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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793149/educational-and-emotional-health-outcomes-in-adolescence-following-maltreatment-in-early-childhood-a-population-based-study-of-protective-factors
#1
Nisreen Khambati, Liam Mahedy, Jon Heron, Alan Emond
Although childhood maltreatment is associated with long-term impairment, some children function well despite this adversity. This study aimed to identify the key protective factors for good educational attainment and positive emotional health in adolescents who experienced maltreatment in early childhood. Data were analyzed from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a large UK prospective cohort study. The sample was defined by maternally reported exposure to physical or emotional maltreatment by a parent prior to 5 years...
May 21, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792495/first-grade-classroom-level-adversity-associations-with-teaching-practices-academic-skills-and-executive-functioning
#2
Tashia Abry, Kristen L Granger, Crystal I Bryce, Michelle Taylor, Jodi Swanson, Robert H Bradley
Using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development and a model-building approach, the authors examined direct and indirect associations between first-grade (G1) classroom-level adversity (CLA), G1 teaching practices, and student (N = 1,073; M = 6.64 years; 49% girls; 82% White) academic skills and executive functioning in G1 and third grades (G3). Teachers reported the prevalence of adversity among their students (e.g., poor home/family life, poor academic/social readiness)...
May 24, 2018: School Psychology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792483/when-anger-expression-might-be-beneficial-for-african-americans-the-moderating-role-of-chronic-discrimination
#3
Jiyoung Park, Abdiel J Flores, Kirstin Aschbacher, Wendy Berry Mendes
OBJECTIVES: Anger expression is assumed to have mostly negative health effects. Yet, evidence is mixed on how anger expression influences African Americans' cardiovascular health. The present research aimed to clarify this link by examining moderating effects of chronic discrimination on the relationship between anger expression and cardiovascular risk among African Americans in experimental (Study 1) and epidemiological (Study 2) studies. METHOD: Study 1 examined how African Americans' trait anger expression was linked to (a) physiologic reactivity to acute social rejection during an interracial encounter (Session 1); and (b) total/HDL cholesterol assessed two months later (Session 2)...
May 24, 2018: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792473/cognitive-and-affective-associations-with-an-ecologically-valid-test-of-theory-of-mind-across-the-lifespan
#4
Emilie Johansson Nolaker, Kim Murray, Francesca Happé, Rebecca A Charlton
OBJECTIVES: Many studies have demonstrated that theory of mind (ToM) ability declines with increasing age. Research has found that ToM-age associations are often mediated by other cognitive abilities particularly executive function. However, older adults rarely complain about real-world ToM difficulties. It has been suggested that older adults may perform better in real-world situations compared with experimental settings. METHOD: We examined performance on the Strange Stories Film Task (SSFT) which has been designed to assess ToM using naturalistic, video scenarios...
May 24, 2018: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792243/understanding-the-science-of-portion-control-and-the-art-of-downsizing
#5
Marion M Hetherington, Pam Blundell-Birtill, Samantha J Caton, Joanne E Cecil, Charlotte E Evans, Barbara J Rolls, Tang Tang
Offering large portions of high-energy-dense (HED) foods increases overall intake in children and adults. This is known as the portion size effect (PSE). It is robust, reliable and enduring. Over time, the PSE may facilitate overeating and ultimately positive energy balance. Therefore, it is important to understand what drives the PSE and what might be done to counter the effects of an environment promoting large portions, especially in children. Explanations for the PSE are many and diverse, ranging from consumer error in estimating portion size to simple heuristics such as cleaning the plate or eating in accordance with consumption norms...
May 24, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792072/contextualizing-acculturative-stress-among-latino-immigrants-in-the-united-states-a-systematic-review
#6
Venera Bekteshi, Sung-Wan Kang
PURPOSE: This systematic review of the literature informed of (a) the relationship between acculturation and acculturative stress, (b) examined the determinants of acculturative stress among Latino immigrants in the U.S., and (c) provided a conceptual framework that can be used to specify the interactive effect of various factors on acculturative stress. METHODS: Using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA), this review synthesized the results of thirty studies published between 2000 and 2015 that investigated the influence of several socio-demographic and cultural contexts on acculturative stress among Latino immigrants categorized using Family Stress Management (FSM) theory as a framework...
May 23, 2018: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791717/termination-of-pregnancy-following-a-prenatal-diagnosis-of-down-syndrome-a-qualitative-study-of-the-decision-making-process-of-pregnant-couples
#7
Stina Lou, Kathrine Carstensen, Olav Bjørn Petersen, Camilla Palmhøj Nielsen, Lone Hvidman, Maja Retpen Lanther, Ida Vogel
In Denmark, first trimester screening has a very high uptake (>90%). If Down syndrome is diagnosed, termination rates are high (>95%). The aim of this study was to investigate the timing of the decision of termination of pregnancy following a Down syndrome diagnosis and the factors influencing this decision MATERIAL AND METHODS: Semi-structured, qualitative interview study with 21 couples who had received a prenatal diagnosis of Down syndrome and decided to terminate the pregnancy. Participants were recruited from obstetric departments between February 2016 and July 2017...
May 23, 2018: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791463/recurrent-spatio-temporal-modeling-of-check-ins-in-location-based-social-networks
#8
Ali Zarezade, Sina Jafarzadeh, Hamid R Rabiee
Social networks are getting closer to our real physical world. People share the exact location and time of their check-ins and are influenced by their friends. Modeling the spatio-temporal behavior of users in social networks is of great importance for predicting the future behavior of users, controlling the users' movements, and finding the latent influence network. It is observed that users have periodic patterns in their movements. Also, they are influenced by the locations that their close friends recently visited...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791434/food-fraud-and-the-perceived-integrity-of-european-food-imports-into-china
#9
H Kendall, P Naughton, S Kuznesof, M Raley, M Dean, B Clark, H Stolz, R Home, M Y Chan, Q Zhong, P Brereton, L J Frewer
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Persistent incidents of food fraud in China have resulted in low levels of consumer trust in the authenticity and safety of food that is domestically produced. We examined the relationship between the concerns of Chinese consumers regarding food fraud, and the role that demonstrating authenticity may play in relieving those concerns. METHODS: A two-stage mixed method design research design was adopted. First, qualitative research (focus groups n = 7) was conducted in three Chinese cities, Beijing, Guangzhou and Chengdu to explore concerns held by Chinese consumers in relation to food fraud...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791020/discursive-constructions-of-professional-identity-in-policy-and-regulatory-discourse
#10
Gerard Fealy, Josephine-Mary Hegarty, Martin McNamara, Mary Casey, Denise O'Leary, Catriona Kennedy, Pauline O'Reilly, Rhona O'Connell, Anne-Marie Brady, Emma Nicholson
AIM: To examine and describe disciplinary discourses conducted through professional policy and regulatory documents in nursing and midwifery in Ireland. BACKGROUND: A key tenet of discourse theory is that group identities are constructed in public discourses and these discursively-constructed identities become social realities. Professional identities can be extracted from both the explicit and latent content of discourse. Studies of nursing's disciplinary discourse have drawn attention to a dominant discourse that confers nursing with particular identities, which privilege the relational and affective aspects of nursing and in the process, marginalise scientific knowledge and the technical and body work of nursing...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790831/informal-recyclers-health-inequities-in-vancouver-bc
#11
Josie Wittmer, Kate Parizeau
We explore informal recyclers' perceptions and experiences of the social determinants of health in Vancouver, Canada, and investigate the factors that contribute to the environmental health inequities they experience. Based on in-depth interviews with 40 informal recyclers and 7 key informants, we used a social determinants of health framework to detail the health threats that informal recyclers associated with their work and the factors that influenced their access to health-related resources and services...
January 1, 2018: New Solutions: a Journal of Environmental and Occupational Health Policy: NS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790772/influence-of-occlusal-characteristics-food-intake-and-oral-hygiene-habits-on-dental-caries-in-adolescents-a-cross-sectional-study
#12
D Giugliano, F d'Apuzzo, A Majorana, G Campus, F Nucci, C Flores-Mir, L Perillo
AIM: Dental caries is one of the most common oral diseases affecting children. The complex multifactorial aetiology of caries involves host (saliva composition and tooth enamel characteristics), oral microflora and substrate (oral hygiene quality and dietary habits composition). Occlusal characteristics may be also a factor in dental caries development. The aim of this aepidemiologic study was to verify the association between DMFT (Decayed, Missed, Filled Teeth) index and occlusal characteristics, dietary habits, oral hygiene habits and parents' education level in a sample of 12-year-old schoolchildren from Southern Italy...
June 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Dentistry: Official Journal of European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790594/barriers-to-and-enablers-of-diabetic-retinopathy-screening-attendance-a-systematic-review-of-published-and-grey-literature
#13
E Graham-Rowe, F Lorencatto, J G Lawrenson, J M Burr, J M Grimshaw, N M Ivers, J Presseau, L Vale, T Peto, C Bunce, J J Francis
AIMS: To identify and synthesize studies reporting modifiable barriers/enablers associated with retinopathy screening attendance in people with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes, and to identify those most likely to influence attendance. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library and the 'grey literature' for quantitative and qualitative studies to February 2017. Data (i.e. participant quotations, interpretive summaries, survey results) reporting barriers/enablers were extracted and deductively coded into domains from the Theoretical Domains Framework; with domains representing categories of theoretical barriers/enablers proposed to mediate behaviour change...
May 23, 2018: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790408/working-men-s-constructions-of-visiting-the-doctor
#14
James R Mahalik, Faedra R Backus Dagirmanjian
To understand influences on medical help seeking in men from traditionally masculine occupations, semistructured interviews with 12 men employed in manual and industrial labor were conducted. The semistructured interview format explored participant men's understanding and experiences of annual exams and medical help seeking, their own and others' reactions to seeking medical help, and influences on their own care and understanding of what it means to seek medical care. Utilizing consensual qualitative research methodology, five domains emerged: Social norms around medical care, managing threat, getting medical help is gendered, work-related influences, and pragmatic contributors to medical help seeking...
May 1, 2018: American Journal of Men's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790405/poor-medication-adherence-in-patients-with-psoriasis-and-a-successful-intervention
#15
Wei Wang, Ying Qiu, Fengying Zhao, Furen Zhang
BACKGROUND: The medication adherence of psoriasis patients may be influenced by a series combined internal and external factors. Effective methods for improving adherence could improve treatment outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To characterize medication adherence in psoriasis patients in China and to test an intervention to improve psoriasis patients' adherence. METHODS: We investigated 200 patients with psoriasis using questionnaires to determine their medication adherence and the factors that influence adherence...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790313/quality-of-life-of-cancer-patients
#16
Solanki Jitender, Rajive Mahajan, Vikram Rathore, Rahul Choudhary
Cancer is a one of the major public health problem both in developed and developing countries around the globe. Quality-of-life (QOL) of a cancer patient before and after the treatment is an important issue especially for the cancer survivors, their families, and the care providers. In cancer prospective, Quality-of-life can been defined as a sense of well-being, it is a multidimensional perspective that includes dimensions such as physical, psychological, social, and spiritual, changes in one QOL dimension can influence perceptions in other dimensions also...
May 2018: Journal of Experimental Therapeutics & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789482/the-social-basis-of-vaccine-questioning-and-refusal-a-qualitative-study-employing-bourdieu-s-concepts-of-capitals-and-habitus
#17
Katie Attwell, Samantha B Meyer, Paul R Ward
This article is an in-depth analysis of the social nature of vaccine decision-making. It employs the sociological theory of Bourdieu and Ingram to consider how parents experience non-vaccination as a valued form of capital in specific communities, and how this can affect their decision-making. Drawing on research conducted in two Australian cities, our qualitative analysis of new interview data shows that parents experience disjuncture and tugs towards 'appropriate' forms of vaccination behavior in their social networks, as these link to broader behaviors around food, school choices and birth practices...
May 22, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788975/activism-and-scientific-research-20-years-of-community-action-by-the-vancouver-area-network-of-drug-users
#18
Ehsan Jozaghi, Alissa M Greer, Hugh Lampkin, Jane A Buxton
BACKGROUND: Over the past several decades, there have been numerous peer-reviewed articles written about people who use drugs (PWUDs) from the Downtown Eastside neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada. While individual researchers have engaged and acknowledged this population as participants and community partners in their work, there has been comparatively little attention given to the role of PWUDs and drug user organizations in directing, influencing, and shaping research agendas. METHODS: In this community-driven research, we examine 20 years of peer-reviewed studies, university theses, books, and reports that have been directed, influenced, and shaped by members of the activist organization the Vancouver Area Network of Drug Users (VANDU)...
May 22, 2018: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788969/psychosocial-predictors-for-outcome-after-total-joint-arthroplasty-a-prospective-comparison-of-hip-and-knee-arthroplasty
#19
Marion Lindner, Olaf Nosseir, Anett Keller-Pliessnig, Per Teigelack, Martin Teufel, Sefik Tagay
BACKGROUND: As findings regarding predictors for good outcome after total joint arthroplasty are highly inconsistent, aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the psychosocial variables sense of coherence and social support as well as mental distress on physical outcome after surgery. It should be investigated if different predictors are important in patients after total hip arthroplasty (THA) compared to patients after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). METHODS: In a prospective design, 44 patients undergoing THA and 61 patients undergoing TKA were examined presurgery and 6 and 12 weeks after surgery using WOMAC (disease-specific outcome), SF-36 (health-related quality of life), BSI (psychological distress), SOC-13 (sense of coherence), and F-SozU (social support)...
May 22, 2018: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788908/perceptions-of-insulin-use-in-type-2-diabetes-in-primary-care-a-thematic-synthesis
#20
Kathy Ellis, Henrietta Mulnier, Angus Forbes
BACKGROUND: Increasing numbers of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus are progressing to insulin therapy, and despite its potency many such individuals still have suboptimal glycaemic control. Insulin initiation and intensification is now often conducted by Practice Nurses and General Practitioners in many parts of the UK. Therefore, gaining insight into perspectives of patients and primary care clinicians is important in determining self-management and engagement with insulin. A thematic synthesis of studies was conducted exploring the views and experiences of people with type 2 diabetes and of healthcare professionals on insulin use and management in the context of primary care...
May 22, 2018: BMC Family Practice
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