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Anticonvulsants, anti-epileptics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076421/seizures-and-anticonvulsants-in-brain-tumours-frequency-mechanisms-and-anti-epileptic-management
#1
Charles Vecht, Louis Royer-Perron, Caroline Houillier, Gilles Huberfeld
In cancer, epilepsy can be the manifestation of a primary brain tumour, metastatic disease, vascular or surgical complications, opportunistic infection or secondary to anti-tumour therapy. Seizures are frequently the first symptom of a brain tumour. The epilepsy is related to elevated extracellular glutamate stimulating NMDA- and AMPA-receptors and to the formation of D-2HG which resembles glutamate in IDH1 mutated gliomas. Epilepsy as presenting sign is associated with a longer survival in low- and high- grade gliomas, particularly with the IDH1 mutation...
October 27, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929472/-ivermectin-as-an-adjunct-in-the-treatment-of-refractory-epilepsy
#2
J A Diazgranados-Sanchez, J L Mejia-Fernandez, L S Chan-Guevara, M H Valencia-Artunduaga, J L Costa
INTRODUCTION: Ivermectin, a 22'23 dihydro derivative of avermectins beta-1a, is a highly effective veterinary and human anti parasitic, used to treat endoparasites of difficult control such as filariasis and onchocerciasis, with a median plasma life of at least of 16 hours. The recommended therapeutic doses range from 0.05 to 0.40 mg/kg, without undesirable effects or risk to human life. It went from being a great success in animal health to its application in humans, where it has had great impact...
October 1, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841161/disease-modifying-effects-of-the-spider-toxin-parawixin2-in-the-experimental-epilepsy-model
#3
Lívea Dornela Godoy, José Luiz Liberato, Marcus Vinícius Batista Celani, Leonardo Gobbo-Neto, Norberto Peporine Lopes, Wagner Ferreira Dos Santos
(1) Background: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common type of epilepsy in adults. It is also the one with the highest percentage of drug-resistance to the current available anti-epileptic drugs (AED). Additionaly, most antiepileptic drugs are only able to control seizures in epileptogenesis, but do not decrease the hippocampal neurodegenerative process. TLE patients have a reduced population of interneuronal cells, which express Parvalbumin (PV) proteins. This reduction is directly linked to seizure frequency and severity in the chronic period of epilepsy...
August 25, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755321/prophylactic-anticonvulsants-in-patients-with-primary-glioblastoma
#4
REVIEW
Arvin R Wali, Robert C Rennert, Sonya G Wang, Clark C Chen
Glioblastoma is the most common form of primary brain cancer in adults and one of the deadliest of human cancers. Seizures are one of the most frequent presentations of glioblastoma. The use of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) in glioblastoma patients suffering from seizures is well accepted. However, the role of long-term AED use in patients with glioblastoma without a history of seizures is controversial. Here, we performed a review of the literature to identify studies that examined the use of AEDs in seizure-free glioblastoma patients...
November 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751143/n-alkyl-1-1-biphenyl-2-sulfonamide-derivatives-as-novel-broad-spectrum-anti-epileptic-drugs-with-efficacy-equivalent-to-that-of-sodium-valproate
#5
Tomoyuki Tanaka, Nana Yajima, Tomoko Kiyoshi, Yoshiki Miura, Seiji Iwama
In order to develop phenyl sulfonamides as a novel class of anti-epileptic drugs (AED) for both general and partial seizure, we initiated in vivo screening of our chemical library in the mice MES and sc-PTZ models and found compounds 1 and 2 as lead compounds. Optimization of 1 and 2 led to the discovery of compound 21, which showed potent anticonvulsant effect in MES, scPTZ and rat amygdala kindling models. These findings indicate that compound 21 could be a useful new broad spectrum AED like sodium valproate and provide an opportunity to struggle current therapy-resistant epilepsy...
September 1, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686214/current-study-of-the-mechanism-of-action-of-the-potential-anti-epileptic-agent-q808
#6
Xiang Li, Hong-Jian Zhang, Qing Wang, Dian-Wen Zhang, Di Wu, Wei Li, Zhe-Shan Quan
Our previous study showed that the anticonvulsant Q808 might be effective against seizures induced by maximal electroshock, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ), isoniazid (ISO), thiosemicarbazide (THIO), and 3-mercaptopropionic acid (3-MP). In the present study, we explored the possible mechanism of action of Q808. Results obtained with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) suggest that Q808 may affect neurotransmitter content in the brain, by specifically increasing GABA content in the rat hippocampus at doses of 40 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg, and by reducing the content of glutamate and glutamine in the rat thalamus at a dose of 80 mg/kg...
July 7, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638280/anticonvulsant-hypersensitivity-syndrome-after-phenytoin-administration-in-an-adolescent-patient-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#7
Malik Ghannam, Shaden Mansour, Aya Nabulsi, Qusay Abdoh
BACKGROUND: Hypersensitivity is a rare adverse drug reaction (ADR) associated with anti-epileptic medications. Phenytoin is one of the commonly used drugs for treatment of epilepsy that encounters a hypersensitivity reaction. This reaction can be ranged from mild cutaneous rash to anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome (AHS) or drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) that includes fever, rash, eosinophilia and involvement of multiple internal organs. CASE PRESENTATION: A 15 year old middle eastern female patient from Gaza strip with free past medical and allergic history...
2017: Clinical and Molecular Allergy: CMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626875/effect-of-ketogenic-diet-and-other-dietary-therapies-on-anti-epileptic-drug-concentrations-in-patients-with-epilepsy
#8
G Heo, S H Kim, M J Chang
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: The ketogenic diet (KD) is an effective high-fat, adequate-protein, low-carbohydrate diet for patients with refractory epilepsy. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential effects of the KD and other dietary therapies on the concentrations of anticonvulsants in patients with epilepsy. METHODS: Patients with epilepsy who were treated with the KD and other dietary therapies for more than 30 days with at least one measurement performed both before and during the diet were evaluated...
June 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577913/anticonvulsant-activity-of-resveratrol-loaded-liposomes-in-vivo
#9
M S Ethemoglu, F B Seker, H Akkaya, E Kilic, I Aslan, C S Erdogan, B Yilmaz
Resveratrol (3,5,4'-stilbenetriol), a natural polyphenol produced by various plants, has attracted attention over the past decade because of its multiple beneficial properties, including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and chemopreventive, yet, there is limited information about its antiepileptic effects. Moreover, its poor solubility in water and low bioavailability are the challenging issues. In the present study, we aimed to investigate effects of free resveratrol and resveratrol delivered in amphipathic liposomal delivery system, which has a high blood-brain barrier crossing potential, on penicillin-induced epileptic seizure model...
June 1, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521703/recent-advances-in-antiepileptic-herbal-medicine
#10
Stephen M Manchishi
Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders worldwide, with about 80 percent of cases thought to be in developing nations where it is mostly linked to superstition. Most cases of epilepsy are idiopathic, though brain injury, brain tumor, severe systemic infection and genetic mutations have been implicated in some cases. Anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) currently in existence are not sufficient to contain the disorder. This is not only because of their limited availability and cost, but also their adverse side effects...
May 18, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479741/effect-of-naringenin-a-naturally-occurring-flavanone-against-pilocarpine-induced-status-epilepticus-and-oxidative-stress-in-mice
#11
Sheeba Shakeel, Muneeb U Rehman, Nahida Tabassum, Umar Amin, Manzoor Ur Rahman Mir
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a disorder of the central nervous system characterized by recurrent seizures. It is a very common disease in which approximately 30% of patients do not respond favourably to treatment with anticonvulsants. Oxidative stress is associated with neuronal damage arising from epileptic seizures. The present study investigated the effects of naringenin in pilocarpine-induced epilepsy in mice. Naringenin, one of the most frequently occurring flavanone in citrus fruits, was evaluated for its shielding effect against the pilocarpine induced behavioural, oxidative and histopathological alterations in rodent model of epilepsy...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388948/investigating-the-potential-of-the-anti-epileptic-drug-imepitoin-as-a-treatment-for-co-morbid-anxiety-in-dogs-with-idiopathic-epilepsy
#12
Rowena M A Packer, Luisa De Risio, Holger A Volk
BACKGROUND: Behavioural changes associated with idiopathic epilepsy (IE) have been identified in dogs, with fear and anxiety-related problems seen in both drug-naïve dogs and dogs treated with anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). Treating anxiety-related behaviour in dogs with IE may be challenging, as seizures are a contraindication for many conventional anxiolytic drugs. In addition, many dogs with IE are already treated with AEDs to reduce their seizure frequency, which may have negative effects if used in polytherapy...
April 7, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325299/potent-anti-seizure-effects-of-locked-nucleic-acid-antagomirs-targeting-mir-134-in-multiple-mouse-and-rat-models-of-epilepsy
#13
Cristina R Reschke, Luiz F Almeida Silva, Braxton A Norwood, Ketharini Senthilkumar, Gareth Morris, Amaya Sanz-Rodriguez, Ronán M Conroy, Lara Costard, Valentin Neubert, Sebastian Bauer, Michael A Farrell, Donncha F O'Brien, Norman Delanty, Stephanie Schorge, R Jeroen Pasterkamp, Felix Rosenow, David C Henshall
Current anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) act on a limited set of neuronal targets, are ineffective in a third of patients with epilepsy, and do not show disease-modifying properties. MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that regulate levels of proteins by post-transcriptional control of mRNA stability and translation. MicroRNA-134 is involved in controlling neuronal microstructure and brain excitability and previous studies showed that intracerebroventricular injections of locked nucleic acid (LNA), cholesterol-tagged antagomirs targeting microRNA-134 (Ant-134) reduced evoked and spontaneous seizures in mouse models of status epilepticus...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249817/the-direct-actions-of-cannabidiol-and-2-arachidonoyl-glycerol-at-gabaa-receptors
#14
T Bakas, P S van Nieuwenhuijzen, S O Devenish, I S McGregor, J C Arnold, M Chebib
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a major non-intoxicating component of cannabis and possesses anti-epileptic, anxiolytic and anti-hyperalgesic properties. The mechanism of action of CBD in producing such effects remains unclear. Despite evidence that some endogenous and synthetic cannabinoids interact with GABAA receptors, no-one has yet investigated the effects of CBD. Here we used two-electrode voltage clamp electrophysiology to compare the actions of CBD with those of the major central endocannabinoid, 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) on human recombinant GABAA receptors (synaptic α1-6βγ2 and extrasynaptic α4β2δ) expressed on Xenopus oocytes...
May 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088732/apelin-13-protects-rat-primary-cortical-glia-neuron-co-culture-against-pentylenetetrazole-induced-toxicity
#15
Taj Pari Kalantaripour, Saeed Esmaeili-Mahani, Vahid Sheibani, Hamid Najafipour, Majid Asadi-Shekaari M
In spite of recent advances in the treatment of epilepsy, up to 35% of people living with the condition do not respond to accessible anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) and continue to experience regular, devastating and potentially life-threatening seizures. Neuronal death is a significant feature of epilepsy in humans and experimental models. It has been reported that apelin, an endogenous ligand for the angiotensin-1-like receptor (APJ), has anticonvulsive as well as protective effects in some neurodegenerative situations...
March 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915186/role-of-the-purinergic-signaling-in-epilepsy
#16
REVIEW
Marek Cieślak, Andrzej Wojtczak, Michał Komoszyński
Adenine nucleotides and adenosine are signaling molecules that activate purinergic receptors P1 and P2. Activation of A1 adenosine receptors has an anticonvulsant action, whereas activation of A2A receptors might initiate seizures. Therefore, a significant limitation to the use of A1 receptor agonists as drugs in the CNS might be their peripheral side effects. The anti-epileptic activity of adenosine is related to its increased concentration outside the cell. This increase might result from the inhibition of the equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs)...
February 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887842/simple-n-n-dimethyl-phenylsulfonamides-show-potent-anticonvulsant-effect-in-two-standard-epilepsy-models
#17
Tomoyuki Tanaka, Nana Yajima, Tomoko Kiyoshi, Yoshiki Miura, Seiji Iwama
Optimization of the previously reported benzothiazine analogue A led to the identification of compound 1, which showed anti-convulsant activity in two golden standard animal models of seizure, the MES and scPTZ models. Structure-activity relationship investigation of compound 1 revealed compounds 2, 6 and 19 as attractive anti-epileptic drug (AED) candidates with potent anticonvulsant effect in both the MES and scPTZ models. As these compounds are structurally different from existing AEDs, determination of their mechanism of actions could provide clues to understanding current therapy-resistant seizures...
January 1, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860117/development-of-a-core-outcome-set-for-epilepsy-in-pregnancy-e-core-a-national-multi-stakeholder-modified-delphi-consensus-study
#18
B H Al Wattar, K Tamilselvan, R Khan, A Kelso, A Sinha, A M Pirie, D McCorry, K S Khan, S Thangaratinam
OBJECTIVE: To develop a set of core outcomes for studies on pregnant women with epilepsy. DESIGN: Delphi consensus study. POPULATION: Healthcare professionals, and patient representatives with lived experience of epilepsy in the UK. METHODS: We used a modified Delphi method and a consultation meeting to achieve consensus. Potential outcomes were identified by systematic review, and were scored using a Likert scale anchored between 1 (least important) and 5 (most important)...
March 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825017/a-pharmacological-overview-of-lamotrigine-for-the-treatment-of-epilepsy
#19
REVIEW
Venkata Ramesh Yasam, Satya Lavanya Jakki, V Senthil, M Eswaramoorthy, S Shanmuganathan, K Arjunan, M J Nanjan
Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders, affecting about 2% of the population worldwide. Lamotrigine (LTG) is a second generation anti-epileptic drug (AED) with broad spectrum of activity, a favourable side-effect profile, simpler dosing than earlier drugs and efficacious in diverse epilepsy syndromes. Areas covered: The present review focuses on pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, safety and tolerability of LTG and its effect on cognition, psychiatry, quality of life, women and pregnancy along with effect of enzyme inducing and enzyme inhibiting drugs over LTG and their effect on serum level fluctuations by collecting data from various studies over the years until 2016...
December 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757273/evaluation-of-anti-epileptic-activity-of-leaf-extracts-of-punica-granatum-on-experimental-models-of-epilepsy-in-mice
#20
Gollapalle L Viswanatha, Marikunte V Venkataranganna, Nunna Bheema Lingeswara Prasad, Godavarthi Ashok
OBJECTIVES: This study was aimed to examine the anti-epileptic activity of leaf extracts of Punica granatum in experimental models of epilepsy in Swiss albino mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Petroleum ether leaf extract of P. granatum (PLPG), methanolic LPG (MLPG), and aqueous LPG (ALPG) extracts of P. granatum leaves was initially evaluated against 6-Hz-induced seizure model; the potent extract was further evaluated against maximal electroshock (MES) and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced convulsions...
September 2016: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
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