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Anticonvulsants, anti-epileptics

C Vallée, A Biraben, A Nica, M Loiseau
OBJECTIVES: The occurrence of depression in people with epilepsy is almost twice as common as in the general population. Furthermore, depression is the first cause of lower quality of life among those patients. Which is why the main goal of this study was to assess the epidemiology of depression and its associated factors among the patients from the tertiary department of epileptology in Rennes. METHODS/RESULTS: The subjects were included prospectively and consecutively at the moment of their consultation or hospitalisation in the department...
March 7, 2018: L'Encéphale
Faisal Khan, Zafar Saeed Saify, Khawar Saeed Jamali, Saima Naz, Sohail Hassan, Sonia Siddiqui
Vitex negundo (Vn) extract is famous for the treatment of neurological diseases such as migraine and epilepsy. These neurological diseases have been associated with abnormally increased influx of sodium ions into the neurons. Drugs that inhibit voltage gated sodium channels can be used as potent anti-epileptics. Till now, the effects of Vn on sodium channels have not been investigated. Therefore, we have investigated the effects of methalonic fraction of Vn extract in Murine Neuro 2A cell line. Cells were cultured in a defined medium with or without the Vn extract (100 μg/ml)...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
E Finelli, P Custódio, O Porovska, S Prates, P Leiria-Pinto
Anticonvulsants are among the drugs most commonly involved in cutaneous adverse drug reactions (CADRs). Eslicarbazepine is a new anti-epileptic drug, chemically related to carbamazepine but with a more favorable safety profile. We report the clinical case of a woman who developed a skin rash on day 10 of eslicarbazepine with further exacerbation with eosinophilia on day 2 of carbamazepine. Epicutaneous tests were positive with eslicarbazepine.
November 29, 2017: European Annals of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Victoria Hughes, Magnus J E Richardson, Mark J Wall
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Ethanol is a widely used recreational drug with complex effects on physiological and pathological brain function. In epileptic patients the use of ethanol can modify seizure initiation and subsequent seizure activity with reports of ethanol being both pro and anti-convulsant. One proposed target of ethanol's actions is the neuromodulator adenosine, which is released during epileptic seizures to feedback and inhibit the occurrence of subsequent seizures. Here we have investigated the actions of acute ethanol exposure on adenosine signalling in rat hippocampus...
January 23, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Marita Eckert, Lukas Klumpp, Stephan M Huber
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Valproic acid (VPA), an anticonvulsant and mood-stabilizing drug is used to treat epileptic seizure of glioblastoma patients. Besides its antiepileptic activity, VPA has been attributed further functions that improve the clinical outcome of glioblastoma patients. Those comprise the inhibition of some histone deacetylase (HDAC) isoforms which reportedly may result in radiosensitization. Retrospective analysis of patient data, however, could not unequivocally confirm a prolonged survival of glioblastoma patients receiving VPA...
2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Hiroki Kikuyama, Tadahito Hanaoka, Tetsufumi Kanazawa, Yasushi Yoshida, Takafumi Mizuno, Hirotaka Toyoda, Hiroshi Yoneda
Objective: The anti-epileptogenic drug levetiracetam has anticonvulsant and anti-epileptogenesis effects. Synergy between cell death and inflammation can lead to increased levels of apoptosis inhibitory factors and brain-derived neurotrophic factor, aberrant neurogenesis and extended axon sprouting. Once hyperexcitation of the neural network occurs, spontaneous seizures or epileptogenesis develops. This study investigated whether the anti-epileptogenic effect of levetiracetam is due to its alternate apoptotic activity...
November 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
Charles Vecht, Louis Royer-Perron, Caroline Houillier, Gilles Huberfeld
In cancer, epilepsy can be the manifestation of a primary brain tumour, metastatic disease, vascular or surgical complications, opportunistic infection or secondary to anti-tumour therapy. Seizures are frequently the first symptom of a brain tumour. The epilepsy is related to elevated extracellular glutamate stimulating NMDA- and AMPA-receptors and to the formation of D-2HG which resembles glutamate in IDH1 mutated gliomas. Epilepsy as presenting sign is associated with a longer survival in low- and high- grade gliomas, particularly with the IDH1 mutation...
October 27, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
J A Diazgranados-Sanchez, J L Mejia-Fernandez, L S Chan-Guevara, M H Valencia-Artunduaga, J L Costa
INTRODUCTION: Ivermectin, a 22'23 dihydro derivative of avermectins beta-1a, is a highly effective veterinary and human anti parasitic, used to treat endoparasites of difficult control such as filariasis and onchocerciasis, with a median plasma life of at least of 16 hours. The recommended therapeutic doses range from 0.05 to 0.40 mg/kg, without undesirable effects or risk to human life. It went from being a great success in animal health to its application in humans, where it has had great impact...
October 1, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
Lívea Dornela Godoy, José Luiz Liberato, Marcus Vinícius Batista Celani, Leonardo Gobbo-Neto, Norberto Peporine Lopes, Wagner Ferreira Dos Santos
(1) Background: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common type of epilepsy in adults. It is also the one with the highest percentage of drug-resistance to the current available anti-epileptic drugs (AED). Additionaly, most antiepileptic drugs are only able to control seizures in epileptogenesis, but do not decrease the hippocampal neurodegenerative process. TLE patients have a reduced population of interneuronal cells, which express Parvalbumin (PV) proteins. This reduction is directly linked to seizure frequency and severity in the chronic period of epilepsy...
August 25, 2017: Toxins
Arvin R Wali, Robert C Rennert, Sonya G Wang, Clark C Chen
Glioblastoma is the most common form of primary brain cancer in adults and one of the deadliest of human cancers. Seizures are one of the most frequent presentations of glioblastoma. The use of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) in glioblastoma patients suffering from seizures is well accepted. However, the role of long-term AED use in patients with glioblastoma without a history of seizures is controversial. Here, we performed a review of the literature to identify studies that examined the use of AEDs in seizure-free glioblastoma patients...
November 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Tomoyuki Tanaka, Nana Yajima, Tomoko Kiyoshi, Yoshiki Miura, Seiji Iwama
In order to develop phenyl sulfonamides as a novel class of anti-epileptic drugs (AED) for both general and partial seizure, we initiated in vivo screening of our chemical library in the mice MES and sc-PTZ models and found compounds 1 and 2 as lead compounds. Optimization of 1 and 2 led to the discovery of compound 21, which showed potent anticonvulsant effect in MES, scPTZ and rat amygdala kindling models. These findings indicate that compound 21 could be a useful new broad spectrum AED like sodium valproate and provide an opportunity to struggle current therapy-resistant epilepsy...
September 1, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Xiang Li, Hong-Jian Zhang, Qing Wang, Dian-Wen Zhang, Di Wu, Wei Li, Zhe-Shan Quan
Our previous study showed that the anticonvulsant Q808 might be effective against seizures induced by maximal electroshock, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ), isoniazid (ISO), thiosemicarbazide (THIO), and 3-mercaptopropionic acid (3-MP). In the present study, we explored the possible mechanism of action of Q808. Results obtained with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) suggest that Q808 may affect neurotransmitter content in the brain, by specifically increasing GABA content in the rat hippocampus at doses of 40 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg, and by reducing the content of glutamate and glutamine in the rat thalamus at a dose of 80 mg/kg...
July 7, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Malik Ghannam, Shaden Mansour, Aya Nabulsi, Qusay Abdoh
BACKGROUND: Hypersensitivity is a rare adverse drug reaction (ADR) associated with anti-epileptic medications. Phenytoin is one of the commonly used drugs for treatment of epilepsy that encounters a hypersensitivity reaction. This reaction can be ranged from mild cutaneous rash to anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome (AHS) or drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) that includes fever, rash, eosinophilia and involvement of multiple internal organs. CASE PRESENTATION: A 15 year old middle eastern female patient from Gaza strip with free past medical and allergic history...
2017: Clinical and Molecular Allergy: CMA
G Heo, S H Kim, M J Chang
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: The ketogenic diet (KD) is an effective high-fat, adequate-protein, low-carbohydrate diet for patients with refractory epilepsy. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential effects of the KD and other dietary therapies on the concentrations of anticonvulsants in patients with epilepsy. METHODS: Patients with epilepsy who were treated with the KD and other dietary therapies for more than 30 days with at least one measurement performed both before and during the diet were evaluated...
June 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
M S Ethemoglu, F B Seker, H Akkaya, E Kilic, I Aslan, C S Erdogan, B Yilmaz
Resveratrol (3,5,4'-stilbenetriol), a natural polyphenol produced by various plants, has attracted attention over the past decade because of its multiple beneficial properties, including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and chemopreventive, yet, there is limited information about its antiepileptic effects. Moreover, its poor solubility in water and low bioavailability are the challenging issues. In the present study, we aimed to investigate effects of free resveratrol and resveratrol delivered in amphipathic liposomal delivery system, which has a high blood-brain barrier crossing potential, on penicillin-induced epileptic seizure model...
June 1, 2017: Neuroscience
Stephen M Manchishi
Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders worldwide, with about 80 percent of cases thought to be in developing nations where it is mostly linked to superstition. Most cases of epilepsy are idiopathic, though brain injury, brain tumor, severe systemic infection and genetic mutations have been implicated in some cases. Anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) currently in existence are not sufficient to contain the disorder. This is not only because of their limited availability and cost, but also their adverse side effects...
May 18, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
Sheeba Shakeel, Muneeb U Rehman, Nahida Tabassum, Umar Amin, Manzoor Ur Rahman Mir
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a disorder of the central nervous system characterized by recurrent seizures. It is a very common disease in which approximately 30% of patients do not respond favourably to treatment with anticonvulsants. Oxidative stress is associated with neuronal damage arising from epileptic seizures. The present study investigated the effects of naringenin in pilocarpine-induced epilepsy in mice. Naringenin, one of the most frequently occurring flavanone in citrus fruits, was evaluated for its shielding effect against the pilocarpine induced behavioural, oxidative and histopathological alterations in rodent model of epilepsy...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Rowena M A Packer, Luisa De Risio, Holger A Volk
BACKGROUND: Behavioural changes associated with idiopathic epilepsy (IE) have been identified in dogs, with fear and anxiety-related problems seen in both drug-naïve dogs and dogs treated with anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). Treating anxiety-related behaviour in dogs with IE may be challenging, as seizures are a contraindication for many conventional anxiolytic drugs. In addition, many dogs with IE are already treated with AEDs to reduce their seizure frequency, which may have negative effects if used in polytherapy...
April 7, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
Cristina R Reschke, Luiz F Almeida Silva, Braxton A Norwood, Ketharini Senthilkumar, Gareth Morris, Amaya Sanz-Rodriguez, Ronán M Conroy, Lara Costard, Valentin Neubert, Sebastian Bauer, Michael A Farrell, Donncha F O'Brien, Norman Delanty, Stephanie Schorge, R Jeroen Pasterkamp, Felix Rosenow, David C Henshall
Current anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) act on a limited set of neuronal targets, are ineffective in a third of patients with epilepsy, and do not show disease-modifying properties. MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that regulate levels of proteins by post-transcriptional control of mRNA stability and translation. MicroRNA-134 is involved in controlling neuronal microstructure and brain excitability and previous studies showed that intracerebroventricular injections of locked nucleic acid (LNA), cholesterol-tagged antagomirs targeting microRNA-134 (Ant-134) reduced evoked and spontaneous seizures in mouse models of status epilepticus...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
T Bakas, P S van Nieuwenhuijzen, S O Devenish, I S McGregor, J C Arnold, M Chebib
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a major non-intoxicating component of cannabis and possesses anti-epileptic, anxiolytic and anti-hyperalgesic properties. The mechanism of action of CBD in producing such effects remains unclear. Despite evidence that some endogenous and synthetic cannabinoids interact with GABAA receptors, no-one has yet investigated the effects of CBD. Here we used two-electrode voltage clamp electrophysiology to compare the actions of CBD with those of the major central endocannabinoid, 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) on human recombinant GABAA receptors (synaptic α1-6βγ2 and extrasynaptic α4β2δ) expressed on Xenopus oocytes...
May 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
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