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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439248/effects-of-promotion-and-compunction-interventions-on-real-intergroup-interactions-promotion-helps-but-high-compunction-hurts
#1
Katy Greenland, Dimitrios Xenias, Gregory R Maio
HIGHLIGHTS  We show the promotion intervention has positive effects during intergroup contact, but that high levels of compunction can have negative effects. Intergroup contact is probably the longest standing and most comprehensively researched intervention to reduce discrimination. It is also part of ordinary social experience, and a key context in which discrimination is played out. In this paper, we explore two additional interventions which are also designed to reduce discrimination, but which have not yet been applied to real intergroup interactions...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438421/community-level-prejudice-and-mortality-among-immigrant-groups
#2
Brittany N Morey, Gilbert C Gee, Peter Muennig, Mark L Hatzenbuehler
This study assesses whether anti-immigrant prejudice at the community level is prospectively associated with mortality. We used 10 waves of data from the General Social Survey (GSS) that were linked to mortality data via the National Death Index (NDI) for the period between 1993 and 2014 (n = 13,242). The 2014 GSS-NDI dataset is a nationally representative sample reporting social characteristics and attitudes in the United States that was prospectively linked to mortality data. Community-level prejudice was measured with 5 questions regarding anti-immigrant sentiments across 123 communities, defined using primary sampling units...
April 13, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436745/does-contact-at-work-extend-its-influence-beyond-prejudice-evidence-from-healthcare-settings
#3
Tiziana Mancini, Luca Caricati, Giuseppe Marletta
This paper reports on two studies investigating the role of intergroup contact on the reduction of prejudice against migrants and on organisational and health outcomes. Study 1 enrolled 624 native healthcare professionals, and showed that frequent and positive contact with non-native co-workers was associated with a decrease in the professionals' prejudice and an increase in the professionals' perception of team functioning. These effects were mediated by reduced in-group threat perception. Study 2 enrolled 201 native patients, and showed that frequent and positive contact with non-native healthcare providers was associated with a decrease in patients' prejudice and an increase in patients' satisfaction for the care received...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436061/resistance-exercise-reduces-memory-impairment-induced-by-monosodium-glutamate-in-male-and-female-rats
#4
Paulo Cesar Oliveira Araujo, Caroline Brandão Quines, Natália Silva Jardim, Marlon Regis Leite, Cristina Wayne Nogueira
NEW FINDINGS: Monosodium glutamate causes cognitive impairment. Resistance exercise is effective against monosodium glutamate induced memory impairment in male and female mice. ABSTRACT: Monosodium glutamate (MSG), a flavor enhancer in diets, causes cognitive impairment in humans. Exercise has been reported to protect against impairment of memory in humans. This study investigated if resistance exercise improves the performance of male and female rats treated with MSG in tests of memory and motor coordination...
April 23, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424651/racial-assumptions-color-the-mental-representation-of-social-class
#5
Ryan F Lei, Galen V Bodenhausen
We investigated the racial content of perceivers' mental images of different socioeconomic categories. We selected participants who were either high or low in prejudice toward the poor. These participants saw 400 pairs of visually noisy face images. Depending on condition, participants chose the face that looked like a poor person, a middle income person, or a rich person. We averaged the faces selected to create composite images of each social class. A second group of participants rated the stereotypical Blackness of these images...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421020/social-dominance-orientation-dispositional-empathy-and-need-for-cognitive-closure-moderate-the-impact-of-empathy-skills-training-but-not-patient-contact-on-medical-students-negative-attitudes-toward-higher-weight-patients
#6
Angela Meadows, Suzanne Higgs, Sara E Burke, John F Dovidio, Michelle van Ryn, Sean M Phelan
Anti-fat bias in healthcare providers and medical students has serious implications for quality of care of higher-weight patients. Studies of interventions aimed at reducing anti-fat attitudes in medical students have generally been disappointing, with little enduring effect. It is possible that some students may be more receptive to prejudice-reducing influences than others, due to underlying differences in their personal characteristics. It is also possible that attitudes toward patients, specifically, may differ from anti-fat attitudes in general, and prejudice-reduction effectiveness on patient-specific attitudes has not yet been evaluated...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421008/understanding-rejection-between-first-and-second-grade-elementary-students-through-reasons-expressed-by-rejecters
#7
Francisco J García Bacete, Virginia E Carrero Planes, Ghislaine Marande Perrin, Gonzalo Musitu Ochoa
Objective: The aim of this research was to obtain the views of young children regarding their reasons for rejecting a peer. Method: To achieve this goal, we conducted a qualitative study in the context of theory building research using an analysis methodology based on Grounded Theory. The collected information was extracted through semi-structured individual interviews from a sample of 853 children aged 6 from 13 urban public schools in Spain. Results: The children provided 3,009 rejection nominations and 2,934 reasons for disliking the rejected peers...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420393/medical-treatment-of-mammary-desmoid-type-fibromatosis-which-benefit
#8
Louise Scheer, Massimo Lodi, Sébastien Molière, Jean-Emmanuel Kurtz, Carole Mathelin
BACKGROUND: Breast fibromatosis is a rare disease characterized by monoclonal fibroblast proliferation. It has no ability to metastasize but has a high local recurrence rate and often infiltrates surrounding tissues. Surgical treatment is the reference, but recently, new targeted therapies have emerged. We report an original case of a patient with breast fibromatosis who received exclusive medical treatment. Our aim was to analyze these treatments based on the clinical and radiological outcome, iatrogenic effects, and pharmacological action...
April 18, 2017: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414483/freedom-of-racist-speech-ego-and-expressive-threats
#9
Mark H White, Christian S Crandall
Do claims of "free speech" provide cover for prejudice? We investigate whether this defense of racist or hate speech serves as a justification for prejudice. In a series of 8 studies (N = 1,624), we found that explicit racial prejudice is a reliable predictor of the "free speech defense" of racist expression. Participants endorsed free speech values for singing racists songs or posting racist comments on social media; people high in prejudice endorsed free speech more than people low in prejudice (meta-analytic r = ...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412895/self-stigma-and-consumer-participation-in-shared-decision-making-in-mental-health-services
#10
Johannes Hamann, Markus Bühner, Nicolas Rüsch
OBJECTIVE: People with mental illness struggle with symptoms and with public stigma. Some accept common prejudices and lose self-esteem, resulting in shame and self-stigma, which may affect their interactions with mental health professionals. This study explored whether self-stigma and shame are associated with consumers' preferences for participation in medical decision making and their behavior in psychiatric consultations. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study conducted in Germany, 329 individuals with a diagnosis of a schizophrenia spectrum disorder or an affective disorder and their psychiatrists provided sociodemographic and illness-related information...
April 17, 2017: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405265/socio-epidemiologic-aspects-and-cutaneous-side-effects-of-permanent-tattoos-in-germany-tattoos-are-not-restricted-to-a-specific-social-phenotype
#11
Cornelia Sigrid Lissi Müller, Angela Oertel, Rebecca Körner, Claudia Pföhler, Thomas Vogt
Background: More and more people of all age classes have a tattoo. Intriguingly, there are multiple prejudices in the general population and published data that concern tattooed persons, such as being criminals, having a low education, being alcohol or drug abusers, or more risky in their life style. Objective: To obtain and to evaluate sociodemographic data on tattooed persons, to investigate the incidence of tattoo-related cutaneous complications and to define personal risk factors and course of the persons after being tattooed concerning behavior of personal environment...
2017: Dermato-endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404321/county-level-racial-prejudice-and-the-black-white-gap-in-infant-health-outcomes
#12
Jacob Orchard, Joseph Price
OBJECTIVE: Black mothers are 60 percent more likely than white mothers to have preterm births and twice as likely to have a baby with low birth weight. We examine whether these black-white gaps in birth outcomes are larger in counties with higher levels of racial prejudice. METHOD: We use data from the restricted-use natality files in the United States, which provide information on birth weight, gestation, and maternal characteristics for over 31 million births from 2002 to 2012, combined with county-level data measures of both explicit and implicit racial prejudice from Project Implicit from over a million individuals who took the Implicit Association Test during this same period...
May 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403305/satisfaction-and-dissatisfaction-in-the-work-of-recyclable-solid-waste-segregators-convergent-care-research
#13
Alexa Pupiara Flores Coelho, Carmem Lúcia Colomé Beck, Rosângela Marion da Silva, Francine Cassol Prestes, Silviamar Camponogara, Anahlú Peserico
OBJECTIVES: describe elements that promote satisfaction and dissatisfaction in the work of recyclable solid waste segregators and conduct a nursing action focused on these elements. METHOD: qualitative research, convergent-care, conducted with members of the cooperative. Data production occurred during 2015 through participation observation, semi-structured interviews, and a convergence group. Analysis comprised the phases Apprehension, Synthesis, Theorization, and Transference...
April 2017: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400962/epistemic-injustice-in-psychiatry
#14
EDITORIAL
Paul Crichton, Havi Carel, Ian James Kidd
It has been argued that those who suffer from medical conditions are more vulnerable to epistemic injustice (a harm done to a person in their capacity as an epistemic subject) than healthy people. This editorial claims that people with mental disorders are even more vulnerable to epistemic injustice than those with somatic illnesses. Two kinds of contributory factors are outlined, global and specific. Some suggestions are made to counteract the effects of these factors, for instance, we suggest that physicians should participate in groups where the subjective experience of patients is explored, and learn to become more aware of their own unconscious prejudices towards psychiatric patients...
April 2017: BJPsych Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398173/perceived-threat-to-national-values-in-evaluating-stereotyped-immigrants
#15
Saori Tsukamoto, Susan T Fiske
The present research examined the psychological reasons behind Americans' (un)willingness to accept immigrants. Participants read a scenario depicting immigrant groups allegedly expected to arrive in the U.S. and evaluated how much the immigrants would influence two types of American national values: civic values (e.g., political ideology) and ethnic values (e.g., shared culture and customs). Across three studies, competitive immigrant groups were stereotyped to be untrustworthy, and perceived to threaten American civic values but not ethnic values...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395045/the-school-to-prison-pipeline-a-primer-for-social-workers
#16
Susan McCarter
The school-to-prison pipeline (STPP) refers to a path from the education system to the juvenile or adult criminal justice system. Over the past two decades, this path has grown significantly, and scholars attribute a myriad of contributing factors to this increase. Each factor has its own impact and consequences, which are covered in detail based on an extensive literature review and macro practice through Race Matters for Juvenile Justice. Prior to the STPP concept, education had largely been considered a protective factor for children and a route to success as opposed to a risk factor or track toward juvenile justice involvement...
January 1, 2017: Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394731/media-representation-of-tongxinglian-in-china-a-case-study-of-the-people-s-daily
#17
Yixiong Huang
Over the past few decades, the worldwide lesbian and gay movements have diversified and increased their rights claims. The achievement of gay rights claims in society is the result of an interplay among various social factors and forces. Media is one of most influential players in building homosexual images and promoting mutual understanding. Chinese homosexuals were not treated as "criminals" or "mental illness patients" anymore in 1997 and 2001 respectively after decriminalisation and depathologisation. Thus, this article aims to explore how homosexuals were portrayed in the official media of China, particularly the People's Daily, to illustrate the changing perception of homosexuals in China's political and social spheres...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394693/predicting-ideological-prejudice
#18
Mark J Brandt
A major shortcoming of current models of ideological prejudice is that although they can anticipate the direction of the association between participants' ideology and their prejudice against a range of target groups, they cannot predict the size of this association. I developed and tested models that can make specific size predictions for this association. A quantitative model that used the perceived ideology of the target group as the primary predictor of the ideology-prejudice relationship was developed with a representative sample of Americans ( N = 4,940) and tested against models using the perceived status of and choice to belong to the target group as predictors...
April 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394059/cultural-minority-students-experiences-with-intercultural-competency-in-medical-education
#19
Hannah Leyerzapf, Tineke Abma
CONTEXT: Medical schools increasingly value and focus on teaching students intercultural competency within present-day multicultural society. Little is known about the experiences of cultural minority students in intercultural competence activities. OBJECTIVES: This article discusses the intercultural competence activities of medical education in a Dutch university from the perspective of cultural minority students. We will formulate recommendations for how to stimulate intercultural competency in, as well as inclusiveness of, medical education...
May 2017: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393382/-maybe-i-will-give-some-help%C3%A2-maybe-not-to-help-the-eyes-but-different-help-an-analysis-of-care-and-support-of-children-with-visual-impairment-in-community-settings-in-malawi
#20
M Gladstone, M McLinden, G Douglas, E Jolley, E Schmidt, J Chimoyo, H Magombo, P Lynch
BACKGROUND: Visual impairment in children is common in low and middle-income settings. Whilst visual impairment (VI) can impact on the development of children, many reach full potential with appropriate early intervention programmes. Although there is increased emphasis on early child development globally, it is not yet clear how to provide specific programmes for children with VI in low and middle-income settings. This study aims to identify facilitators and barriers to the provision of a developmental stimulation programme for children with VI in rural and urban Malawi...
April 9, 2017: Child: Care, Health and Development
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