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cancer neurology

Francesca Graziano, C Caruso Bavisotto, A Marino Gammazza, Francesca Rappa, Everly Conway de Macario, Albert J L Macario, Francesco Cappello, Claudia Campanella, Rosario Maugeri, Domenico Gerardo Iacopino
The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/National Cancer Institute of Canada Phase III trial has validated as a current regimen for high-grade gliomas (HGG) a maximal safe surgical resection followed by radiotherapy with concurrent temozolamide. However, it is essential to balance maximal tumor resection with preservation of the patient’s neurological functions. Important developments in the fields of pre-operative and intra-operative neuro-imaging and neuro-monitoring have ameliorated the survival rate and the quality of life for patients affected by HGG...
June 14, 2018: Brain Sciences
Jessica Y Ng, Justin Y Ng
Leptomeningeal metastases from the prostate are extremely rare, with few cases described in the medical literature (antemortem prevalence of less than 0.03%). Prostatic leptomeningeal metastases harbour a poor prognosis with a median survival after diagnosis of 15.7 weeks. We present the case of an 82-year-old male with a history of hormone-refractory prostate cancer who presented to the emergency department with neurological symptoms.
April 12, 2018: Curēus
Clément Vialatte de Pémille, Giulia Berzero, Mathilde Small, Dimitri Psimaras, Marine Giry, Maïlys Daniau, Marc Sanson, Jean-Yves Delattre, Jérôme Honnorat, Virginie Desestret, Agusti Alentorn
BACKGROUND: Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes are rare conditions where an autoimmune reaction against the nervous system appears in patients suffering from a tumour, but not linked to the spreading of the tumour. A break in the immune tolerance is thought to be the trigger. METHODS: The transcriptomic profile of 12 ovarian tumours (OT) from patients suffering from paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD) linked to anti-Yo antibodies (anti-Yo PCD OT) was compared with 733 ovarian tumours (OT control) from different public databases using linear model analysis...
June 14, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
Tim Luckett, Meera Agar, Michelle DiGiacomo, Caleb Ferguson, Lawrence Lam, Jane Phillips
Objective The aim of the present study was to compare the health status of South Australians with recent experience of caring for an adult with chronic disease with non-carers drawn from the same population. Methods Data were collected via the South Australian Health Omnibus, an annual population-based, cross-sectional survey. Respondents were asked whether they had provided care or support in the last 5 years to someone with cancer, heart disease, respiratory disease, mental illness, neurological disease or dementia...
June 14, 2018: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
Rebecca Truty, Joshua Paul, Michael Kennemer, Stephen E Lincoln, Eric Olivares, Robert L Nussbaum, Swaroop Aradhya
PURPOSE: We investigated the frequencies and characteristics of intragenic copy-number variants (CNVs) in a deep sampling of disease genes associated with monogenic disorders. METHODS: Subsets of 1507 genes were tested using next-generation sequencing to simultaneously detect sequence variants and CNVs in >143,000 individuals referred for genetic testing. We analyzed CNVs in gene panels for hereditary cancer syndromes and cardiovascular, neurological, or pediatric disorders...
June 12, 2018: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
A Bussat, S Langner-Lemercier, A Salmon, F Mouriaux
Paraneoplastic syndromes involving the visual system are a heterogeneous group of disorders occurring in the setting of systemic malignancy. Although these syndromes are rare, the clinical manifestations can herald an unsuspected, underlying malignancy. The associated antibodies and histopathology of each syndrome are presented to help in the understanding of these autoimmune phenomena. Outlined in this review article are diagnostic features useful in differentiating cancer-associated retinopathy, melanoma-associated retinopathy, paraneoplastic polymorphous vitelliform maculopathy, bilateral diffuse uveal melanocytic proliferation and paraneoplastic neurologic syndromes such as optic neuropathy, opsoclonus-myoclonus, Lambert-Eaton myasthenia and paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration...
June 9, 2018: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
Morgane Sonia Thion, Sandrine Humbert
Huntingtin (HTT) is a scaffold protein mostly known because it gives rise to the severe and incurable inherited neurological disorder Huntington's disease (HD) when mutated. The Huntingtin gene (HTT) carries a polymorphic trinucleotide expansion of CAGs in exon 1 that ranges from 9 to 35 in the non-HD affected population. However, if it exceeds 35 CAG repeats, the altered protein is referred to as mutant HTT and leads to the development of HD. Given the wide spectrum of severe symptoms developed by HD individuals, wild-type and mutant HTT have been mostly studied in the context of this disorder...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Huntington's Disease
Keita Yamada, Haruna Kayahara, Mitsuhiro Kinoshita, Shigeo Suzuki
Changes in the structures and quantities of sulfated glycans play important roles in inflammatory and neurological diseases, and canceration. Therefore, sulfated glycans are expected to become diagnostic markers for a variety of diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and cancer. On the other hand, structural abnormalities in the phosphorylated glycans on lysosomal enzymes cause a number of lysosomal diseases, while novel phosphorylated glycans have been found in other proteins. As with sulfated glycans, structural and quantitative changes in these phosphorylated glycans, and their associations with disease, are also of interest...
June 10, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Yu-Chi Juang, Xavier Fradera, Yongxin Han, Anthony William Partridge
Histidine decarboxylase (HDC) is the primary enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of histidine to histamine. HDC contributes to many physiological responses as histamine plays important roles in allergic reaction, neurological response, gastric acid secretion, and cell proliferation and differentiation. Small-molecule modulation of HDC represents a potential therapeutic strategy for a range of histamine-associated diseases, including inflammatory disease, neurological disorders, gastric ulcers, and select cancers...
June 1, 2018: SLAS Discovery
P Jaismy Jacob, S L Manju, K R Ethiraj, Geetha Elias
Inflammatory mediators of the arachidonic acid cascade from cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) pathways are primarily responsible for many diseases in human beings. Chronic inflammation is associated with the pathogenesis and progression of cancer, arthritis, autoimmune, cardiovascular and neurological diseases. Traditional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (tNSAIDs) inhibit cyclooxygenase pathway non-selectively and produce gastric mucosal damage due to COX-1 inhibition and allergic reactions and bronchospasm resulting from increased leukotriene levels...
June 5, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Zhengfeng Wang, Ruihua Wang, Kai Wang, Xianzhi Liu
Angiogenesis after ischemic stroke have important clinical significance, which stimulates endogenous recovery mechanisms and improves the neurological outcome. Enhancing angiogenesis may facilitate the function recovery from ischemic stroke. Recent studies have shown that aberrant expression of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) is related to angiogenesis after ischemic stroke. Snhg1, a cancer-related lncRNA, has been reported to be upregulated after stroke. However, little is known about its role in stroke. In this study, we performed in vitro experiments to investigate the effects of Snhg1 on cell survival and angiogenesis and molecular mechanism in ischemic stroke...
June 8, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Nagi B Kumar, Angelina Fink, Silvina Levis, Ping Xu, Roy Tamura, Jeffrey Krischer
Background: Cancer related fatigue (CRF), reported in about 90% of breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy, and has a profound impact on physical function, psychological distress and quality of life. Although several etiological factors such as anemia, depression, chronic inflammation, neurological pathology and alterations in metabolism have been proposed, the mechanisms of CRF are largely unknown. Methods: We conducted a pilot, prospective, case-control study to estimate the magnitude of change in thyroid function in breast cancer patients from baseline to 24 months, compared to cancer-free, age-matched controls...
May 22, 2018: Oncotarget
P Kutschar, K Lex, J Osterbrink, S Lorenzl
BACKGROUND: Adequate pain management and palliative care structures are of significant importance in residential nursing homes. Whilst professional pain treatment and palliative care measures are frequently implemented for residents with oncological diseases, this is often not the case for residents with neurological disorders. Such a potential undertreatment is even more challenging when the means of interaction and communication with affected persons are aggravated by impairments in cognitive function...
June 5, 2018: Der Schmerz
Jack B Fu, Shinichiro Morishita, Rajesh Yadav
Neurologic tumors account for over 50% of American acute inpatient rehabilitation facility cancer admissions. WHO Grade IV astrocytoma (also known as glioblastoma multiforme, high grade glioma or GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor in adults and is invariably fatal. The majority of primary brain tumor patients experience neurologic deficits. However, under-referral from oncology to rehabilitation has been reported. This brief narrative review article covers functional, medical and regulatory considerations when rehabilitating brain tumor inpatients...
June 2018: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports
W Z Pawlak, L Svensson, P F Jensen
Background Symptoms from disseminated cancer can develop very slowly. This could be very difficult to distinguish those symptoms from chronic disabilities and nuisances in patients with chronic non-malignant pain. Objective In this report, the case of a woman with both nonmalignant pain and cancer is presented. Case report A 54 years old woman was referred by a general practitioner to Multidisciplinary Pain Center. The diagnosis was chronic non-malignant neck pain on the basis of degenerative columnar disease...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Yoshihiko Okubo, Yuki Ueta, Takeshi Taguchi, Haruhisa Kato, Hiroo Terashi, Hitoshi Aizawa
We report a case of meningeal carcinomatosis that needed to be distinguished from subarachnoid hemorrhage. A 67-year-old female with acute severe headache was admitted to a previous hospital. Since high intensity signal was detected within the parietal cerebral sulci on the right side on brain FLAIR MRI, cerebral angiography was performed due to suspicion of subarachnoid hemorrhage. However, no vascular abnormality was observed. Then, cerebral spinal fluid was collected, which showed an increase in cell count, suggesting meningitis...
June 1, 2018: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
Jordi Bruna, Roser Velasco
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy is a very frequent neurological complication in cancer. Oxaliplatin (OXA) is a platinum analogue used as a first-line agent in the treatment of colorectal cancer. OXA induced peripheral neuropathy (OIN) is the main toxicity both during and after the completion of chemotherapy that presents as two distinct syndromes: acute and chronic neuropathy. None of the neuroprotective agents previously tested had prevented or limited the acute and/or chronic OIN. MR309 (previously developed as E-52862) is a novel selective sigma-1 receptor (S1R) antagonist with preclinical analgesic activity in OXA-induced neuropathic pain in animal models...
May 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Ludovic D'hulst, Donatienne Van Weehaeghe, Adriano Chiò, Andrea Calvo, Cristina Moglia, Antonio Canosa, Angelina Cistaro, Stefanie Ma Willekens, Joke De Vocht, Philip Van Damme, Marco Pagani, Koen Van Laere
OBJECTIVE: 18 F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) single-center studies using support vector machine (SVM) approach to differentiate amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) from controls have shown high overall accuracy on an individual patient basis using local a priori defined classifiers. The aim of the study was to validate the SVM accuracy on a multicentric level. METHODS: A previously defined Belgian (BE) group of 175 ALS patients (61...
June 4, 2018: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
Baoen Chen, Yang Sun, Jixiao Niu, Gopala K Jarugumilli, Xu Wu
Protein lipidation is an important co- or posttranslational modification in which lipid moieties are covalently attached to proteins. Lipidation markedly increases the hydrophobicity of proteins, resulting in changes to their conformation, stability, membrane association, localization, trafficking, and binding affinity to their co-factors. Various lipids and lipid metabolites serve as protein lipidation moieties. The intracellular concentrations of these lipids and their derivatives are tightly regulated by cellular metabolism...
May 16, 2018: Cell Chemical Biology
Taylor R Cushman, Shervin Shirvani, Mohamed Khan, Rachit Kumar
BACKGROUND: Radiation therapy (RT) can offer timely and effective treatment to oncology patients in the palliative setting. To date, there is sparse evidence investigating temporal relationships regarding the initiation of RT and subsequent hospital stay in the inpatient palliative setting. We aimed to assess whether times between admission, consultation, and initiation of treatment effected the length of hospital stay for patients receiving palliative radiation therapy (PRT). METHODS: This was a retrospective chart review of patients who received a consult for PRT from August 2014 to October 2016...
May 28, 2018: Annals of Palliative Medicine
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