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Social Influence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645039/fundamental-causes-of-accelerated-declines-in-colorectal-cancer-mortality-modeling-multiple-ways-that-disadvantage-influences-mortality-risk
#1
Sean A P Clouston, Marcie S Rubin, David Chae, Jeremy Freese, Barbara Nemesure, Bruce G Link
BACKGROUND: Improvements in colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality reflect the distribution of effective preventions. Social inequalities often generate unequal diffusion of medical interventions, resulting in disparate outcomes while preventions are being disseminated throughout the population. This study used a novel method to examine whether Race (Black versus White) and SES influenced when rates of CRC mortality started to decline, and how rapidly they did so. METHOD: Mortality counts from 1968-2010 were derived from death certificates of U...
June 13, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643242/what-influences-linkage-to-care-after-home-based-hiv-counseling-and-testing
#2
Reshma Naik, Wanga Zembe, Fatima Adigun, Elizabeth Jackson, Hanani Tabana, Debra Jackson, Frank Feeley, Tanya Doherty
To maximize the benefits of test and treat strategies that utilize community-based HIV testing, clients who test positive must link to care in a timely manner. However, linkage rates across the HIV treatment cascade are typically low and little is known about what might facilitate or hinder care-seeking behavior. This qualitative study was conducted within a home-based HIV counseling and testing (HBHCT) intervention in South Africa. In-depth interviews were conducted with 30 HBHCT clients who tested HIV positive to explore what influenced their care-seeking behavior...
June 22, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643079/similar-clinical-outcomes-with-preoperative-and-postoperative-start-of-thromboprophylaxis-in-tha-a-register-based-study
#3
Pål O Borgen, Are H Pripp, Eva Dybvik, Lilian Leistad, Ola E Dahl, Olav Reikerås
BACKGROUND: Elective THA is associated with a high risk of thromboembolic events. Although these events may be less common now than they were in the past, they can be serious, and most patients undergoing the procedure therefore still receive thromboprophylaxis. However, controversy remains regarding whether to begin thromboprophylaxis before THA or after to best balance the risks of clotting and bleeding. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: We asked the following questions: (1) Is there a difference in bleeding events with pre- versus postoperative thromboprophylaxis? (2) Is there a difference in thromboembolic episodes after THA between the two regimens? (3) How do the two approaches of thromboprophylaxis influence mortality, readmissions, and other complications? METHODS: We used a population-based followup design with predefined data based on international health codification to assess clinical effects of LMWH prophylaxis initiated before or after THA...
June 22, 2017: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642696/how-accumulated-real-life-stress-experience-and-cognitive-speed-interact-on-decision-making-processes
#4
Eva Friedel, Miriam Sebold, Sören Kuitunen-Paul, Stephan Nebe, Ilya M Veer, Ulrich S Zimmermann, Florian Schlagenhauf, Michael N Smolka, Michael Rapp, Henrik Walter, Andreas Heinz
Rationale: Advances in neurocomputational modeling suggest that valuation systems for goal-directed (deliberative) on one side, and habitual (automatic) decision-making on the other side may rely on distinct computational strategies for reinforcement learning, namely model-free vs. model-based learning. As a key theoretical difference, the model-based system strongly demands cognitive functions to plan actions prospectively based on an internal cognitive model of the environment, whereas valuation in the model-free system relies on rather simple learning rules from operant conditioning to retrospectively associate actions with their outcomes and is thus cognitively less demanding...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642217/an-interactive-mobile-based-tool-for-personal-social-network-data-collection-and-visualization-among-a-geographically-isolated-and-socioeconomically-disadvantaged-population-early-stage-feasibility-study-with-qualitative-user-feedback
#5
Katherine S Eddens, Jesse M Fagan, Tom Collins
BACKGROUND: Personal social networks have a profound impact on our health, yet collecting personal network data for use in health communication, behavior change, or translation and dissemination interventions has proved challenging. Recent advances in social network data collection software have reduced the burden of network studies on researchers and respondents alike, yet little testing has occurred to discover whether these methods are: (1) acceptable to a variety of target populations, including those who may have limited experience with technology or limited literacy; and (2) practical in the field, specifically in areas that are geographically and technologically disconnected, such as rural Appalachian Kentucky...
June 22, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641740/the-power-of-language-nutrition-for-children-s-brain-development-health-and-future-academic-achievement
#6
Lauren Head Zauche, Ashley E Darcy Mahoney, Taylor A Thul, Michael S Zauche, Arianne B Weldon, Jennifer L Stapel-Wax
Language Nutrition, a term created to describe language exposure that is rich in quality and quantity and delivered in the context of social interactions, is crucial for a child's development and is strongly associated with his/her future literacy, academic achievement, and health. However, significant differences in children's early language environments contribute to disparities in their educational and health trajectories. Interventions, including book distribution programs, coaching parents to enrich their child's language environment, and public awareness campaigns, have all been shown to positively influence a child's access to language-rich interactions...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641585/cancer-bereaved-siblings-positive-and-negative-memories-and-experiences-of-illness-and-death-a-nationwide-follow-up
#7
Mary-Elizabeth Bradley Eilertsen, Malin Lövgren, Alexandra Eilegård Wallin, Ulrika Kreicbergs
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to explore bereaved siblings' positive and negative memories and experiences of their brother's or sister's illness and death. METHOD: In our nationwide Swedish study, 174 of 240 (73%) bereaved siblings participated, and 70% responded to two open-ended statements, which focused on siblings' positive and negative memories and experiences of illness and death. The data were analyzed using systematic text condensation. RESULTS: The bereaved siblings' responses were categorized into four different themes: (1) endurance versus vulnerability, (2) family cohesion versus family conflicts, (3) growth versus stagnation, and (4) professional support versus lack of professional support...
June 23, 2017: Palliative & Supportive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641167/exploring-the-role-of-knowledge-of-condition-and-psycho-social-profiles-of-young-people-with-epilepsy-during-transition
#8
Victoria Gray, Lucy Palmer, Kayleigh Whelby, Jacqui Vinten, Lucy Gait
Transitioning from paediatric to adult care can be a particularly challenging time for young people with epilepsy and research has shown that there are a range of factors which may influence a young person's ability to successfully cope with this difficult time. The following study aimed to explore the psychosocial characteristics of this transitioning population, as well as investigate how knowledgeable the young person and their parent/carer are of their own condition throughout transition. Young people with epilepsy were recruited from two specialist epilepsy clinics in the North West and allocated to one of three groups; Group 1 pre-transition, Group 2 transitioning, and Group 3 post-transition...
June 19, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641090/injunctive-safety-norms-young-worker-risk-taking-behaviors-and-workplace-injuries
#9
Simon Pek, Nick Turner, Sean Tucker, E Kevin Kelloway, Jayne Morrish
Injunctive safety norms (ISNs) refer to perceptions of others' expectations of one's safety-related conduct. Drawing on a sample of Canadian young workers (n=11,986;M age=17.90years; 55% males), we study the relationships among four sources of non-work-related (i.e., parents, siblings, friends, teachers), two sources of work-related (i.e., supervisors, co-workers) ISNs, young workers' self-reported work-related risk-taking behaviors, and workplace injuries. Structural equation modeling suggests that ISNs from parents, supervisors, and co-workers were related to less frequent work-related risk-taking behaviors, and with fewer workplace injuries via less frequent work-related risk-taking behaviors...
June 19, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640685/understanding-and-improving-arterial-roads-to-support-public-health-and-transportation-goals
#10
Carolyn McAndrews, Keshia M Pollack, David Berrigan, Andrew L Dannenberg, Ed J Christopher
Arterials are types of roads designed to carry high volumes of motorized traffic. They are an integral part of transportation systems worldwide and exposure to them is ubiquitous, especially in urban areas. Arterials provide access to diverse commercial and cultural resources, which can positively influence community health by supporting social cohesion as well as economic and cultural opportunities. They can negatively influence health via safety issues, noise, air pollution, and lack of economic development...
June 22, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640664/%C3%A2-somos-iguales-using-a-structural-violence-framework-to-understand-gender-and-health-inequities-from-an-intersectional-perspective-in-the-peruvian-amazon
#11
Geordan D Shannon, Angelica Motta, Carlos F Cáceres, Jolene Skordis-Worrall, Diana Bowie, Audrey Prost
BACKGROUND: In the Peruvian Amazon, historical events of colonization and political marginalization intersect with identities of ethnicity, class and geography in the construction of gender and health inequities. Gender-based inequalities can manifest in poor health outcomes via discriminatory practices, healthcare system imbalances, inequities in health research, and differential exposures and vulnerabilities to diseases. Structural violence is a comprehensive framework to explain the mechanisms by which social forces such as poverty, racism and gender inequity become embodied as individual experiences and health outcomes, and thus may be a useful tool in structuring an intersectional analysis of gender and health inequities in Amazonian Peru...
January 2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640232/why-do-children-engage-in-sedentary-behavior-child-and-parent-perceived-determinants
#12
Lisan M Hidding, Teatske M Altenburg, Evi van Ekris, Mai J M Chinapaw
Todays children spend a large amount of their time sedentary. There is limited evidence on the determinants of sedentary behavior in children, and qualitative studies are especially lacking. Therefore, this study aimed to explore determinants of children's sedentary behavior from the child- and parent perspective. Qualitative data were collected during concept mapping sessions with four groups of 11-13 years old children (n = 38) and two online sessions with parents (n = 21). Children and parents generated sedentary behavior motives, sorted related motives, and rated their importance in influencing children's sedentary time...
June 22, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639210/-oxytocin-and-the-mechanisms-of-alcohol-dependence
#13
REVIEW
Till Faehrmann, Gerald Zernig, Sergei Mechtcheriakov
One of the crucial purposes of treating alcohol-dependent patients is to enhance their ability to stay abstinent after detoxification therapy. Anxiety and stress vulnerability are the main factors provoking alcohol craving and relapse. In the first months of abstinence, alcohol-dependent patients frequently show sleep disturbances, irritability and depression, indicating chronic activation of stress pathways. In addition, the loss of confidence in interpersonal interactions results in social withdrawal and reduced willingness to participate in therapeutic programs...
June 21, 2017: Neuropsychiatrie: Klinik, Diagnostik, Therapie und Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639175/valence-and-origin-of-emotional-words-influence-on-subsequent-perception-of-ambiguous-stimuli-in-terms-of-competence-versus-warmth
#14
Kamil K Imbir
The aim of this study was to examine whether the valence and origin of emotional words can alter perception of ambiguous objects in terms of warmth versus competence, fundamental dimensions of social cognition. 60 individuals were invited into the study focusing on the limits of intuition. They were asked to try to guess the meaning of Japanese pictorial signs in terms of their warmth versus competence connotations. Before each trial a subsequent memory load task was applied. Participants were supposed to read and remember words creating a factorial manipulation of valence (three levels) and origins (three levels: automatic, neutral and reflective) of affective connotations presenting to them for 500 ms...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638948/does-socioeconomic-status-influence-the-epidemiology-and-outcome-of-distal-radial-fractures-in-adults
#15
N D Clement, A D Duckworth, N R Wickramasinghe, C M Court-Brown, M M McQueen
PURPOSE: The aim of this study in adult patients with a distal radial fracture was to determine whether socioeconomic status influenced the epidemiology, mechanism of injury, fracture severity, or the outcome according to function, radiographic assessment, and rate of associated complications. METHODS: We identified 3983 distal radial fractures over a 7-year period. Socioeconomic status was assigned using the Carstairs score, and the population was divided into quintiles depending on deprivation...
June 21, 2017: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638051/experimental-evidence-for-reciprocity-in-allogrooming-among-wild-type-norway-rats
#16
Manon K Schweinfurth, Binia Stieger, Michael Taborsky
If individuals help more those who have previously helped them, stable cooperation may ensue through alternation of roles between donors and recipients. Allogrooming, which is costly to donors and beneficial to recipients, is often exchanged between social partners. Arguably, allogrooming and allopreening are the most frequently exchanged social services and have been used as a standard model of reciprocal cooperation. However, evidence for the application of reciprocity rules among social partners allogrooming each other hitherto is merely correlational...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637858/maternal-and-nourishment-factors-interact-to-influence-offspring-developmental-trajectories-in-social-wasps
#17
Jennifer M Jandt, Sainath Suryanarayanan, John C Hermanson, Robert L Jeanne, Amy L Toth
The social and nutritional environments during early development have the potential to affect offspring traits, but the mechanisms and molecular underpinnings of these effects remain elusive. We used Polistes fuscatus paper wasps to dissect how maternally controlled factors (vibrational signals and nourishment) interact to induce different caste developmental trajectories in female offspring, leading to worker or reproductive (gyne) traits. We established a set of caste phenotype biomarkers in P. fuscatus females, finding that gyne-destined individuals had high expression of three caste-related genes hypothesized to have roles in diapause and mitochondrial metabolism...
June 28, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637477/determinants-of-intra-household-food-allocation-between-adults-in-south-asia-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Helen Harris-Fry, Niva Shrestha, Anthony Costello, Naomi M Saville
BACKGROUND: Nutrition interventions, often delivered at the household level, could increase their efficiency by channelling resources towards pregnant or lactating women, instead of leaving resources to be disproportionately allocated to traditionally favoured men. However, understanding of how to design targeted nutrition programs is limited by a lack of understanding of the factors affecting the intra-household allocation of food. METHODS: We systematically reviewed literature on the factors affecting the allocation of food to adults in South Asian households (in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Islamic Republic of Iran, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka) and developed a framework of food allocation determinants...
June 21, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637454/relationships-of-work-characteristics-to-job-satisfaction-turnover-intention-and-burnout-among-doctors-in-the-district-public-private-mixed-health-system-of-bangladesh
#19
Ashim Roy, Trudy van der Weijden, Nanne de Vries
BACKGROUND: Work design integrates work characteristics having organizational, social and job components which influence employees' welfare and also organizational goals. We investigated the effects of work characteristics and other predictors to job satisfaction, turnover intention, and burnout in doctors of the public primary, public secondary and private facilities of the district health system of Bangladesh. METHODS: A quantitative study using a self-administered questionnaire containing mostly structured items was conducted among the public and private doctors with a sample size of 384 from 29 out of a total 64 districts of Bangladesh during October and November 2015...
June 20, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637246/effect-of-psilocybin-on-empathy-and-moral-decision-making
#20
Thomas Pokorny, Katrin H Preller, Michael Kometer, Isabel Dziobek, Franz X Vollenweider
Background: Impaired empathic abilities lead to severe negative social consequences and influence the development and treatment of several psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, empathy has been shown to play a crucial role in moral and prosocial behaviour. Although the serotonin (5-HT) system has been implicated in modulating empathy and moral behaviour, the relative contribution of the various 5-HT receptor subtypes is still unknown. Methods: We investigated the acute effect of psilocybin (0...
June 16, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
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