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Prejudice

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145419/attitudes-to-mental-illness-among-mental-health-professionals-in-singapore-and-comparisons-with-the-general-population
#1
Qi Yuan, Louisa Picco, Sherilyn Chang, Edimansyah Abdin, Boon Yiang Chua, Samantha Ong, Kah Lai Yow, Siow Ann Chong, Mythily Subramaniam
BACKGROUND: Similar to the general public, mental health professionals sometimes also have negative attitudes towards individuals with mental illness; which could ultimately affect the quality of care received by the patients. This study aims to explore attitudes to mental illness among mental health professionals in Singapore; make comparisons with the general population; and investigate the significant correlates. METHODS: A cross-sectional design was used. Eligible participants were recruited from the Institute of Mental Health, Singapore...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144851/the-prejudice-against-asylum-seekers-scale-presenting-the-psychometric-properties-of-a-new-measure-of-classical-and-conditional-attitudes
#2
Joel R Anderson
This paper reports the initial psychometric properties for the recently developed prejudice against asylum seekers scale (PAAS) - a new measure of the classical and conditional components of negative attitudes towards asylum seekers. Across three studies the initial psychometric evidence is presented: An exploratory factor analysis suggested that the 16 items of the PAAS accurately factor onto the two hypothesized subscales (Study 1), which was ratified using a confirmatory factor analysis (Study 2). The presented reliability estimates (internal consistency: Studies 1-3; test-retest reliability: Study 3) verified the stability of the measure...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141477/priority-and-prejudice-does-low-socioeconomic-status-bias-waiting-time-for-endoscopy-a-blinded-randomized-survey
#3
Linn Såve Nymo, Lars Aabakken, Kristoffer Lassen
INTRODUCTION: An unwanted socioeconomic health gap is observed in Western countries with easily accessible, government-financed health care systems. Survival rates from several malignancies differ between socioeconomic clusters and the disparities remain after adjusting for major co-morbidities and health related behavior. The possibility of biased conduct among health care workers has been proposed as a contributing factor, but evidence is sparse. METHODS: A blinded, randomized online questionnaire survey was conducted among specialists in gastroenterology in Norway...
November 16, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140873/experienced-hiv-related-stigma-in-healthcare-and-community-settings-mediated-associations-with-psychosocial-and-health-outcomes
#4
Emma Sophia Kay, Whitney S Rice, Kaylee B Crockett, Ghislaine C Atkins, D Scott Batey, Bulent Turan
INTRODUCTION: There are multiple dimensions of HIV-related stigma that can compromise the mental and physical health of people living with HIV (PLWH). We focused on the dimension of experienced stigma, defined as exposure to acts of discrimination, devaluation, and prejudice, and investigated its relationship with HIV health and psychosocial outcomes. METHODS: We examined associations between experienced stigma in the community and healthcare settings and psychosocial and health outcomes for PLWH (N=203) receiving care at an urban HIV clinic in the Southeastern United States...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139333/the-endurance-of-interpersonal-confrontations-as-a-prejudice-reduction-strategy
#5
Kimberly E Chaney, Diana T Sanchez
Previous work has found that individuals who have been confronted for discrimination demonstrate a reduction in explicit prejudice and use fewer stereotypes immediately after the confrontation. Although confronting prejudice has been touted as a tool for prejudice reduction, it is not known how these effects translate over time and what processes might account for their endurance. Across two studies, the present research finds that individuals used significantly fewer negative stereotypes 7 days after confrontation (Study 1) and engaged in behavioral inhibition to stereotypical cues on a probe task 1 week after confrontation...
November 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135134/treating-the-incurables-cancer-asylums-in-18th-and-19th-century
#6
Marianna Karamanou, Theodora Psaltopoulou, Kostas Markatos, Georgios Karaoglanis, George Androutsos
For centuries several hypotheses were formulated on cancer's pathogenesis such as contagiousness, melancholy, heredity and sexuality. In the 18th and 19th century, despite the advent of medical thought and practice, cancer was considered an incurable and contagious disease. Hospitals were refusing to treat cancer patients while the social stigma which followed the disease made primordial the need for the establishment of special institutions. In our article we will present the cancer asylums which counterbalanced the prejudices of the time and contributed to the establishment of modern cancer hospitals...
September 2017: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126703/epilepsy-stigma-and-family
#7
Glória Maria Almeida Souza Tedrus, Renato Buarque Pereira, Mariana Zoppi
Epilepsy is surrounded by prejudice and stigma. Little is known about the perception of stigma by cohabiting relatives (CR) of people with epilepsy (PWE). The study investigated whether the Stigma Scale of Epilepsy (SSE) scores of 90 CR and 148 adult PWE were related to the PWE's clinical aspects and QOLIE-31 at a significance level of p<0.05. The SSE scores of the CR were equivalent to those of PWE dyads (ICC=0.385, p=0.001). Cohabiting relatives of PWE with depressive disorder perceived more stigma (t-test: p=0...
November 7, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122024/prejudice-is-a-general-evaluation-not-a-specific-emotion
#8
Angela J Bahns
Prejudice, like contempt, is a general evaluation rather than a specific emotion. I explore the idea that emotions and attitudes are conceptually distinct by applying Gervais & Fessler's model to the intergroup context. I argue that prejudice is an affective representation of a social group's relational value (friend or foe) and dispute the idea that there are many distinct prejudices.
January 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120307/preliminary-investigation-of-the-stbbi-stigma-scale-description-and-pilot-results
#9
Anne C Wagner, Rachel MacLean
OBJECTIVES: Sexually transmitted and blood-borne infections (STBBIs) are associated with stigmatizing attitudes and beliefs, which can affect the quality of and access to health care, as well as mental health and quality of life. The current study describes the adaptation from an HIV-related stigma scale and pilot testing of a new STBBI Stigma Scale, assessing the stigmatizing attitudes and beliefs of health and social service providers in Canada. METHODS: 144 health and social service providers from across Canada completed the newly adapted scale assessing stigma associated with HIV, hepatitis C, other viral STBBIs and bacterial STBBIs, as well as demographic information, a scale of social desirability and measures of convergent and divergent validity...
November 9, 2017: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119873/possibilities-for-maintaining-a-strong-self-a-grounded-theory-study-of-relational-experiences-among-thai-women-in-sweden
#10
Cecilia Fernbrant, Anette Agardh, Maria Emmelin
BACKGROUND: Due to increasing globalization and Internet communication, the number of international marriages has increased. In Sweden, 75% of the Thai population are women, among whom 80% are partnered with Swedish or other Scandinavian men. Previous studies have indicated that lack of autonomy, social isolation, and stigma are important risk factors for poor mental health for foreign-born women as well as for women in international marriages. OBJECTIVES: To explore what characterizes the processes, choices, challenges and relational conditions that Thai women, partnered with Swedish or Danish men, experience during their first years in Sweden...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114871/the-class-politics-of-prejudice-brexit-and-the-land-of-no-hope-and-glory
#11
Lisa Mckenzie
The debates relating to social class and whether it is still a useful concept in describing a lived reality of the British population has never been far away from media, political and academic dispute. Thatcher's Britain throughout the 1980s attempted to dilute class meaning with what was called 'a home owning democracy' and thus end class collective politics through easily available credit for the working class while simultaneously attacking trade union organization, recruitment and political action. During the late 1990s and into the noughties a 'New Labour' administration attempted to exacerbate the end of class politics through an agenda of a 'cultural distinction' to class identity...
November 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113911/access-to-care-in-rare-liver-diseases-new-challenges-and-new-opportunities
#12
REVIEW
David Jones, Ekkehard Sturm, Ansgar W Lohse
Patients with rare diseases are often disadvantaged, and this applies to rare liver disease in particular. Reasons for disadvantage include delayed or overlooked diagnosis, lack of local expertise and high quality care, poor scientific understanding of the disease process and limited therapeutic options. In adult liver disease in particular this can be compounded by prejudices towards patients with liver disease in general because of a perception (incorrect for all rare liver disease), that liver disease is lifestyle related and thus "self-inflicted"...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111876/impact-of-anticipated-bias-from-healthcare-professionals-on-perceived-successful-aging-among-transgender-and-gender-nonconforming-older-adults
#13
Ruth V Walker, Sara M Powers, Tarynn M Witten
PURPOSE: Transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC) persons have routinely experienced high rates of violence and discrimination. Discrimination in healthcare can affect the ability of TGNC persons to age successfully as it often deters them from seeking care. The purpose of this study was to determine if anticipation of bias from healthcare professionals, as well as other variables, predicted perceived successful aging in a sample of TGNC adults. METHODS: A total of 384 (of the original 1963) participants older than 50 years completed the relevant parts of an 83-item online survey as part of the Trans MetLife Survey on Later-Life Preparedness and Perceptions in Transgender-Identified Individuals...
November 7, 2017: LGBT Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109564/discrepancies-in-lesbian-gay-bisexual-and-transgender-patient-care-and-how-pharmacists-can-support-an-evolved-practice
#14
Erin Maxwell, Stephanie Salch, Monique Boliko, Genevieve Anakwe-Charles
We live in an increasingly multicultural society with people from different ethnicities and beliefs. In recent years, we have witnessed a growing group of people who identify as having diverse sexual orientations and gender identities. Members of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community have historically been marginalized by the health care industry. The disproportionate prevalence of LGBT health concerns and cultural prejudices may be overlooked by many practitioners. As pharmacists, we are in an optimal position to affect meaningful changes in how we treat, counsel, and interact with all our patients, including with those whose sexual orientation or gender identity differ from ours...
September 2017: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108521/minority-stressors-rumination-and-psychological-distress-in-monozygotic-twins-discordant-for-sexual-minority-status
#15
Liam Timmins, Katharine A Rimes, Qazi Rahman
BACKGROUND: Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals report higher levels of depression and anxiety than heterosexual people. Genetic factors may be a 'common cause' of sexual minority status and psychological distress. Alternatively, these may be correlated because of non-genetic environmental factors (e.g. minority stressors). This study investigated minority stressors and distress in monozygotic twins discordant for sexual minority status. This design provides a test of the role of non-shared environmental factors while minimizing differences due to genetics...
November 7, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102221/-gender-meanings-of-the-risk-of-sexually-transmitted-infections-hiv-transmission-among-young-people
#16
Sílvia Saura, Víctor Jorquera, Dolors Rodríguez, Carina Mascort, Immaculada Castellà, Jordi García
AIM: To identify the links between social representations used by young people to construct their gender identity, sexuality, and the risk management for sexually transmitted infections. SETTING: Different settings of Primary Health Care in Girona. PARTICIPANTS: Young people aged between 16 and 21 years (32 participants) living in Girona. METHOD: A qualitative study with a social constructionist perspective. A theoretical sampling was carried out and the triangular group and individual interview techniques were used for data collection...
October 25, 2017: Atencion Primaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094966/an-integrated-developmental-model-for-studying-identity-content-in-context
#17
Renee V Galliher, Kate C McLean, Moin Syed
Historically, identity researchers have placed greater emphasis on processes of identity development (how people develop their identities) and less on the content of identity (what the identity is). The relative neglect of identity content may reflect the lack of a comprehensive framework to guide research. In this article, we provide such a comprehensive framework for the study of the content of identity, including 4 levels of analysis. At the broadest level, we situate individual identity within historical, cultural, and political contexts, elaborating on identity development within the context of shifting cultural norms, values, and attitudes...
November 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094365/exposure-to-hate-speech-increases-prejudice-through-desensitization
#18
Wiktor Soral, Michał Bilewicz, Mikołaj Winiewski
In three studies (two representative nationwide surveys, N = 1,007, N = 682; and one experimental, N = 76) we explored the effects of exposure to hate speech on outgroup prejudice. Following the General Aggression Model, we suggest that frequent and repetitive exposure to hate speech leads to desensitization to this form of verbal violence and subsequently to lower evaluations of the victims and greater distancing, thus increasing outgroup prejudice. In the first survey study, we found that lower sensitivity to hate speech was a positive mediator of the relationship between frequent exposure to hate speech and outgroup prejudice...
November 2, 2017: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091235/predicting-trans-inclusive-attitudes-of-undergraduate-nursing-students
#19
Chris Brown, Chad J Keller, Jenna M Brownfield, Rebekah Lee
BACKGROUND: Research informs that transgender individuals experience harsh and negative experiences when accessing medical care. As a person of contact, nurses serve a key role in providing a sense of emotional safety for transgender patients. METHOD: Undergraduate nursing students (N = 265) completed an online survey assessing transprejudice attitudes and other individual-difference variables (e.g., openness to experience, attribution of cause for being transgender, and empathic concern)...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Nursing Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077925/external-motivation-to-avoid-prejudice-alters-neural-responses-to-targets-varying-in-race-and-status
#20
Bradley D Mattan, Jennifer T Kubota, Tzipporah P Dang, Jasmin Cloutier
Those who are high in external motivation to respond without prejudice tend to focus on non-racial attributes when describing others (Norton, Sommers, Apfelbaum, Pura, & Ariely, 2006). This fMRI study examined the neural processing of race and an alternative yet stereotypically relevant attribute (viz., socioeconomic status: SES) as a function of the perceiver's external motivation to respond without prejudice (EMS). Sixty-one White participants privately formed impressions of Black and White faces ascribed with high or low SES...
October 25, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
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