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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080126/know-thy-enemy-education-about-terrorism-improves-social-attitudes-toward-terrorists
#1
Jordan Theriault, Peter Krause, Liane Young
Hatred of terrorists is an obstacle to the implementation of effective counterterrorism policies-it invites indiscriminate retaliation, whereas many of the greatest successes in counterterrorism have come from understanding terrorists' personal and political motivations. Drawing from psychological research, traditional prejudice reduction strategies are generally not well suited to the task of reducing hatred of terrorists. Instead, in 2 studies, we explored education's potential ability to reduce extreme negative attitudes toward terrorists...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077849/emigration-from-within
#2
Judit Szekacs-Weisz
Listening to the stories of people belonging to different generations in motion-both in our consulting rooms and our personal lives-served as introductory lectures into the fundamental aspects of changing context. Through these rich and diverse stories, one enters a territory which is not only multilingual but multidimensional: defined and shaped by historical, political, economic and socio-cultural transformations. Giving voice to these silent stories proved helpful for us when going behind walls that traditional analysis could not always penetrate, partly because, in many cases, analysts and analysands have been struggling with the same untouchable issues...
December 2016: American Journal of Psychoanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077728/looking-the-part-to-me-effects-of-racial-prototypicality-on-race-perception-vary-by-prejudice
#3
Brittany S Cassidy, Gregory T Sprout, Jonathan B Freeman, Anne C Krendl
Less racially prototypic faces elicit more category competition during race categorization. Top-down factors (e.g. stereotypes), however, affect categorizations, suggesting racial prototypicality may enhance category competition in certain perceivers. Here, we examined how prejudice affects race category competition and stabilization when perceiving faces varying in racial prototypicality. Prototypically low vs high Black relative to White faces elicited more category competition and slower response latencies during categorization (Experiment 1), suggesting a pronounced racial prototypicality effect on minority race categorization...
January 10, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076618/aortic-valve-replacement-treatment-by-sternotomy-versus-minimally-invasive-approach
#4
Renata Tosoni Rodrigues Ferreira, Roberto Rocha E Silva, Evaldo Marchi
Objective: To compare the results of aortic valve replacement with access by sternotomy or minimally invasive approach. Methods: Retrospective analysis of medical records of 37 patients undergoing aortic valve replacement by sternotomy or minimally invasive approach, with emphasis on the comparison of time of cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic clamping, volume of surgical bleeding, time of mechanical ventilation, need for blood transfusion, incidence of atrial fibrillation, length of stay in intensive care unit, time of hospital discharge, short-term mortality and presence of surgical wound infection...
November 2016: Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073997/beyond-ageist-attitudes-researchers-call-for-nih-action-to-limit-funding-for-older-academics
#5
Eva Kahana, Michael R Slone, Boaz Kahana, Kaitlyn Barnes Langendoerfer, Courtney Reynolds
PURPOSE: This article explores manifestations of ageism in response to a proposed National Institutes of Health (NIH) Emeritus Grant initiative aimed at funding older investigators. DESIGN AND METHODS: Comments were requested by NIH in 2015, through a Request for Information (RFI) as well as a public blog regarding the merits of a proposed grant mechanism that would help older researchers transfer their labs to junior scientists and transition into retirement. This article reports content analysis of comments from 134 respondents to the blog...
January 9, 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073337/microaggressions
#6
Scott O Lilienfeld
The microaggression concept has recently galvanized public discussion and spread to numerous college campuses and businesses. I argue that the microaggression research program (MRP) rests on five core premises, namely, that microaggressions (1) are operationalized with sufficient clarity and consensus to afford rigorous scientific investigation; (2) are interpreted negatively by most or all minority group members; (3) reflect implicitly prejudicial and implicitly aggressive motives; (4) can be validly assessed using only respondents' subjective reports; and (5) exert an adverse impact on recipients' mental health...
January 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057003/discrimination-against-childbearing-romani-women-in-maternity-care-in-europe-a-mixed-methods-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Helen L Watson, Soo Downe
BACKGROUND: Freedom from discrimination is one of the key principles in a human rights-based approach to maternal and newborn health. OBJECTIVE: To review the published evidence on discrimination against Romani women in maternity care in Europe, and on interventions to address this. SEARCH STRATEGY: A systematic search of eight electronic databases was undertaken in 2015 using the terms "Roma" and "maternity care". A broad search for grey literature included the websites of relevant agencies...
January 5, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056582/attitudes-of-health-professionals-towards-the-stigma-surrounding-depression-in-times-of-economic-crisis
#8
Maria Saridi, Aikaterini Kordosi, Aikaterini Toska, Lily Evangelia Peppou, Marina Economou, Kyriakos Souliotis
INTRODUCTION: The stigma of mental illness and the ensuing social exclusion are due to the lack of knowledge on the causality of mental illness. AIM: The purpose of this study was to record the stigmatic attitudes of health professionals towards depression, patients suffering from it and the available therapeutic approaches. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The sample of the study included 609 health professionals working in the General Hospital of Corinth...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040575/stigma-toward-psychosis-and-its-formulation-process-prejudice-and-discrimination-against-early-stages-of-schizophrenia
#9
Yoko Baba, Takahiro Nemoto, Naohisa Tsujino, Taiju Yamaguchi, Naoyuki Katagiri, Masafumi Mizuno
BACKGROUND: Stigma toward psychosis can prevent social attendance and help-seeking behavior. Early detection and intervention has been shown to improve patient outcome in schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to reveal the characteristics and formulation process of stigma toward each clinical stage of schizophrenia, taking people's backgrounds into consideration. METHODS: The participants consisted of three groups: general public, patients with mental illness, and psychiatric professionals...
November 17, 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038439/revisiting-stigma-exposure-to-tourette-in-an-ordinary-setting-increases-stigmatization
#10
Menachem Ben-Ezra, Sharon Anavi-Goffer, Ella Arditi, Pazit Ron, Rachel Paryenta Atia, Yonat Rate, Krzysztof Kaniasty
Stigma toward people with mental disorders is frequently studied yet less is known about prejudice toward persons with tic disorders, especially sufferers of Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (GTS). We examined stigmatizing attributions concerning a GTS patient in an online study with participants randomly assigned to one of two video clip conditions: the experimental group saw to a person with Tourette syndrome; the control group watched a nature scenic footage. Results revealed that participants in the experimental condition exhibited higher scores on a stigma questionnaire...
November 29, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032776/-people-both-high-and-low-on-religious-fundamentalism-are-prejudiced-toward-dissimilar-groups-correction-to-brandt-and-van-tongeren-2015
#11
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "People Both High and Low on Religious Fundamentalism Are Prejudiced Toward Dissimilar Groups" by Mark J. Brandt and Daryl R. Van Tongeren (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Advanced Online Publication, Nov 2, 2015, np). In the article, the sample size of N = 5,806 in the abstract is incorrect. The correct sample size is N = 6,047. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2015-49839-001.) Research linking religion to prejudice suggests that highly religious individuals, and religious fundamentalists specifically, may be especially susceptible to expressing prejudice toward dissimilar others, whereas people who are less religious and fundamentalist do not show the same effect...
January 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031725/skin-matters-the-role-of-keratinocytes-in-nociception-a-rational-argument-for-the-development-of-topical-analgesics
#12
REVIEW
Jan M Keppel Hesselink, David J Kopsky, Arun K Bhaskar
Treatment of neuropathic pain using topical formulations is still in its infancy. Only few topical analgesic formulations have become available for clinical use, and among these, analgesic creams are still rare. This is unfortunate because analgesic creams offer a number of advantages over patches, such as convenience, ease of adapting the frequency of application, and dose, and "rubbing cream where it hurts" involves the patient much more in the therapeutic process compared to patches and other localized treatment modalities...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017280/nutritional-beliefs-and-practices-among-diabetic-pregnant-mothers-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-bangladesh
#13
Ummy Salma Munni, Sharmin Hossain, Kazi Rumana Ahmed
BACKGROUND & AIM: Pregnant mothers with diabetes, especially in developing countries, are particularly prone to suffer from dietary imbalances due to superstitions and irrational beliefs and practices. The study aimed to explore the existing beliefs and practices related to food intake among Bangladeshi diabetic pregnant mothers. MATERIAL & METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 200 diabetic pregnant mothers (age in yrs, M±SD, 30±4), selected purposively from outpatient department of Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders...
December 13, 2016: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013377/hospital-clowning-a-paediatrician-s-view
#14
Lennard T van Venrooij, Pieter C Barnhoorn
: This study investigates the current position of hospital clowns from the perspective of paediatricians and paediatric residents. A total of 14 attending paediatricians and paediatric residents participated in two focus group sessions. Data were analysed using Atlas.ti 5.0. In general, physicians reported positive experiences regarding the interaction between hospital clowns and paediatric patients on the ward. Physicians were more interested in research on children's perception of hospital clowns than in research on the clinical efficacy of hospital clowning...
December 24, 2016: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010177/insight-into-the-stigma-of-suicide-loss-survivors-factor-analyses-of-family-stereotypes-prejudices-and-discriminations
#15
Patrick W Corrigan, Lindsay Sheehan, Maya Al-Khouja, Stanley Lewy, Deborah R Major, Jessica Mead, Megghun Redmon, Charles T Rubey, Stephanie Weber
Families of individuals who die by suicide report public stigma that threatens their well-being. This study used a community-based participatory (CBPR) approach to describe a factor structure for the family stigma of suicide. Candidate items (n = 82) from a previous qualitative study were presented in an online survey format. Members of the public (n = 232) indicated how much they thought items represented public views and behaviors towards family members who lost a loved one to suicide. Factor analyses revealed two factors for stereotypes (dysfunctional, blameworthy), one factor for prejudice (fear and distrust) and three factors for discrimination (exclusion, secrecy and avoidance)...
December 23, 2016: Archives of Suicide Research: Official Journal of the International Academy for Suicide Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007293/centripetal-and-centrifugal-forces-in-the-moral-circle-competing-constraints-on-moral-learning
#16
Jesse Graham, Adam Waytz, Peter Meindl, Ravi Iyer, Liane Young
The idea of the moral circle pictures the self in the center, surrounded by concentric circles encompassing increasingly distant possible targets of moral concern, including family, local community, nation, all humans, all mammals, all living things including plants, and all things including inanimate objects. The authors develop the idea of two opposing forces in people's moral circles, with centripetal forces pulling inward, urging greater concern for close others than for distant others, and centrifugal forces pushing outward, resisting "drawing the line" anywhere as a form of prejudice and urging egalitarian concern for all regardless of social distance...
December 19, 2016: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005251/investigating-trust-expertise-and-epistemic-injustice-in-chronic-pain
#17
Daniel Z Buchman, Anita Ho, Daniel S Goldberg
Trust is central to the therapeutic relationship, but the epistemic asymmetries between the expert healthcare provider and the patient make the patient, the trustor, vulnerable to the provider, the trustee. The narratives of pain sufferers provide helpful insights into the experience of pain at the juncture of trust, expert knowledge, and the therapeutic relationship. While stories of pain sufferers having their testimonies dismissed are well documented, pain sufferers continue to experience their testimonies as being epistemically downgraded...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998332/-electroshock-therapy-in-the-third-reich
#18
Lara Rzesnitzek, Sascha Lang
The history of 'electroshock therapy' (now known as electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)) in Europe in the Third Reich is still a neglected chapter in medical history. Since Thomas Szasz's 'From the Slaughterhouse to the Madhouse', prejudices have hindered a thorough historical analysis of the introduction and early application of electroshock therapy during the period of National Socialism and the Second World War. Contrary to the assumption of a 'dialectics of healing and killing', the introduction of electroshock therapy in the German Reich and occupied territories was neither especially swift nor radical...
January 2017: Medical History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996376/sexual-orientation-disclosure-in-primary-care-settings-by-gay-bisexual-and-other-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-a-canadian-city
#19
Todd A Coleman, Greta R Bauer, Daniel Pugh, Gloria Aykroyd, Leanne Powell, Rob Newman
PURPOSE: Sexual orientation affects individuals' health histories and is fundamental to providers' understanding of patients as a whole. Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GB-MSM) are vulnerable to certain health conditions, including HIV. The aim of this exploratory analysis was to examine factors associated with sexual orientation disclosure and communication with providers about GB-MSM health issues and to discuss implications. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional internet survey of GB-MSM (n = 202) in London-Middlesex, Ontario, Canada; analyses were limited to those with a regular primary provider (n = 173)...
December 20, 2016: LGBT Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992037/the-dynamics-of-the-production-of-aids-related-stigma-among-pregnant-women-living-with-hiv-aids-in-rio-de-janeiro-brazil
#20
Simone Monteiro, Wilza Villela, Livia Fraga, Priscilla Soares, Adriana Pinho
The study analyses the relationship between AIDS-related stigma and the processes of discrimination prior to diagnosis among pregnant women living with HIV/AIDS. The fieldwork involved interviews about the life trajectories of 29 pregnant women living with HIV/AIDS, recruited at two AIDS services in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The analysis revealed that before HIV diagnosis, social and gender inequalities experienced by these women reduced their access to material and symbolic goods that could have enhanced educational and career prospects and their ability and autonomy to exercise sexual and reproductive rights...
December 15, 2016: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
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