using the intrinsic fluorescence of eugenol and an extrinsic hydrophobic probe, DPH, in varying phases...
January 11, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Qingping Liu, Jiahao Wang, Yan Zhu, Yongqun He
BACKGROUND: Rheumatism represents any disease condition marked with inflammation and pain in the joints, muscles, or connective tissues. Many traditional Chinese drugs have been used for a long time to treat rheumatism. However, a comprehensive information source for these drugs is still missing, and their anti-rheumatism mechanisms remain unclear. An ontology for anti-rheumatism traditional Chinese drugs would strongly support the representation, analysis, and understanding of these drugs...
December 21, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
Patrícia Fontes Pinheiro, Luciana Alves Parreira Menini, Patrícia Campos Bernardes, Sérgio Henriques Saraiva, José Walkimar Mesquita Carneiro, Adilson Vidal Costa, Társila Rodrigues Arruda, Mateus Ribeiro Lage, Patrícia Martins Gonçalves, Carolina de Oliveira Bernardes, Elson Santiago Alvarenga, Luciano Menini
Semisynthetic phenol derivatives were obtained from the natural phenols: thymol, carvacrol, eugenol, and guaiacol through catalytic oxychlorination, Williamson synthesis, and aromatic Claisen rearrangement. The compounds characterization was carried out by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and mass spectrometry. The natural phenols and their semisynthetic derivatives were tested for their antimicrobial activity against the bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Listeria innocua, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica Typhimurium, Salmonella enterica ssp...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Ibrahim M Ibrahim, Ibrahim M Abdel Kareem, Mohammed A Alghobashy
INTRODUCTION: Palmar hyperhidrosis is of great concern to patients because of its physical, occupational, and psychological impact on quality of life. Topical clove oil has been used in many conditions due to its major component Eugenol that exerts blocking effect on nerve transmission. AIM OF THE WORK: To assess the efficacy of topical liposome incorporated clove oil in decreasing the rate of sweating among patients with idiopathic palmar hyperhidrosis. PATIENTS AND METHOD: Forty patients with palmar hyperhidrosis were treated with clove oil 45% in liposome and another twenty patients were treated as a control group with 0...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
Le Wang, Nana Tan, Jiayao Hu, Huan Wang, Dongzhu Duan, Lin Ma, Jian Xiao, Xiaoling Wang
BACKGROUND: Osmanthus fragrans has been used as folk medicine for thousands of years. The extracts of Osmanthus fragrans flowers were reported to have various bioactivities including free radical scavenging, anti-inflammation, neuroprotection and antitumor effects. However, there is still lack of knowledge about its essential oil. METHODS: In this work, we analyzed the chemical composition of the essential oil from Osmanthus fragrans var. thunbergii by GC-MS. A complex network approach was applied to investigate the interrelationships between the ingredients, target proteins, and related pathways for the essential oil...
December 28, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
Sajjad Sisakhtnezhad, Mojdeh Heidari, Ali Bidmeshkipour
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have received considerable attention in regenerative medicine during the past decade. Eugenol is a natural and versatile vegetable molecule, which has a wide variety of therapeutic effects. Although different biological and pharmaceutical functions of Eugenol are well known, its effect on MSCs has not been studied yet. Therefore, this study was focused on investigating the effect of Eugenol on the proliferation and migration of bone marrow (BM)-derived MSCs in vitro. To do so, BM-MSCs were isolated from 4 to 8 weeks old NMRI mice...
December 17, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Melissa Singletary, Samantha Hagerty, Shin Muramoto, Yasmine Daniels, William A MacCrehan, Gheorghe Stan, June W Lau, Oleg Pustovyy, Ludmila Globa, Edward E Morrison, Iryna Sorokulova, Vitaly Vodyanoy
Olfactory responses are intensely enhanced with the addition of endogenous and engineered primarily-elemental small zinc nanoparticles (NPs). With aging, oxidation of these Zn nanoparticles eliminated the observed enhancement. The design of a polyethylene glycol coating to meet storage requirements of engineered zinc nanoparticles is evaluated to achieve maximal olfactory benefit. The zinc nanoparticles were covered with 1000 g/mol or 400 g/mol molecular weight polyethylene glycol (PEG). Non-PEGylated and PEGylated zinc nanoparticles were tested by electroolfactogram with isolated rat olfactory epithelium and odorant responses evoked by the mixture of eugenol, ethyl butyrate and (±) carvone after storage at 278 K (5 oC), 303 K (30 oC) and 323 K (50 oC)...
2017: PloS One
Jia Huang, Yuping Liu, Wenxi Yang, Yingqiao Liu, Yu Zhang, Mingquan Huang, Bao-Guo Sun
Beijing douzhi (BD) is a traditional snack in Beijing, China, and it has been listed as a part of Beijing's intangible cultural heritage. The potent odorants that contribute to the characteristic aroma of BD were investigated by analyzing the isolates from solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) and simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE). Using aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), 31 aroma-active compounds with flavor dilution (FD) factors ranging from 1 to 2187 were identified by comparison of their odor characteristics, MS data, and retention indices with those of reference compounds...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Daniel Pereira Bezerra, Gardenia Carmen Gadelha Militão, Mayara Castro de Morais, Damião Pergentino de Sousa
The formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during metabolism is a normal process usually compensated for by the antioxidant defense system of an organism. However, ROS can cause oxidative damage and have been proposed to be the main cause of age-related clinical complications and diseases such as cancer. In recent decades, the relationship between diet and cancer has been more studied, especially with foods containing antioxidant compounds. Eugenol is a natural compound widely found in many aromatic plant species, spices and foods and is used in cosmetics and pharmaceutical products...
December 17, 2017: Nutrients
Asli Celebioglu, Zehra Irem Yildiz, Tamer Uyar
In this study, inclusion complexes (IC) of three cyclodextrin derivatives (HP-β-CD, HP-γ-CD and M-β-CD) with eugenol (essential oil compound) were formed in highly concentrated aqueous solutions and then transformed into self-standing functional nanofibrous webs by electrospinning. The improved aqueous solubility of eugenol was confirmed by phase solubility diagrams, in addition, the phase solubility tests also revealed 1:1 molar ratio complexation between host:guest molecules; CD:eugenol. Even though eugenol has a volatile nature, a large amount of eugenol (~70-95%) was preserved in eugenol/cyclodextrin inclusion complex nanofibrous webs (Eugenol/CD/IC-NW)...
December 18, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Bernardo Baldisserotto, Thaylise V Parodi, E Don Stevens
OBJECTIVE: To test the postexposure analgesic efficacy of low doses of eugenol in zebrafish. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective experimental study. ANIMALS: A total of 76 large adult zebrafish (Danio rerio). METHODS: Fish swimming behavior (median velocity, freeze time, high-speed swimming and distance moved in the vertical direction) was recorded in a 1.6 L video arena before and after exposure to eugenol (0, 1, 2, 5, 10 and 20 mg L-1)...
September 15, 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
Anuve Hrishi Phukan, Shivani Mathur, Meera Sandhu, Vinod Sachdev
Background: The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro effects of four different root canal sealers on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five freshly extracted human mandibular premolars were used for the study. Teeth were divided into five groups based on type of root canal sealers used. Gutta-percha was used for all the samples: Group I: AH Plus root canal sealer, Group II: MTA Fillapex root canal sealer, Group III: Apexit root canal sealer, Group IV: Conventional zinc oxide-eugenol (ZOE) sealer, Group V: Control (unobturated teeth)...
November 2017: Dental Research Journal
L C Martínez, A Plata-Rueda, H C Colares, J M Campos, M H Dos Santos, F L Fernandes, J E Serrão, J C Zanuncio
The study identified insecticidal effects from the cinnamon and clove essential oils in Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). The lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90), lethal time, and repellent effect on larvae, pupae, and adults of T. molitor after exposure to six concentrations of each essential oil and toxic compounds were evaluated. The chemical composition of the cinnamon oil was also determined and primary compounds were eugenol (10.19%), trans-3-caren-2-ol (9.92%), benzyl benzoate (9.68%), caryophyllene (9...
December 14, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
Kelsey S Boes, Michael S Roberts, Nelson R Vinueza
Complex mixture analysis is a costly and time-consuming task facing researchers with foci as varied as food science and fuel analysis. When faced with the task of quantifying oxygen-rich bio-oil molecules in a complex diesel mixture, we asked whether complex mixtures could be qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed on a single mass spectrometer with mid-range resolving power without the use of lengthy separations. To answer this question, we developed and evaluated a quantitation method that eliminated chromatography steps and expanded the use of quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry from primarily qualitative to quantitative as well...
December 12, 2017: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
Ning Ma, Xiwang Liu, Xiaojun Kong, Shihong Li, Zenghua Jiao, Zhe Qin, Pengcheng Dong, Yajun Yang, Jianyong Li
BACKGROUND: Based on the pro-drug principle, aspirin and eugenol were esterified to synthesize aspirin eugenol ester (AEE). The anti-hyperlipidemia effect of aspirin eugenol ester has been confirmed in hyperlipidemic rat induced by high fat diet (HFD). However, its effect on liver and feces metabonomic profiles remains unknown. METHODS: Suspension of AEE was prepared in 5% carboxymethyl cellulose sodium (CMC-Na). Thirty rats were divided into control, model and AEE groups...
December 11, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
Yongtao Liu, Xiaohui Ai, Le Li, Jincheng Li, Hong Yang
An accurate, rapid and effective method was established for determination of eugenol in plasma, muscle, skin, liver, kidney and gill of fish using gas chromatography-ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (GC-IT-MS/MS). Samples of muscle, skin, liver, kidney and gill were prepared using the modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) procedure, and plasma sample was prepared by a liquid-liquid extraction procedure. Eugenol was monitored in less than 7 min using an electron-ionization source (EI) in MS/MS mode and quantified by internal standard (IS) of eugenol-d3 ...
December 11, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
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