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Prejudice

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506202/subtle-and-severe-microaggressions-among-racially-diverse-sexual-minorities
#1
Amanda Weber, Shelly-Ann Collins, Tracy Robinson-Wood, Elda Zeko-Underwood, Bianca Poindexter
In recent years, understanding prejudice and discrimination towards minorities has developed to include the investigation of microaggressions. Microaggressions are brief and commonplace verbal, behavioral or environmental indignities. They are intentional or unintentional and communicate hostile, derogatory, or negative slights towards racial and sexual minorities. The purpose of this phenomenological study is to chronicle the prevalence and type of microaggressions experienced among a sample of 18 highly educated and racially diverse sexual minorities, 24-65 years of age...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503986/minority-stress-model-components-and-affective-well-being-in-a-sample-of-sexual-orientation-minority-adults-living-with-hiv-aids
#2
Robert J Cramer, Alixandra C Burks, Martin Plöderl, Praveen Durgampudi
To date very little literature exists examining theoretically-based models applied to day-to-day positive and negative affective well-being among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Grounded in the perspective of Meyer, I. H. (2003). Prejudice, social stress, and mental health in lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations: Conceptual issues and research evidence. Psychological Bulletin, 129, 674-697. Minority Stress Model, the present study examined HIV- and sexual orientation-related factors influencing affective well-being (i...
May 13, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499764/-personal-health-records-on-the-internet-a-narrative-review-of-attitudes-expectations-utilization-and-effects-on-health-outcomes
#3
REVIEW
Dominik Ose, Ines Baudendistel, Sabrina Pohlmann, Eva C Winkler, Aline Kunz, Joachim Szecsenyi
BACKGROUND: The integration of information and communication technologies (ICT) is increasingly considered in the development of healthcare structures. This fact is also recognised in the e-Health Act. In this context, personal health records (PHR) have a specific meaning. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview on utilization, barriers and possible effects on the implementation of PHR. METHODS: This analysis is based on a literature search in Web of Science (Core Collection) (01/2000 to 12/2014) using the following terms: "personal health record", "personal medical record", "personal electronic health record", "interpersonal health record", "personally controlled health record"...
May 9, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Evidenz, Fortbildung und Qualität Im Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499741/the-origins-of-social-categorization
#4
REVIEW
Zoe Liberman, Amanda L Woodward, Katherine D Kinzler
Forming conceptually-rich social categories helps people to navigate the complex social world by allowing them to reason about the likely thoughts, beliefs, actions, and interactions of others, as guided by group membership. Nevertheless, social categorization often has nefarious consequences. We suggest that the foundation of the human ability to form useful social categories is in place in infancy: social categories guide the inferences infants make about the shared characteristics and social relationships of other people...
May 9, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496396/interventions-for-reducing-self-stigma-in-people-with-mental-illnesses-a-systematic-review-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#5
REVIEW
Roland Brian Büchter, Melanie Messer
Background: Self-stigma occurs when people with mental illnesses internalize negative stereotypes and prejudices about their condition. It can reduce help-seeking behaviour and treatment adherence. The effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing self-stigma in people with mental illness is systematically reviewed. Results are discussed in the context of a logic model of the broader social context of mental illness stigma. Methods: Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, ERIC, and CENTRAL were searched for randomized controlled trials in November 2013...
2017: German Medical Science: GMS E-journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492096/physiological-and-self-reported-disgust-reactions-to-obesity
#6
Lenny R Vartanian, Tara Trewartha, Joanne R Beames, Suzanna M Azevedo, Eric J Vanman
There is accumulating evidence that disgust plays an important role in prejudice toward individuals with obesity, but that research is primarily based on self-reported emotions. In four studies, we examined whether participants displayed a physiological marker of disgust (i.e. levator labii activity recorded using facial electromyography) in response to images of obese individuals, and whether these responses corresponded with their self-reported disgust to those images. All four studies showed the predicted self-reported disgust response toward images of obese individuals...
May 11, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482174/virtual-surgical-planning-for-inferior-alveolar-nerve-reconstruction
#7
Michael Miloro, Michael R Markiewicz
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the outcomes after preoperative virtual surgical planning (VSP) for inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) reconstruction in ablative mandibular surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective evaluation of consecutive surgical cases using standard VSP for hard tissue resection and reconstructive surgery in addition to IAN VSP performed simultaneously during surgery. Cases were assessed regarding the planning time, additional costs involved, surgeon's subjective impression of the process, accuracy of the prediction during surgery, and operative time during surgery compared with cases performed without VSP...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477097/neighborhood-effects-of-intergroup-contact-on-change-in-youth-intergroup-bias
#8
Christine E Merrilees, Laura K Taylor, Rachel Baird, Marcie C Goeke-Morey, Peter Shirlow, E Mark Cummings
Intergroup contact plays a critical role in the reduction of prejudice; however, there is limited research examining the multiple ways through which contact can impact trajectories of development for adolescents in divided societies. Thus, the goal of the current study was to examine individual- and context-level effects of intergroup contact on change in intergroup bias through adolescence. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to analyze five waves of data from 933 youth (M age   = 15.5, SD = 4.03; range: 10-20 years old; 52% female) living in 38 neighborhoods in Belfast, Northern Ireland...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474340/doddering-but-dear-%C3%A2-even-in-the-eyes-of-young-children-age-stereotyping-and-prejudice-in-childhood-and-adolescence
#9
Christin-Melanie Vauclair, Ricardo Borges Rodrigues, Sibila Marques, Carla Sofia Esteves, Filipa Cunha, Filomena Gerardo
This study aims to explore age prejudice, and to examine age stereotyping in children and adolescents by adopting the Stereotype Content Model (SCM) as a theoretical framework. It was hypothesised that children are socialised into adopting an ambivalent representation of old age (socialisation hypothesis) and that this cognitive bias becomes weaker in adolescence due to greater cognitive maturity (developmental hypothesis). By analysing representative data from Portugal (European Social Survey; N = 2367), it was ascertained that the ambivalent age stereotype (higher evaluations of warmth than competence for older people) is indeed a shared social representation of older people in Portuguese society...
May 5, 2017: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474052/disability-income-support-design-and-mental-illnesses-a-review-of-australia-and-ontario
#10
Ashley McAllister, Maree L Hackett, Stephen R Leeder
AIM: Mental illnesses have many distinctive features that make determining eligibility for disability income support challenging - for example, their fluctuating nature, invisibility and lack of diagnostic clarity. How do policy makers deal with these features when designing disability income support? More specifically, how do mental illnesses come to be considered eligible disabilities, what tools are used to assess mental illnesses for eligibility, what challenges exist in this process, and what approaches are used to address these challenges? We aimed to determine what evidence is available to policy makers in Australia and Ontario, Canada, to answer these questions...
April 27, 2017: Public Health Research & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473163/moving-beyond-the-individual-community-level-prejudice-and-health
#11
Irene V Blair, Elizabeth Brondolo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468025/science-as-religion-when-science-becomes-too-irrational
#12
Amir Muzur, Iva Rinčić
Science is expected to be objective: however, since practiced and produced by humans, it has to reflect human flows - prejudices, stubbornness, malice, and the tendency to be misused. No wonder an excellent scientist like John Eccles proclaimed science to be among the most personal activities he had known. By analysing a few examples from the history of science (in particular the intellectual development of Van Rensselaer Potter, the American onco-biochemist and bioethics pioneer), as well as the current trend of the evidence-based approach, the present paper will try to demonstrate that denying, distrusting, and opposing science for the sake of religion, as seen so many times in human history, has significant similarities to the overestimation of science we more often encounter in our times...
April 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467155/contextualizing-competence-language-and-lgbt-based-competency-in-healthcare
#13
Alexis L Rossi, Eliot J Lopez
Changes in the language and terminology used to refer to individuals identifying as lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT), as well as how best to discuss issues of sexual and gender identity, can prove challenging for healthcare providers due to 1) lack of training; 2) interdisciplinary issues; and 3) prejudices on personal and institutional levels. Given the importance of language in the relationship between healthcare provider and patient as well as the myriad ways in which language can reflect knowledge, skills, and attitudes, we contend that language is both a facilitator and inhibitor of competence...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466748/attitude-of-society-towards-people-with-mental-illness-the-result-of-national-survey-of-the-slovak-population
#14
Katarína Letovancová, Nadežda Kovalčíková, Patricia Dobríková
AIMS: Our survey has been aimed at identifying the society attitude towards people with mental illness in Slovakia. METHOD: Selected group comprised 1,624 adult respondents with 18 years of age as the bottom limit. We applied reduced 26-item Community Attitudes Toward Mentally Ill Scale (CAMI) to the survey of the society attitude towards people with mental illness. RESULTS: Average score reached by the respondents reached 94.0800 points, indicating lower stigmatization rate than presumed...
May 2017: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466742/effects-of-the-diagnostic-label-schizophrenia-actively-used-or-passively-accepted-on-general-practitioners-views-of-this-disorder
#15
Lorenza Magliano, Antonella Strino, Rosanna Punzo, Roberta Acone, Gaetana Affuso, John Read
BACKGROUND: General practitioners (GPs) play a key role in the care of somatic and psychiatric problems in people diagnosed with schizophrenia (PWS). It is probable that, like other health professionals, GPs are not all free of prejudices toward PWS. In clinical practice, GPs sometimes interact with clients diagnosed with schizophrenia by specialists, passively accepting this diagnosis. Other times, GPs interact with clients having symptoms of schizophrenia but who have not been diagnosed...
May 2017: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466697/project-challenges-prejudices-about-care-home-nursing
#16
(no author information available yet)
Care homes rarely receive a positive press, and nurses working in the sector often report feeling undervalued and downtrodden. There is a widespread misconception that working in a nursing home is relentlessly hard and unrewarding, with little on offer in terms of personal and professional development.
May 3, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463037/identity-management-strategies-among-hiv-positive-colombian-gay-men-in-london
#17
Rusi Jaspal, Iain Williamson
This study set out to explore the social-psychological aspects of living with HIV among a group of HIV-positive Colombian gay men in London, and the strategies that they deployed to manage ensuing threats to their identities. Focus group and individual interview data were collected from 14 Colombian gay men living with HIV, and were analysed using qualitative thematic analysis and identity process theory. The following themes are discussed: (1) identity struggles and conflicts in Colombia, (2), managing multiple layers of social stigma in England, and (3) changing interpersonal and intergroup dynamics, which highlight the inter-connections between sexual prejudice, sexual risk-taking and HIV stigma...
May 2, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462536/is-ethnic-prejudice-declining-in-britain-change-in-social-distance-attitudes-among-ethnic-majority-and-minority-britons
#18
Ingrid Storm, Maria Sobolewska, Robert Ford
Most literature on racial prejudice deals with the racial attitudes of the ethnic majority and ethnic minorities separately. This paper breaks this tradition. We examine the social distance attitudes of white and non-white British residents to test if these attitudes follow the same trends over time, whether they are driven by the same social processes and whether they are inter-related. We have three main findings. Firstly, social distance from other ethnic groups has declined over time for both white and ethnic minority Britons...
April 29, 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459665/roderigo-lopez-physician-in-chief-to-queen-elizabeth-i-of-england
#19
George M Weisz, Donatella Lippi
Roderigo Lopez, former Physician-in-Chief to Queen Elizabeth I of England, was a controversial figure in his time and continues to be the subject of controversy. Much has been written about his religious practice, politics, and guilt, or lack thereof, with regard to charges of treason to the Crown. However, the fact remains that Lopez was the only physician to the Crown to be sentenced to death. All evidence points to an anti-Semitic mindset that played in the background. Yet Lopez so endeared himself to the Queen that although he was indeed sentenced to death, almost all of his property was restored to his family...
May 1, 2017: Rambam Maimonides Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459378/the-lesbian-gay-bisexual-and-transgender-development-of-clinical-skills-scale-lgbt-docss-establishing-a-new-interdisciplinary-self-assessment-for-health-providers
#20
Markus P Bidell
These three studies provide initial evidence for the development, factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Development of Clinical Skills Scale (LGBT-DOCSS), a new interdisciplinary LGBT clinical self-assessment for health and mental health providers. Research participants were voluntarily recruited in the United States and United Kingdom and included trainees, clinicians, and educators from applied psychology, counseling, psychotherapy, and primary care medicine...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Homosexuality
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