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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666219/symptoms-at-lung-cancer-diagnosis-are-associated-with-major-differences-in-prognosis
#1
Victoria L Athey, Stephen J Walters, Trevor K Rogers
We report a cohort study of survival of patients with lung cancer presenting to a single multidisciplinary team between 1997 and 2011, according to symptoms at presentation. The overall median survival of the 3800 lung cases was 183 days (95% CI 171 to 195). There was a statistically significant difference in survival between the 12 symptom groups identified both without and with adjustment for the prognostic variables of age, gender and histology (P<0.001). Compared with the cough-alone symptom group, the risks of dying or HRs were significantly higher for the groups presenting with breathlessness (HR 1...
April 17, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663074/detection-of-pro-apoptotic-bax%C3%A2-2-proteins-in-the-human-cerebellum
#2
Adriana Mañas, Aislinn Davis, Sydney Lamerand, Jialing Xiang
Bax∆2 is a pro-apoptotic protein originally discovered in colon cancer patients with high microsatellite instability. Unlike most pro-apoptotic Bax family members, Bax∆2 mediates cell death through a non-mitochondrial caspase 8-dependent pathway. In the scope of analyzing the distribution of Bax∆2 expression in human tissues, we examined a panel of human brain samples. Here, we report four cerebellar cases in which the subjects had no neurological disorder or disease documented. We found Bax∆2 positive cells scattered in all areas of the cerebellum, but most strikingly concentrated in Purkinje cell bodies and dendrites...
April 17, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658787/sodium-phenylbutyrate-inhibits-tumor-growth-and-the-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-of-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#3
Kun Qian, Laiyu Sun, Guoqing Zhou, Haixia Ge, Yue Meng, Jingfen Li, Xiao Li, Xinqiang Fang
Sodium phenylbutyrate (SPB) as a salt of 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA) has been reported to be an ammonia scavenger, histone deacetylase inhibitor, and an endoplasmic reticulum stress inhibitor in various diseases, including neurological diseases, inflammatory disorders, and carcinogenesis. Although phenylbutyrate showed effective antitumor properties in many cancers, its role in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remains further characterized. Thus, the OSCC cell lines CAL27, HSC3, and SCC4 were treated with a series of doses of SPB for different times...
April 16, 2018: Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657890/pain-flare-after-stereotactic-radiosurgery-for-spine-metastases
#4
Ehsan H Balagamwala, Mihir Naik, Chandana A Reddy, Lilyana Angelov, John H Suh, Toufik Djemil, Anthony Magnelli, Samuel T Chao
Purpose: Understanding of pain flare (PF) following spine stereotactic radiosurgery (sSRS) is lacking. This study sought to determine the incidence and risk factors associated with PF following single fraction sSRS. Materials/methods: An IRB-approved database was compiled to include patients who underwent sSRS. Patient and disease characteristics as well as treatment and dosimetric details were collected retrospectively. Pain relief post-sSRS was prospectively collected using the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI)...
2018: Journal of Radiosurgery and SBRT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650272/treatment-of-spinal-metastases-in-renal-cell-carcinoma-a-critical-review
#5
REVIEW
Diego Teyssonneau, Marine Gross-Goupil, Charlotte Domblides, Thibaud Haaser, Vincent Pointillart, Amaury Daste, Olivier Hauger, Alain Ravaud
Kidney cancer is the 9th most common cancer in men and the 14th most common in women worldwide. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) constitutes 90% of all malignancies of the kidney. RCC, is known to be highly vascular and relatively radioresistant. Bone metastases are one of the most common metastatic sites and occur in around 30% of RCCs. They significantly impact the quality of life of patients causing pain and pathological fractures. Spinal metastases represent a particular case with regard to symptoms and treatment...
May 2018: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644546/imaging-of-urgencies-and-emergencies-in-the-lung-cancer-patient
#6
REVIEW
Bruno De Potter, Jef Huyskens, Birgitta Hiddinga, Maarten Spinhoven, Annelies Janssens, Jan P van Meerbeeck, Paul M Parizel, Annemie Snoeckx
Lung cancer patients often experience potentially life-threatening medical urgencies and emergencies, which may be a direct or indirect result of the underlying malignancy. This pictorial review addresses the most common thoracic, neurological and musculoskeletal medical emergencies in lung cancer patients, including superior vena cava syndrome, pulmonary embolism, spontaneous pneumothorax, cardiac tamponade, massive haemoptysis, central airway obstruction, oesophagorespiratory fistula, malignant spinal cord compression, carcinomatous meningitis, cerebral herniation and pathological fracture...
April 11, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644484/intracranial-control-and-survival-outcome-of-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor-tki-alone-versus-tki-plus-radiotherapy-for-brain-metastasis-of-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-mutant-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#7
SooYoon Sung, Sea-Won Lee, Yoo-Kang Kwak, Jin Hyung Kang, Sook Hee Hong, Yeon-Sil Kim
INTRODUCTION: The efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) with and without radiotherapy (RT) has not been determined in patients with brain metastases from epidermal growth factor receptor-mutant TKI naïve non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: Between 2008 and 2016, 586 patients were diagnosed with NSCLC and treated with TKIs at a hospital in Seoul, South Korea; 81 of these patients met the eligibility criteria for our study. Outcomes analyzed included intracranial progression (ICP), neurological death, and overall survival (OS)...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643102/research-priority-setting-in-childhood-chronic-disease-a-systematic-review
#8
Harrison Lindsay Odgers, Allison Tong, Pamela Lopez-Vargas, Andrew Davidson, Adam Jaffe, Anne McKenzie, Ross Pinkerton, Melissa Wake, Peter Richmond, Sally Crowe, Patrina Ha Yuen Caldwell, Sophie Hill, Jennifer Couper, Suzy Haddad, Behrouz Kassai, Jonathan C Craig
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate research priority setting approaches in childhood chronic diseases and to describe the priorities of stakeholders including patients, caregivers/families and health professionals. DESIGN: We conducted a systematic review of MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO and CINAHL from inception to 16 October 2016. Studies that elicited stakeholder priorities for paediatric chronic disease research were eligible for inclusion. Data on the prioritisation process were extracted using an appraisal checklist...
April 11, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628445/the-telomerase-inhibitor-azt-enhances-differentiation-and-prevents-overgrowth-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-neural-progenitors
#9
Yao Hu, Kai-Heng Fang, Lu-Ping Shen, Shi-Ying Cao, Fang Yuan, Yuwen Su, Min Xu, Yaoyu Chen, Yan Liu
Human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-based cell-replacement therapy has emerged as a promising approach for addressing numerous neurological diseases. However, hPSC transplantation has the potential to cause human cell overgrowth and cancer, which represents a major obstacle to implementing hPSC-based therapies. Inhibition of the overgrowth of transplanted cells could help reduce the risk for hPSC transplantation-induced tumorigenesis. In this study, we report that the telomerase inhibitor azidothymidine (3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine, AZT) enhances the differentiation of cortical neurons and significantly suppresses the proliferation of hPSC-derived cortical progenitors...
April 8, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626262/functional-status-of-patients-with-metastatic-spinal-cord-compression
#10
Danielle Zacaron Santos, Isabel Cristina Gonçalves Leite, Maximiliano Ribeiro Guerra
PURPOSE: This prospective study was conducted to evaluate the functional status and clinical features of inpatients with metastatic spinal cord compression and to explore possible associated factors and the correlation with neurological deficits. METHODS: Cases were identified through an active search in the hospital units of the National Cancer Institute. For 47 patients, clinical and demographic characteristics were collected; functional status was measured by the Functional Independence Measure; modified Tokuhashi score was used to predict survival time; neurological deficits were measured using the American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale; and general condition was evaluated using the Karnofsky Performance Status Scale...
April 6, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623483/genome-instability-syndromes-caused-by-impaired-dna-repair-and-aberrant-dna-damage-responses
#11
REVIEW
Takeshi Terabayashi, Katsuhiro Hanada
Maintenance of genome integrity is essential for all organisms because genome information regulates cell proliferation, growth arrest, and vital metabolic processes in cells, tissues, organs, and organisms. Because genomes are constantly exposed to intrinsic and extrinsic genotoxic stress, cellular DNA repair machinery and proper DNA damage responses (DDR) have evolved to quickly eliminate genotoxic DNA lesions, thus maintaining the genome integrity suitably. In human, germline mutations in genes involved not only in cellular DNA repair pathways but also in cellular DDR machinery frequently predispose hereditary diseases associated with chromosome aberrations...
April 5, 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620218/quercetin-protects-rat-cortical-neurons-against-traumatic-brain-injury
#12
Guoliang Du, Zongmao Zhao, Yonghan Chen, Zonghao Li, Yaohui Tian, Zhifeng Liu, Bin Liu, Jianqiang Song
Previous studies have demonstrated that traumatic brain injury (TBI) may cause neurological deficits and neuronal cell apoptosis. Quercetin, one of the most widely distributed flavonoids, possesses anti‑inflammatory, anti‑blood coagulation, anti‑ischemic and anti‑cancer activities, and neuroprotective effects in the context of brain injury. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of quercetin in TBI. A total of 75 rats were randomly arranged into 3 groups as follows: Sham group (Sham); TBI group (TBI); and TBI + quercetin group (Que)...
March 28, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619341/right-carotid-cutaneous-fistula-and-right-carotid-pseudoaneurysm-formation-secondary-to-a-chronically-infected-polyethylene-terephthalate-patch
#13
W T Hillman Terzian, Samuel Schadt, Sharvil U Sheth
Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) remains the treatment for significant carotid stenosis and stroke prevention. Approximately 100,000 CEAs are performed in the United States every year. Randomized trials have demonstrated an advantage of patch carotid angioplasty over primary closure. Complications from patches include thrombosis, transient ischemic attack, stroke, restenosis, pseudoaneurysm (PA), and infection. PA after CEA is rare, with a reported average of 0.37% of cases. We describe an unusual case of PA after polyethylene terephthalate (PTFE) patching for CEA...
January 2018: International Journal of Critical Illness and Injury Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618054/influence-of-residual-disease-following-surgical-resection-in-newly-diagnosed-glioblastoma-on-clinical-neurocognitive-and-patient-reported-outcomes
#14
William A Hall, Stephanie L Pugh, Jeffrey S Wefel, Terri S Armstrong, Mark R Gilbert, David G Brachman, Maria Werner-Wasik, Merideth M Wendland, Paul D Brown, Samuel T Chao, Kevin S Roof, H Ian Robins, Minesh P Mehta, Walter J Curran, Benjamin Movsas
BACKGROUND: The influence of subtotal resection (STR) on neurocognitive function (NCF), quality of life, and symptom burden in glioblastoma is unknown. If bevacizumab preferentially benefits patients with STR is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To examine these uncertainties. METHODS: NCF and patient reported outcomes (PRO) were prospectively collected in NRG Oncology RTOG 0525 and 0825. Changes in NCF and PRO measures from baseline to prespecified times were examined by Wilcoxon test, and mixed effects longitudinal modeling, to assess differences between patients who received STR vs gross-total resection...
March 30, 2018: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617074/evaluation-of-urodynamic-parameters-after-sling-surgery-in-men-with-post-prostatectomy-urinary-incontinence
#15
Odair Gomes Paiva, João Paulo Cunha Lima, Carlos Alberto Bezerra
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate urodynamic alterations after sub-urethral sling surgery (SSU) in patients with post-prostatectomy urinary incontinence (PPUI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated data of 22 patients submitted to radical prostatectomy (RP) or transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) that presented post-surgical urinary incontinence and were treated with SSU implant in a pilot study previously performed in our institution. METHODS: Those patients with PPUI were evaluated by urodynamic exam (UD) before and after surgery, and the parameters were compared, including uroflow, cystometry and micturition study...
January 25, 2018: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29613896/neoplastic-myelopathies
#16
Jing Wu, Surabhi Ranjan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article discusses the diagnosis and management of neoplasms that affect the spinal cord as well as spinal cord disorders that can occur due to cancer treatments. RECENT FINDINGS: Neoplastic myelopathies are uncommon neurologic disorders but cause significant morbidity when they occur. Primary spinal cord tumors can be classified into intramedullary, intradural extramedullary, or extradural tumors. Diffuse gliomas and ependymal tumors are the most common intramedullary tumors...
April 2018: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610153/signaling-pathways-involved-in-the-regulation-of-mrna-translation
#17
Philippe P Roux, Ivan Topisirovic
Translation is a key step in the regulation of gene expression and one of the most energy consuming processes in the cell. In response to various stimuli, multiple signaling pathways converge on the translational machinery to regulate its function. To date, the role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways in the regulation of translation is among the best understood. Both pathways engage the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) to regulate a variety of components of the translational machinery...
April 2, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606372/meeting-report-can-we-make-animal-models-of-human-mental-illness
#18
Lisa M Monteggia, Hakon Heimer, Eric J Nestler
Modeling aspects of the human condition in animals has provided invaluable information on the physiology of all organ systems and has assisted in the development of virtually all new therapeutics. Research in cardiovascular disease, cancer, immunology, and other disciplines has benefited substantially from the availability of animal models that capture aspects of specific human diseases and that have been used effectively to advance new treatments. By comparison, animal models for neurological and psychiatric disorders have faced several unique obstacles...
February 22, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605816/regulation-of-kynurenine-metabolism-by-a-ketogenic-diet
#19
Svenja Heischmann, Lindsey B Gano, Kevin Quinn, Li-Ping Liang, Jacek Klepacki, Uwe Christians, Nichole Reisdorph, Manisha Patel
Ketogenic diets (KDs) are increasingly utilized as treatments for epilepsy, other neurological diseases, and cancer. Despite their long history in suppressing seizures, the distinct molecular mechanisms of action of KDs are still largely unknown. The goal of this study was to identify key metabolites and pathways altered in hippocampus and plasma of rats fed a KD vs. control diet either ad libitum or calorically restricted to 90% of the recommended intake. This was accomplished using a combination of targeted methods and untargeted mass spectrometry-based metabolomics analyses...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605047/biological-origins-of-sexual-orientation-and-gender-identity-impact-on-health
#20
REVIEW
Katherine A O'Hanlan, Jennifer C Gordon, Mackenzie W Sullivan
Gynecologic Oncologists are sometimes consulted to care for patients who present with diverse gender identities or sexual orientations. Clinicians can create more helpful relationships with their patients if they understand the etiologies of these diverse expressions of sexual humanity. Multidisciplinary evidence reveals that a sexually dimorphic spectrum of somatic and neurologic anatomy, traits and abilities, including sexual orientation and gender identity, are conferred together during the first half of pregnancy due to genetics, epigenetics and the diversity of timing and function of sex chromosomes, sex-determining protein secretion, gonadal hormone secretion, receptor levels, adrenal function, maternally ingested dietary hormones, fetal health, and many other factors...
April 2018: Gynecologic Oncology
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