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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914366/rapid-and-low-cost-biosensor-for-the-detection-of-staphylococcus-aureus
#1
Ghadeer A R Y Suaifan, Sahar Alhogail, Mohammed Zourob
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is one of the most common etiological agents in hospital-acquired infections and food-borne illness. S. aureus toxins and virulence proteases often circulate in host blood vessels leading to life-threatening diseases. Standard identification approaches include bacterial culturing method, which takes several days. Other nucleic acid-based methods were expensive and required trained personnel. To surmount these limitations, a paper-based biosensor was developed. The sensing mechanism was based on the proteolytic activity of S...
November 21, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914298/effects-of-environmental-noise-exposure-on-dna-methylation-in-the-brain-and-metabolic-health
#2
Liqiong Guo, Peng-Hui Li, Hua Li, Elena Colicino, Silvia Colicino, Yi Wen, Ruiping Zhang, Xiaotian Feng, Timothy M Barrow, Akin Cayir, Andrea A Baccarelli, Hyang-Min Byun
Environmental noise exposure is associated with adverse effects on human health including hearing loss, heart disease, and changes in stress-related hormone levels. Alteration in DNA methylation in response to environmental exposures is a well-known phenomenon and it is implicated in many human diseases. Understanding how environmental noise exposures affect DNA methylation patterns may help to elucidate the link between noise and adverse effects on health. In this pilot study we examined the effects of environmental noise exposure on DNA methylation of genes related to brain function and investigated whether these changes are related with metabolic health...
November 30, 2016: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914271/individual-exposure-estimates-may-be-erroneous-when-spatiotemporal-variability-of-air-pollution-and-human-mobility-are-ignored
#3
Yoo Min Park, Mei-Po Kwan
This study aims to empirically demonstrate the necessity to consider both the spatiotemporal variability of air pollution and individual daily movement patterns in exposure and health risk assessment. It compares four different types of exposure estimates generated by using (1) individual movement data and hourly air pollution concentrations; (2) individual movement data and daily average air pollution data; (3) residential location and hourly pollution levels; and (4) residential location and daily average pollution data...
November 30, 2016: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913844/global-dna-methylation-profiling-of-manganese-exposed-human-neuroblastoma-sh-sy5y-cells-reveals-epigenetic-alterations-in-parkinson-s-disease-associated-genes
#4
Prashant Tarale, Saravanadevi Sivanesan, Atul P Daiwile, Reinhard Stöger, Amit Bafana, Pravin K Naoghare, Devendra Parmar, Tapan Chakrabarti, Krishnamurthi Kannan
Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element required for optimal functioning of cellular biochemical pathways in the central nervous system. Elevated exposure to Mn through environmental and occupational exposure can cause neurotoxic effects resulting in manganism, a condition with clinical symptoms identical to idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Epigenetics is now recognized as a biological mechanism involved in the etiology of various diseases. Here, we investigated the role of DNA methylation alterations induced by chronic Mn (100 µM) exposure in human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells in relevance to Parkinson's disease...
December 2, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913593/higher-heart-rate-variability-is-associated-with-vmpfc-activity-and-increased-resistance-to-temptation-in-dietary-self-control-challenges
#5
Silvia U Maier, Todd A Hare
: Higher levels of self-control in decision making have been linked to better psychosocial and physical health. A similar link to health outcomes has been reported for heart rate variability (HRV), a marker of physiological flexibility. Here, we sought to link these two, largely separate, research domains by testing the hypothesis that greater HRV would be associated with better dietary self-control in humans. Specifically, we examined whether total HRV at sedentary rest (measured as the standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals, SDNN) can serve as a biomarker for the neurophysiological adaptability that putatively underlies self-controlled behavior...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913413/new-arsenate-reductase-gene-arra-pcr-primers-for-diversity-assessment-and-quantification-in-environmental-samples
#6
Babur S Mirza, Darwin L Sorensen, R Ryan Dupont, Joan E McLean
: The extent of arsenic contamination in drinking water and its potential threat to human health have resulted in considerable research interest in the microbial species responsible for arsenic reduction. The arsenate reductase gene (arrA), an important component of the microbial arsenate reduction system, has been widely used as a biomarker to study arsenate reducing microorganisms. A new primer pair was designed and evaluated for qPCR and high-throughput sequencing of the arrA gene, because currently available PCR primers are not suitable for these applications...
December 2, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913160/psychological-well-being-and-mental-health-recovery-in-the-nimh-raise-early-treatment-program
#7
Julia Browne, David L Penn, Piper S Meyer-Kalos, Kim T Mueser, Sue E Estroff, Mary F Brunette, Christoph U Correll, James Robinson, Robert A Rosenheck, Nina Schooler, Delbert G Robinson, Jean Addington, Patricia Marcy, John M Kane
Recovery-oriented practices that promote client-centered care, collaboration, and functional outcome have been recommended to improve treatment engagement, especially for individuals with serious mental illness (SMI). Psychological well-being (PWB) is related to recovery and refers to experiencing purpose and meaning in life through realizing one's potential. The recently completed Recovery After an Initial Schizophrenia Episode Early Treatment Program (RAISE ETP) study sought to improve quality of life, functional outcome, and well-being in individuals with first episode psychosis (FEP)...
November 29, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913018/potential-impact-of-flowback-water-from-hydraulic-fracturing-on-agricultural-soil-quality-metal-metalloid-bioaccessibility-microtox-bioassay-and-enzyme-activities
#8
Season S Chen, Yuqing Sun, Daniel C W Tsang, Nigel J D Graham, Yong Sik Ok, Yujie Feng, Xiang-Dong Li
Hydraulic fracturing has advanced the development of shale gas extraction, while inadvertent spills of flowback water may pose a risk to the surrounding environment due to its high salt content, metals/metalloids (As, Se, Fe and Sr), and organic additives. This study investigated the potential impact of flowback water on four representative soils from shale gas regions in Northeast China using synthetic flowback solutions. The compositions of the solutions were representative of flowback water arising at different stages after fracturing well establishment...
November 29, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912980/lack-of-sustained-efficacy-for-alcohol-based-surgical-hand-rubs-containing-residual-active-ingredients-according-to-en-12791
#9
REVIEW
G Kampf, A Kramer, M Suchomel
The World Health Organization recommends the use of hand rubs with 'sustained activity' for surgical hand preparation. This review aims to verify whether any of the alcohol-based hand rubs containing non-volatile 'active ingredients' such as chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG), mecetronium ethylsulphate (MES), or ortho-phenylphenol (OPP) provides such sustained efficacy for surgical hand disinfection. Literature was searched to find studies according to EN 12791. Published data sets were analysed to verify whether any of the formulations has a superior efficacy (P<0...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911986/persistent-organic-pollutants-in-adipose-tissue-should-be-considered-in-obesity-research
#10
Y-M Lee, K-S Kim, D R Jacobs, D-H Lee
Although low doses of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), strong lipophilic chemicals with long half-lives, have been linked to various endocrine, immune, nervous and reproductive system diseases, few obesity studies have considered adipose tissue as an important POPs exposure source. Because the toxicodynamics of POPs relate directly to the dynamics of adiposity, POPs might explain puzzling findings in obesity research. In two people exposed to the same amounts of environmental POPs, the one having more adipose tissue may be advantaged because POPs storage in adipose tissue can reduce burden on other critical organs...
December 2, 2016: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909993/impact-of-culture-conditions-on-the-chlorophyll-content-of-microalgae-for-biotechnological-applications
#11
REVIEW
Veronica da Silva Ferreira, Celso Sant'Anna
Chlorophyll is a commercially important natural green pigment responsible for the absorption of light energy and its conversion into chemical energy via photosynthesis in plants and algae. This bioactive compound is widely used in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. Chlorophyll has been consumed for health benefits as a nutraceutical agent with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, and antimicrobial properties. Microalgae are photosynthesizing microorganisms which can be extracted for several high-value bioproducts in the biotechnology industry...
January 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909431/the-microbiota-of-recreational-freshwaters-and-the-implications-for-environmental-and-public-health
#12
Chang Soo Lee, Minseok Kim, Cheonghoon Lee, Zhongtang Yu, Jiyoung Lee
The microbial communities in recreational freshwaters play important roles in both environmental and public health perspectives. In this study, the bacterial community structure and its associations with freshwater environments were investigated by analyzing the summertime microbiomes of three beach waters in Ohio (East Fork, Delaware, and Madison lakes) together with environmental and microbial water quality parameters. From the swimming season of 2009, 21 water samples were collected from the three freshwater beaches...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909426/deconstructing-the-bat-skin-microbiome-influences-of-the-host-and-the-environment
#13
Christine V Avena, Laura Wegener Parfrey, Jonathan W Leff, Holly M Archer, Winifred F Frick, Kate E Langwig, A Marm Kilpatrick, Karen E Powers, Jeffrey T Foster, Valerie J McKenzie
Bats are geographically widespread and play an important role in many ecosystems, but relatively little is known about the ecology of their associated microbial communities and the role microbial taxa play in bat health, development, and evolution. Moreover, few vertebrate animal skin microbiomes have been comprehensively assessed, and thus characterizing the bat skin microbiome will yield valuable insight into the variability of vertebrate skin microbiomes as a whole. The recent emergence of the skin fungal disease white-nose syndrome highlights the potentially important role bat skin microbial communities could play in bat health...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909222/associations-between-environmental-factors-and-hospital-admissions-for-sickle-cell-disease
#14
Frédéric B Piel, Sanjay Tewari, Valentine Brousse, Antonis Analitis, Anna Font, Stephan Menzel, Subarna Chakravorty, Swee Lay Thein, Baba Inusa, Paul Telfer, Marianne de Montalembert, Gary W Fuller, Klea Katsouyanni, David C Rees
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an increasing global health burden. This inherited disease is characterised by a remarkable phenotypic heterogeneity, which can only partly be explained by genetic factors. Environmental factors are likely to play an important role but studies of their impact on disease severity are limited and their results are often inconsistent. This study investigated associations between a range of environmental factors and hospital admissions of young patients with SCD in London and in Paris between 2008 and 2012...
December 1, 2016: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909061/understanding-socioenvironmental-contributors-to-racial-and-ethnic-disparities-in-disability-among-older-americans
#15
Allison B Brenner, Philippa J Clarke
Our understanding of the mechanisms through which racial/ethnic disparities in disability in older adults develop and are maintained is limited. We examined the role of physical impairment, socioeconomic factors and health for racial/ethnic disparities in activities of daily living (ADL), and the modifying role of the indoor home environment. Data come from the National Health and Aging Trends Study (N = 5,640), and negative binomial regression models were specified separately for men and women. Blacks and Hispanics reported more ADL difficulty than Whites...
November 30, 2016: Research on Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908973/environmental-public-health-tracking-a-cost-effective-system-for-characterizing-the-sources-distribution-and-public-health-impacts-of-environmental-hazards
#16
P J Saunders, J D Middleton, G Rudge
BACKGROUND: The contemporary environment is a complex of interactions between physical, biological, socio-economic systems with major impacts on public health. However, gaps in our understanding of the causes, extent and distribution of these effects remain. The public health community in Sandwell West Midlands has collaborated to successfully develop, pilot and establish the first Environmental Public Health Tracking (EPHT) programme in Europe to address this 'environmental health gap' through systematically linking data on environmental hazards, exposures and diseases...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908845/design-response-rates-and-population-characteristics-of-a-cross-sectional-study-in-zanzibar-tanzania
#17
Maria Adam Nyangasa, Soerge Kelm, Mohammed Ali Sheikh, Antje Hebestreit
BACKGROUND: Data on nutritional status and correlates of noncommunicable diseases are scarce for resource-poor settings in sub-Saharan countries. With the scope of a project, "Access to Food and Nutrition Status of the Zanzibari Population," data for investigating public health questions were collected using proven measurement and laboratory standards. OBJECTIVE: The present study aims at providing a descriptive overview of recruitment approaches, standardization, quality control measures, and data collection, with special attention to the design, responses, and participant characteristics of the overall project...
December 1, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908540/the-role-of-race-and-ethnicity-in-sleep-circadian-rhythms-and-cardiovascular-health
#18
REVIEW
Kieren J Egan, Kristen L Knutson, Alexandre C Pereira, Malcolm von Schantz
In recent years, strong evidence has emerged suggesting that insufficient duration, quality, and/or timing of sleep are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), and various mechanisms for this association have been proposed. Such associations may be related to endophenotypic features of the sleep homeostat and the circadian oscillator, or may be state-like effects of the environment. Here, we review recent literature on sleep, circadian rhythms and CVD with a specific emphasis on differences between racial/ethnic groups...
June 3, 2016: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908489/parental-smoking-during-pregnancy-shortens-offspring-s-legs
#19
E Żądzińska, S Kozieł, B Borowska-Strugińska, I Rosset, A Sitek, W Lorkiewicz
One of the most severe detrimental environmental factors acting during pregnancy is foetal smoke exposure. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of maternal, paternal and parental smoking during pregnancy on relative leg length in 7- to 10-year-old children. The research conducted in the years 2001-2002 included 978 term-born children, 348 boys and 630 girls, at the age of 7-10 years. Information concerning the birth weight of a child was obtained from the health records of the women. Information about the mother's and the father's smoking habits during pregnancy and about the mothers' education level was obtained from a questionnaire...
June 29, 2016: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908487/mercury-exposure-and-source-tracking-in-distinct-marine-caged-fish-farm-in-southern-china
#20
Xiaoyu Xu, Wen-Xiong Wang
Coasts of South China have experienced an unprecedented growth in its marine-caged fish industry. We analyzed mercury concentrations and stable mercury isotope ratios in fourteen fish species from two cage-cultured farms in Southern China. Total mercury concentrations of all species were lower than the human health screening values, but the human exposures through consumption of several carnivorous fish exceeded the USEPA's reference dose. Isotopic compositions in the sediment (δ(202)Hg: -1.45‰ to -1.23‰; Δ(199)Hg: -0...
November 28, 2016: Environmental Pollution
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