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Social Influence

Paula Ribeiro Prist, Maria Uriarte, Leandro Reverberi Tambosi, Amanda Prado, Renata Pardini, Paulo Sérgio D Andrea, Jean Paul Metzger
Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) is a disease caused by Hantavirus, which are negative-sense RNA viruses in the family Bunyaviridae that are highly virulent to humans. Numerous factors modify risk of Hantavirus transmission and consequent HPS risk. Human-driven landscape change can foster transmission risk by increasing numbers of habitat generalist rodent species that serve as the principal reservoir host. Climate can also affect rodent population dynamics and Hantavirus survival, and a number of social factors can influence probability of HPS transmission to humans...
2016: PloS One
Maria Cooper, MeLisa R Creamer, Christina Ly, Brittani Crook, Melissa B Harrell, Cheryl L Perry
OBJECTIVES: We assessed risk perceptions and social norms about tobacco use across adolescent non-users of tobacco, single- product users, and dual/poly-product users. METHODS: Use behaviors specific to e-cigarettes, cigarettes, hookah, cigars, and smokeless tobacco were assessed among 6th, 8th and 10th grade students (sample [n] = 3907 from a population of [N] = 461,069 students). Multivariate regression was used to examine differences in these factors across use categories, adjusted for demographic factors...
November 2016: American Journal of Health Behavior
Sara J Marsteller, Natalya Zolotova, Kelly J Knudson
OBJECTIVES: Hypothetical models of socioeconomic organization in pre-Columbian societies generated from the rich ethnohistoric record in the New World require testing against the archaeological and bioarchaeological record. Here, we test ethnohistorian Maria Rostworowski's horizontality model of socioeconomic specialization for the Central Andean coast by reconstructing dietary practices in the Late Intermediate Period (c. AD 900-1470) Ychsma polity to evaluate complexities in social behaviors prior to Inka imperial influence...
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Lydia Laninga-Wijnen, Zeena Harakeh, Christian Steglich, Jan K Dijkstra, René Veenstra, Wilma Vollebergh
This study examined whether peer norms for aggression within the classroom impact friendship selection, maintenance, and socialization processes related to aggression across the 1st year of secondary school (N = 1,134 students from 51 classes, Mage  = 12.66). As hypothesized, longitudinal social network analyses indicated that friendship selection and influence processes related to aggression depended on the popularity norm within the classroom (i.e., the class-level association between popularity and aggression) rather than the descriptive norm (aggregated average of aggressive behavior)...
October 25, 2016: Child Development
M Rincón-Cortés, R M Sullivan
Disrupted social behavior is a core symptom of multiple psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders. Many of these disorders are exacerbated by adverse infant experiences, including maltreatment and abuse, which negatively affect amygdala development. Although a link between impaired social behavior, abnormal amygdala function and depressive-like behavior following early adversity has been demonstrated in humans and animal models, the developmental emergence of maltreatment-related social deficits and associated amygdala neural activity are unknown...
October 25, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
Karin Hammarberg, Rebecca Zosel, Caroline Comoy, Sarah Robertson, Carol Holden, Mandy Deeks, Louise Johnson
Some potentially modifiable factors adversely affect fertility and pregnancy health. To inform a fertility health promotion programme, this study investigated fertility knowledge and information-seeking behaviour among people of reproductive age. This was a qualitative study involving six focus group discussions with women and men who intended to have children in the future and eight paired interviews with couples who were actively trying to conceive. Participants (n = 74) themselves generally claimed 'low' to 'average' levels of knowledge about fertility...
October 25, 2016: Human Fertility: Journal of the British Fertility Society
L Lafferty, C Treloar, J Guthrie, G M Chambers, T Butler
Prisoner populations are characterized by high rates of hepatitis C (HCV), up to thirty times that of the general population in Australia. Within Australian prisons, less than 1% of eligible inmates access treatment. Public health strategies informed by social capital could be important in addressing this inequality in access to HCV treatment. Twenty-eight male inmates participated in qualitative interviews across three correctional centres in New South Wales, Australia. All participants had recently tested as HCV RNA positive or were receiving HCV treatment...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Melissa J Brown
The incorporation of niche construction theory (NCT) and epigenetics into an extended evolutionary synthesis (EES) increases the explanatory power of evolutionary analyses of human history. NCT allows identification of distinct social inheritance and cultural inheritance and can thereby account for how an existing-but-dynamic social system yields variable influences across individuals and also how these individuals' microlevel actions can feed back to alter the dynamic heterogeneously across time and space...
October 24, 2016: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
Paul Kurlansky, Morley Herbert, Syma Prince, Michael Mack
BACKGROUND: Multiple studies have compared coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) with percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) for coronary revascularization. There is considerable evidence that adherence to medical therapy can affect the outcomes of therapeutic interventions. However, the long-term influence of compliance with recommended medical therapy on the comparative outcomes of CABG versus PCI remains to be defined. METHODS: All non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction patients undergoing coronary revascularization in an 8-hospital network were followed for up to 8 years to determine medication history and major adverse cardiac events: all-cause mortality, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and reintervention...
October 25, 2016: Circulation
Abdulrahman Abdulla El-Hilly, Sheeraz Syed Iqbal, Maroof Ahmed, Yusuf Sherwani, Mohammed Muntasir, Sarim Siddiqui, Zaid Al-Fagih, Omar Usmani, Andreas B Eisingerich
BACKGROUND: Finding ways to increase and sustain engagement with mHealth interventions has become a challenge during application development. While gamification shows promise and has proven effective in many fields, critical questions remain concerning how to use gamification to modify health behavior. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to investigate how the gamification of mHealth interventions leads to a change in health behavior, specifically with respect to smoking cessation...
October 24, 2016: JMIR Serious Games
Gianluca Macauda, Robin Bekrater-Bodmann, Peter Brugger, Bigna Lenggenhager
Individuals with xenomelia identify with an amputated rather than with their physically complete, healthy body. They often mimic amputees and show a strong admiration of and sexual attraction towards them. Here we investigated for the first time empirically whether such unusual preference for amputated bodies is present also on an implicit level. Using the well-validated Implicit Association Test we show that individuals with xenomelia manifested a stronger implicit and explicit preference for amputated bodies than a normally-limbed control group and a group of involuntary amputees did...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Sarah C Boyle, Andrew M Earle, Joseph W LaBrie, Kayla Ballou
Studies examining representations of college drinking on social media have almost exclusively focused on Facebook. However, recent research suggests college students may be more influenced by peers' alcohol-related posts on Instagram and Snapchat, two image-based platforms popular among this demographic. One potential explanation for this differential influence is that qualitative distinctions in the types of alcohol-related content posted by students on these three platforms may exist. Informed by undergraduate focus groups, this study examined the hypothesis that, of the three platforms, students tend to use Instagram most often for photos glamourizing drinking and Snapchat for incriminating photos of alcohol misuse and negative consequences...
October 19, 2016: Addictive Behaviors
Neil Garrett, Stephanie C Lazzaro, Dan Ariely, Tali Sharot
Dishonesty is an integral part of our social world, influencing domains ranging from finance and politics to personal relationships. Anecdotally, digressions from a moral code are often described as a series of small breaches that grow over time. Here we provide empirical evidence for a gradual escalation of self-serving dishonesty and reveal a neural mechanism supporting it. Behaviorally, we show that the extent to which participants engage in self-serving dishonesty increases with repetition. Using functional MRI, we show that signal reduction in the amygdala is sensitive to the history of dishonest behavior, consistent with adaptation...
October 24, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
Lisa Groshong, Sonja A Wilhelm Stanis, Andrew T Kaczynski, J Aaron Hipp, Gina M Besenvi
BACKGROUND: Public parks hold promise for promoting population-level PA, but studies show a significant portion of park use is sedentary. Past research has documented the effectiveness of message-based strategies for influencing diverse behaviors in park settings and for increasing PA in non-park contexts. Therefore, to inform message-based interventions (e.g., point-of-decision prompts) to increase park-based PA, the purpose of this study was to elicit insights about key attitudes, perceived norms, and personal agency that affect park use and park-based PA in low-income urban neighborhoods...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
T Jean M Arseneau-Robar, Eliane Müller, Anouk L Taucher, Carel P van Schaik, Erik P Willems
Males in a number of group-living species fight in intergroup conflicts to defend access to food resources, a seemingly paradoxical behaviour, given that this resource does not usually limit male fitness directly. We investigated the mechanism(s) driving apparent male food defence in wild vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops pygerythrus) by testing the effect that female resource access, and female audience size and activity had on the response of focal males during simulated intergroup encounters. Males do not appear to defend food to increase the reproductive success of female group members because their response was not influenced by the presence of provisioning boxes that only females could access...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Sungwoo Lim, Valerie Meausoone, Christina Norman, Carol Quinlan, Cynthia R Driver
OBJECTIVE: Neighborhood-level factors such as ethnic densities and social cohesion have been negatively associated with psychological distress among Latino Americans. Yet, existing evidence is based on either specific neighborhood factors or particular Latino subgroups. The objective of the study was to assess difference in psychological distress between each of four Latino subgroups (Puerto Ricans, Dominicans, Mexicans, other Latinos) and non-Latino white adults in New York City, and quantify total neighborhood-level influence on these differences...
October 24, 2016: Ethnicity & Health
Li Zhou, Ping Chen, Yating Peng, Ruoyun Ouyang
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is characterized by chronic nocturnal intermittent hypoxia and sleep fragmentations. Neurocognitive dysfunction, a significant and extraordinary complication of OSAS, influences patients' career, family, and social life and reduces quality of life to some extent. Previous researches revealed that repetitive hypoxia and reoxygenation caused mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum dysfunction, overactivated NADPH oxidase, xanthine oxidase, and uncoupling nitric oxide synthase, induced an imbalance between prooxidants and antioxidants, and then got rise to a series of oxidative stress (OS) responses, such as protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation, and DNA oxidation along with inflammatory reaction...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Katie A McLaughlin, Margaret A Sheridan
Children who have experienced environmental adversity-such as abuse, neglect, or poverty-are more likely to develop physical and mental health problems, perform poorly at school, and have difficulties in social relationships than children who have not encountered adversity. What is less clear is how and why adverse early experiences exert such a profound influence on children's development. Identifying developmental processes that are disrupted by adverse early environments is the key to developing better intervention strategies for children who have experienced adversity...
August 2016: Current Directions in Psychological Science
Petter Sandstedt, Sverker Johansson, Charlotte Ytterberg, Caroline Ingre, Lotta Widén Holmqvist, Marie Kierkegaard
BACKGROUND: Knowledge of factors influencing health-related quality of life (HRQL) in people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is important because some factors might be amenable to intervention. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to describe and explore the effects of disease severity, fatigue, anxiety, depression, frequency of social and lifestyle activities, coping capacity and mechanical ventilator use on HRQL in people with ALS. METHODS: Sixty people with ALS were enrolled in this cross-sectional study...
November 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Racquel E Kohler, Jared Tomlinson, Tiyamike Eletima Chilunjika, Sven Young, Mina Hosseinipour, Clara N Lee
PURPOSE: Low- and middle-income countries face a disproportionate burden of death and disability from injuries, many of which are due to road traffic accidents or falls. Lower extremity injuries in particular have implications not only for physical disabilities affecting work and school performance, but also for quality of life (QOL) of the individual. This qualitative study explores the psychosocial impact and QOL changes due to lower extremity injuries among trauma patients in central Malawi...
October 22, 2016: Quality of Life Research
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