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Social Influence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926938/uncovering-the-pathogenic-landscape-of-helminth-opisthorchis-viverrini-infections-a-cross-sectional-study-on-contributions-of-physical-and-social-environment-and-healthcare-interventions
#1
Xueyuan Ong, Yi-Chen Wang, Paiboon Sithithaworn, Jutamas Namsanor, David Taylor, Luxana Laithavewat
BACKGROUND: Helminth infections have proven recalcitrant to control by chemotherapy in many parts of Southeast Asia and indeed farther afield. This study isolates and examines the influence of different aspects of the physical and social environment, and uneven intervention effort contributing to the pathogenic landscape of human Opisthorchis viverrini infections. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional survey, involving 632 participants, was conducted in four villages in northeast Thailand to examine the impact on prevalence and parasite burden of the reservoir dam environment, socio-economic, demographic, and behavioral factors, and health center intervention efforts...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926743/antecedents-of-new-onset-major-depressive-disorder-in-children-and-adolescents-at-high-familial-risk
#2
Frances Rice, Ruth Sellers, Gemma Hammerton, Olga Eyre, Rhys Bevan-Jones, Ajay K Thapar, Stephan Collishaw, Gordon T Harold, Anita Thapar
Importance: Early-onset major depressive disorder (MDD) is common in individuals at high familial risk of depression and is associated with poor long-term mental health, social, and educational outcomes. Objectives: To examine the developmental pathways that lead to first-episode adolescent-onset MDD (incident cases) in those at high familial risk and to postulate a theoretically informed model that enables simultaneous testing of different pathways to incident adolescent-onset MDD composed of contributions from familial/genetic and social risk factors, as well as effects via specific clinical antecedents...
December 7, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926439/competition-testosterone-and-adult-neurobehavioral-plasticity
#3
A B Losecaat Vermeer, I Riečanský, C Eisenegger
Motivation in performance is often measured via competitions. Winning a competition has been found to increase the motivation to perform in subsequent competitions. One potential neurobiological mechanism that regulates the motivation to compete involves sex hormones, such as the steroids testosterone and estradiol. A wealth of studies in both nonhuman animals and humans have shown that a rise in testosterone levels before and after winning a competition enhances the motivation to compete. There is strong evidence for acute behavioral effects in response to steroid hormones...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925361/implicit-alcohol-attitudes-predict-drinking-behaviour-over-and-above-intentions-and-willingness-in-young-adults-but-willingness-is-more-important-in-adolescents-implications-for-the-prototype-willingness-model
#4
Emma L Davies, Aspasia E Paltoglou, David R Foxcroft
OBJECTIVES: Dual process models, such as the Prototype Willingness Model (PWM), propose to account for both intentional and reactive drinking behaviour. Current methods of measuring constructs in the PWM rely on self-report, thus require a level of conscious deliberation. Implicit measures of attitudes may overcome this limitation and contribute to our understanding of how prototypes and willingness influence alcohol consumption in young people. This study aimed to explore whether implicit alcohol attitudes were related to PWM constructs and whether they would add to the prediction of risky drinking...
December 7, 2016: British Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924836/endogenous-testosterone-is-associated-with-lower-amygdala-reactivity-to-angry-faces-and-reduced-aggressive-behavior-in-healthy-young-women
#5
Macià Buades-Rotger, Christin Engelke, Frederike Beyer, Brian G Keevil, Georg Brabant, Ulrike M Krämer
Testosterone and cortisol have been proposed to influence aggressive behavior by altering the neural processing of facial threat signals. However, this has not been investigated in direct social interactions. Here, we explored the joint impact of testosterone, cortisol, and brain reactivity to anger expressions on women's reactive aggression in the Social Threat Aggression Paradigm (STAP). The STAP is a competitive reaction time task in which the purported opponent displays either an angry or a neutral facial expression at the beginning of each trial and delivers increasingly loud sound blasts to the participants, successfully provoking them...
December 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924623/does-inflammation-mediate-relationships-between-racial-identity-and-onset-of-menopause-among-us-adults
#6
Alexandra C H Nowakowski, Katelyn Y Graves
We assess how well differences in ethnoracial background may predict timing of menopause among females in the USA and whether or not inflammatory biomarker levels appear to mediate these overall associations. We use data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) to model apparent net effects from race on menopausal onset, as well as possible mediating influences from the inflammatory biomarker C-reactive protein (CRP). Using continuous time event history analysis, we assess and frame overall relationships between race and menopausal age...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924528/mycotoxins-an-underhand-food-problem
#7
Antonio Moretti, Antonio F Logrieco, Antonia Susca
Among the food safety issues, the occurrence of fungal species able to produce toxic metabolites on the agro-food products has acquired a general attention. These compounds, the mycotoxins, generally provided of low molecular weight, are the result of the secondary metabolism of the toxigenic fungi. They may have toxic activity toward the plants, but mostly represent a serious risk for human and animal health worldwide, since they can be accumulated on many final crop products and they have a broad range of toxic biological activities...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924513/reproductive-health-service-utilization-and-social-determinants-among-married-female-rural-to-urban-migrants-in-two-metropolises-china
#8
Zhi-Yong Liu, Jiang Li, Yang Hong, Lan Yao
Reproductive health (RH) education and services of female migrants in China have become an important health issue. This research aimed to investigate the RH knowledge and utilization among married female migrants, and to explore the influencing factors from the perspectives of population and sociology. We conducted a cross-section survey in Shenzhen and Wuhan, China, using the purposive sampling method. A total of 1021 rural-to-urban married migrants were recruited, with 997 valid survey results obtained. A face-to-face structured questionnaire survey was used, with primary focus on knowledge of fertility, contraception, family planning policy and sexual transmitted diseases/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (STD/AIDs), and RH service utilization...
December 2016: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924467/indian-pediatric-postgraduate-s-perspective-on-future-career-intentions
#9
Latha M Sneha, Manipriya Ravindran, Rekha Kumar, Padmasani Venkatraman, Julius Scott, LakshmiNarayan Kannan
OBJECTIVE: To determine the factors that influence Pediatric residents to pursue a subspecialty career and establish their choice of future workplace. METHODS: The present questionnaire based study was conducted during a National level pediatric post graduate exam refresher course in Chennai, India and involved Pediatric residents from all parts of India. Datas was analysed with the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS, version 18.0). RESULTS: Seventy five respondents participated in the study...
December 7, 2016: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923924/attenuation-of-the-type-iv-pilus-retraction-motor-influences-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-social-and-infection-behavior
#10
Alyson M Hockenberry, Danielle M Hutchens, Al Agellon, Magdalene So
: Retraction of the type IV pilus (Tfp) mediates DNA uptake, motility, and social and infection behavior in a wide variety of prokaryotes. To date, investigations into Tfp retraction-dependent activities have used a mutant deleted of PilT, the ATPase motor protein that causes the pilus fiber to retract. ΔpilT cells are nontransformable, nonmotile, and cannot aggregate into microcolonies. We tested the hypothesis that these retraction-dependent activities are sensitive to the strength of PilT enzymatic activity by using the pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae as a model...
December 6, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923863/using-the-theory-of-normative-social-behavior-to-understand-compliance-with-a-smoke-free-law-in-a-middle-income-country
#11
M J Byron, J E Cohen, S Frattaroli, J Gittelsohn, D H Jernigan
Smoke-free laws, which ban smoking in public venues, can be effective in protecting public health, but it has been difficult to achieve compliance with these laws in low- and middle-income countries. This study was conducted to understand the social norms around public smoking and learn how to improve compliance in Bogor, the first Indonesian city to pass a comprehensive smoke-free law. Eleven stratified focus groups were conducted (n = 89). Data were analyzed using the theory of normative social behavior, which posits that the influence of descriptive norms (perceptions about what other people do) on behavior is moderated by injunctive norms (perceptions about what one is expected to do), outcome expectations and group identity...
December 2016: Health Education Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923779/a-multidisciplinary-model-to-guide-employment-outcomes-among-people-living-with-spinal-cord-injuries-in-south-africa-a-mixed-methods-study-protocol
#12
Ntsikelelo Pefile, Joyce Mothabeng, Saloshni Naidoo
BACKGROUND: Spinal cord injury (SCI) often results in complete or partial loss of functioning of the upper and/or lower limbs, leading to the affected individual experiencing difficulties in performing activities of daily living. This results in reduced participation in social, religious, recreational, and economic activities (employment). The South Africa legal framework promotes the employment and assistance of people with disabilities. However, rehabilitation interventions focus mainly on impairments and activity limitations, with few attempts to prepare those with SCI to return to gainful employment...
December 6, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923772/gender-differences-in-recognition-of-toy-faces-suggest-a-contribution-of-experience
#13
Kaitlin F Ryan, Isabel Gauthier
When there is a gender effect, women perform better then men in face recognition tasks. Prior work has not documented a male advantage on a face recognition task, suggesting that women may outperform men at face recognition generally either due to evolutionary reasons or the influence of social roles. Here, we question the idea that women excel at all face recognition and provide a proof of concept based on a face category for which men outperform women. We developed a test of face learning to measures individual differences with face categories for which men and women may differ in experience, using the faces of Barbie dolls and of Transformers...
December 2016: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923732/mate-choice-copying-social-information-processing-and-the-roles-of-oxytocin
#14
REVIEW
Martin Kavaliers, Richard Matta, Elena Choleris
Social and sexual behaviors, including that of mate choice, are dependent on social information. Mate choice can be modified by prior and ongoing social factors and experience. The mate choice decisions of one individual can be influenced by either the actual or potential mate choice of another female or male. Such non-independent mate choice, where individuals gain social information and socially learn about and recognizes potential mates by observing the choices of another female or male, has been termed "mate-choice copying"...
December 3, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923731/social-modulation-of-cognition-lessons-from-rhesus-macaques-relevant-to-education
#15
REVIEW
Elisabetta Monfardini, Amélie J Reynaud, Jérôme Prado, Martine Meunier
Any animal, human or non-human, lives in a world where there are others like itself. Individuals' behaviors are thus inevitably influenced by others, and cognition is no exception. Long acknowledged in psychology, social modulations of cognition have been neglected in cognitive neuroscience. Yet, infusing this classic topic in psychology with brain science methodologies could yield valuable educational insights. In recent studies, we used a non-human primate model, the rhesus macaque, to identify social influences representing ancient biases rooted in evolution, and neuroimaging to shed light on underlying mechanisms...
December 3, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923430/family-income-and-material-deprivation-do-they-matter-for-sleep-quality-and-quantity-in-early-life
#16
Marta Barazzetta, Simone Ghislandi
STUDY OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present paper is to investigate the determinants of sleeping patterns in children up to age 9 on a large and geographically homogeneous sample of British children and parents, focusing in particular on the role of economic and social factors, specifically on income. METHODS: The data of this study come from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a long-term health research project that recruited over 14,000 pregnant women who were due to give birth between April 1991 and December 1992 in Bristol and its surrounding areas, including some of Somerset and Gloucestershire...
November 28, 2016: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923337/-child-soldiers-as-refugees-in-germany
#17
Dima Zito
Child Soldiers as Refugees in Germany How do former child soldiers cope with their potentially traumatic experiences, and how do the living conditions as refugees influence these coping processes? A dissertation at the faculty of human and social sciences at the University of Wuppertal, based on biographical-narrative interviews with 15 young refugees from six African countries, describes the characteristics of the traumatic sequences in the countries of origin and in exile, and elaborates typical coping processes...
December 2016: Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922725/resilience-and-traumatic-brain-injury-among-iraq-afghanistan-war-veterans-differential-patterns-of-adjustment-and-quality-of-life
#18
Timothy R Elliott, Yu-Yu Hsiao, Nathan A Kimbrel, Eric Meyer, Bryann B DeBeer, Suzy Bird Gulliver, Oi-Man Kwok, Sandra B Morissette
OBJECTIVE: We examined the degree to which a resilient personality prototype predicted adjustment among war Veterans with and without a traumatic brain injury (TBI) while covarying the level of combat exposure. METHOD: A total of 127 war Veterans (107 men, 20 women; average age = 37 years) participated. Personality prototypes were derived from the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (Patrick, Curtain, & Tellegen, 2002). Measures were administered at baseline, and a subset was administered at 4- and 8-month follow-ups...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921329/preventive-dental-visiting-a-critical-interpretive-synthesis-of-theory-explaining-how-inequalities-arise
#19
Rebecca V Harris, Andrew Pennington, Margaret Whitehead
BACKGROUND: In many countries, those with lower socioeconomic status are disproportionately affected by poor oral health. This can be attributed, at least in part, to differences in preventive dental visiting. While several theories have been applied to the area, they generally fail to capture the recursive nature of dental visiting behaviour, and fall short of informing the design of complex interventions to tackle inequalities. OBJECTIVE: To undertake a systematic review and synthesis of theory in order to provide an overview of the pathways which bring about socioeconomic inequalities in early dental visiting, and identify possible intervention points...
December 6, 2016: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921317/effects-of-economics-and-demographics-on-global-fisheries-sustainability
#20
Qi Ding, Yali Wang, Xinjun Chen, Yong Chen
A good understanding of social factors that lead to marine ecological change is important to develop sustainable global fisheries. In this study we analyzed how economic prosperity and population growth in 122 nations might ultimately affect the sustainability of their marine ecosystems during the period of 1970-2010 using a balanced panel model. We used marine Economic Exclusive Zone (EEZ) catch, mean trophic level of fishery landings (MTL), the primary production required to sustain marine catch expressed as percentage of local primary production (%PPR), and the loss in secondary production index (L index) to indicate ecological changes in marine ecosystems...
December 6, 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
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