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Social Influence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149716/longitudinal-associations-between-resilience-and-quality-of-life-in-eating-disorders
#1
Esther Calvete, Carlota Las Hayas, Andrés Gómez Del Barrio
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the longitudinal reciprocal associations between resilience factors, quality of life (QoL) domains, and symptoms of eating disorders (EDs). Hypotheses included predictive paths from resilience factors of "acceptance of self and life" and "personal competence" to increased QoL and predictive paths from previous levels of QoL to resilience. METHOD: A total of 184 patients with EDs (mean age = 29.55, SD = 9.17, 94.8% women) completed measures of resilience, QoL, and EDs symptoms over three waves spaced six month apart...
November 11, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149691/the-influence-of-intention-and-outcome-on-evaluations-of-social-interaction
#2
Xiaoying Wu, Rui Hua, Zhangxiang Yang, Jun Yin
Reading and making sense of social interactions between individuals is an important part of our daily social lives. Given that actions tend to be interpreted in terms of intent within the observed outcome, we investigated how intent and outcome interactively influence evaluations of social interactions. Through visual animations, intent was operationalized as an agent's (i.e., actor's) act intentionally or unintentionally having an influence on another agent (i.e., affectee). In Experiment 1, the act was helpful and the consequences brought small or great benefits to the affectee...
November 13, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149575/researchers-of-color-fame-and-impact
#3
Michael A Zárate, Gordon Nagayama Hall, Victoria C Plaut
Fame and eminence, as traditionally measured, limit the definition of impact to the publication world. We add two types of impact to the traditional measures of fame and eminence. Many of the traditional measures of fame or eminence are based on social-network connections, whereby individuals appoint other people to positions of eminence. Editorial boards are one specific example. Eminence is also limited to number of publications, for example, with little regard for the impact of those publications at the societal level...
November 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149154/philosophical-issues-and-psychological-variables-that-influence-the-determination-of-opioid-effectiveness-a-narrative-review
#4
Daniel Michael Doleys
BACKGROUND: The prescribing of opioids in the chronic pain setting is often based on the pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacogenetics of the drug obtained during development and clinical trials. However, the effectiveness of opioids varies widely and often appears to bear no relationship to the aforementioned variables. The impact of philosophical issues and psychological factors on determining how clinically effective opioid therapy is has often been over looked. OBJECTIVES: This manuscript provides a selective review and narrative summary of the philosophical issues and psychological factors which can influence opioid effectiveness...
November 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148598/job-strain-in-nursing-homes-exploring-the-impact-of-leadership
#5
Annica Backman, Karin Sjögren, Hugo Lövheim, David Edvardsson
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to explore the association between leadership behaviours, job strain and social support as perceived by direct care staff in nursing homes. BACKGROUND: It is well known that aged care staff experience high levels of job strain, and that aged care staff experiencing job strain are exposed to increased risk for adverse health effects. Managerial leadership styles have been associated to job strain in the literature, however, the impact of perceived leadership behaviors' on staff job strain and social support has not been clarified within this context...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148082/insights-into-flood-coping-appraisals-of-protection-motivation-theory-empirical-evidence-from-germany-and-france
#6
Philip Bubeck, W J Wouter Botzen, Jonas Laudan, Jeroen C J H Aerts, Annegret H Thieken
Protection motivation theory (PMT) has become a popular theory to explain the risk-reducing behavior of residents against natural hazards. PMT captures the two main cognitive processes that individuals undergo when faced with a threat, namely, threat appraisal and coping appraisal. The latter describes the evaluation of possible response measures that may reduce or avert the perceived threat. Although the coping appraisal component of PMT was found to be a better predictor of protective intentions and behavior, little is known about the factors that influence individuals' coping appraisals of natural hazards...
November 17, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147725/-stigma-risk-factor-and-consequence-of-suicidal-behavior-implications-for-suicide-prevention
#7
REVIEW
N Oexle, N Rüsch
Mental illness, previous suicidal behavior and loss of a relative by suicide are strong risk factors for suicidality. Both mental illness and suicide are stigmatized, which is a burden for those affected and potentially contributes to suicidality among stigmatized individuals. Many consequences of stigma, e. g. social isolation, low self-esteem and hopelessness, are well-known predictors of suicidality. Interventions to reduce stigmatization might therefore be an important component of successful suicide prevention...
November 16, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146568/health-seeking-influence-reflected-by-online-health-related-messages-received-on-social-media-cross-sectional-survey
#8
Rahila Iftikhar, Bahaa Abaalkhail
BACKGROUND: Major social networking platforms, such as Facebook, WhatsApp, and Twitter, have become popular means through which people share health-related information, irrespective of whether messages disseminated through these channels are authentic. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to describe the demographic characteristics of patients that may demonstrate their attitudes toward medical information shared on social media networks. Second, we address how information found through social media affects the way people deal with their health...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146458/tap-versus-bottled-water-consumption-the-influence-of-social-norms-affect-and-image-on-consumer-choice
#9
Anita Etale, Marilou Jobin, Michael Siegrist
What drives consumers to choose bottled water instead of tap water where the latter is safe, accessible, costs far less, and in spite of its environmental impacts? This research investigates the influence of hitherto unexplored psychological drivers in an attempt to generate a more holistic understanding of the phenomenon, and strategies for designing more effective consumption reduction campaigns. Using data from an internet survey of Swiss and German respondents (N = 849) we investigated the role of, social norms, affect and image on water consumption...
November 13, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145940/happy-classes-make-happy-students-classmates-well-being-predicts-individual-student-well-being
#10
Ronnel B King, Jesus Alfonso Datu
Student well-being has mostly been studied as an individual phenomenon with little research investigating how the well-being of one's classmates could influence a student's well-being. The aim of the current study was to examine how the aggregate well-being of students who comprise a class could predict students' subsequent well-being (Time 2 well-being) after controlling for the effects of prior well-being (Time 1 well-being) as well as key demographic variables such as gender and age. Two studies among Filipino secondary school students were conducted...
December 2017: Journal of School Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145923/cjem-debate-series-socialmedia-social-media-has-created-emergency-medicine-celebrities-who-now-influence-practice-more-than-published-evidence
#11
Peter Cameron, Simon Carley, Scott Weingart, Paul Atkinson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: CJEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145869/a-mixed-methods-analysis-of-quality-of-life-among-late-life-patients-diagnosed-with-chronic-illnesses
#12
Monica S Frazer, Patrick Mobley
BACKGROUND: Quality of life (QOL) is an important consideration for people living with advancing chronic conditions. Palliative care providers speak about how, despite physical decline in late life, many patients report growth and meaning in other domains. This mixed methods study uses QOL survey responses to explore domain trajectories and interview data to explore how patients with advancing chronic conditions experience distinct QOL domains. METHODS: The study sample includes 156 now-deceased participants who completed the FACIT-Pal quarterly, and 40 (10 now-deceased) participants who discussed QOL in an interview...
November 16, 2017: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145854/burnout-in-medical-students-a-systematic-review-of-experiences-in-chinese-medical-schools
#13
Wang Michael Chunming, Reema Harrison, Raina MacIntyre, Joanna Travaglia, Chinthaka Balasooriya
BACKGROUND: To identify the: extent to which medical students in China experience burnout; factors contributing to this; potential solutions to reduce and prevent burnout in this group; and the extent to which the experiences of Chinese students reflect the international literature. METHODS: Systematic review and narrative synthesis. Key words, synonyms and subject headings were used to search five electronic databases in addition to manual searching of relevant journals...
November 16, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145740/fair-or-square-experiences-of-introducing-a-new-method-for-assessing-general-work-ability-in-a-sickness-insurance-context
#14
Christian Ståhl, Ida Seing, Björn Gerdle, Jan Sandqvist
PURPOSE: To study social validity and perceived fairness of a new method for assessing general work ability in a sickness insurance context. Assessments are based on self-reports, combined with examinations by physicians, and, if needed, occupational therapists, physiotherapists and/or psychologists. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Interviews with 36 insurance officials, 10 physicians, and 36 sick-listed persons, which were analysed through a qualitative content analysis...
November 16, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145600/the-influence-of-gender-and-household-headship-on-voluntary-health-insurance-the-case-of-north-west-cameroon
#15
Tessa Oraro, Nestor Ngube, George Yuh Atohmbom, Siddharth Srivastava, Kaspar Wyss
Within the existing health financing literature, males are typically categorized as the household's decision-makers. While this view accurately reflects many local sociocultural realities, approximately a quarter of sub-Saharan African households are now headed by females. In light of various efforts to expand health insurance coverage in the region, it is necessary to examine whether the factors influencing voluntary health insurance enrolment are analogous across male- and female-headed households. This study sought to identify the gendered determinants of voluntary enrolment into a church-run micro health insurance scheme...
November 13, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145029/captive-gorillas-manual-laterality-the-impact-of-gestures-manipulators-and-interaction-specificity
#16
Jacques Prieur, Stéphanie Barbu, Catherine Blois-Heulin, Simone Pika
Relationships between humans' manual laterality in non-communicative and communicative functions are still poorly understood. Recently, studies showed that chimpanzees' manual laterality is influenced by functional, interactional and individual factors and their mutual intertwinement. However, what about manual laterality in species living in stable social groups? We tackled this question by studying three groups of captive gorillas (N=35) and analysed their most frequent manual signals: three manipulators and 16 gesture types...
November 13, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144977/birthplace-in-australia-processes-and-interactions-during-the-intrapartum-transfer-of-women-from-planned-homebirth-to-hospital
#17
Deborah Fox, Athena Sheehan, Caroline Homer
OBJECTIVE: the aim of the study was to explore the views and experiences of women, midwives and obstetricians on the intrapartum transfer of women from planned homebirth to hospital in Australia. DESIGN: a Constructivist Grounded Theory approach was taken, to conceptualise the social interactions and processes grounded in the data. SETTING: urban and regional areas in four states of south-eastern Australia. PARTICIPANTS: semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 36 women, midwives and obstetricians who had experienced an intrapartum homebirth transfer within three years prior to the interview...
November 2, 2017: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143696/from-ah-to-bah-social-feedback-loops-for-speech-sounds-at-key-points-of-developmental-transition
#18
Julie Gros-Louis, Jennifer L Miller
Social feedback is a driving force for speech development. A recent study provided a key finding to explain how contingent responses influence developmental change: infant speech-related vocalizations are contingent on responses to prior speech-related vocalizations (Warlaumont et al., 2014). However, the study did not distinguish between different speech-related vocalizations, vowel-like (V) and consonant-vowel (CV) vocalizations, which is important because CV vocalizations are a precursor to words. The present study explored parents' responses to infants' vocalizations and infants' subsequent vocal production at a point when vocalizations become more like adult speech...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Child Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143628/do-the-status-and-empowerment-of-mothers-predict-their-daughters-reproductive-outcomes
#19
Jessica D Gipson, Dawn M Upchurch
BACKGROUND: Despite increased recognition of the important influences of women's status and empowerment on social and health outcomes for women and their families, there are few investigations that examine the extent to which any gains in women's empowerment may be transmitted intergenerationally, that is, between mothers and their daughters. METHODS: This study seeks to address this gap by using data from a unique, longitudinal, and intergenerational dataset from Cebu, Philippines (1994-2009), to examine potential influences of the status of mothers on subsequent reproductive health outcomes among their daughters...
November 8, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143410/early-contributions-to-infants-mental-rotation-abilities
#20
Mihaela Constantinescu, David S Moore, Scott P Johnson, Melissa Hines
Some cognitive abilities exhibit reliable gender differences, with females outperforming males in specific aspects of verbal ability, and males showing an advantage on certain spatial tasks. Among these cognitive gender differences, differences in mental rotation are the most robust, and appear to be present even in infants. A large body of animal research suggests that gonadal hormones, particularly testosterone, during early development could contribute to this gender difference in mental rotation. Also, substantial evidence supports an influence of socialization on mental rotation performance...
November 15, 2017: Developmental Science
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