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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647952/children-with-short-stature-and-growth-failure-heightism-gender-and-racial-disparities
#1
Terri H Lipman, Ian J McCurry
Growth is the single most important indication of the health of a child. Identification of growth disorders in all children is crucial as growth failure can be the first sign of a number of acute and chronic conditions. However, gender and racial biases have resulted in inequities in the identification, referral and treatment of children with growth disorders. In addition, short children have been impacted by a number of psychosocial issues. Heightism is prejudice or discrimination against individuals based on height, and refers to discrimination against individuals whose height is not within the normal acceptable range...
June 2017: Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews: PER
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647819/the-italian-version-of-the-opening-minds-stigma-scale-for-healthcare-providers-validation-and-study-on-a-sample-of-bachelor-students
#2
Anne Destrebecq, Paolo Ferrara, Luca Frattini, Francesco Pittella, Gemma Rossano, Giuseppe Striano, Stefano Terzoni, Orsola Gambini
Prejudices on psychiatric disorders frequently turn into stigmatizating attitudes, also among health care providers. The Opening Minds Stigma Scale for Health Care Providers (OMS-HC) was introduced in 2012 to measure stigma. No Italian versions of this tool exist so far. We wanted to investigate stigma among healthcare students in Italy, and to prepare an Italian version of the scale. A multicentric, cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of Nursing, Physiotherapy, Occupational therapy, and Dietistics students...
June 24, 2017: Community Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641359/-to-have-concern-of-prejudice-to-the-authorized-medical-expert
#3
Rolf Büttemeyer, Peter Klum
In civil and criminal court cases, the medical expert must follow certain (legal) regulations which in general are not conveyed as part of his/hers medical education. The medical experts should observe, that they are themselves not the investigators, but rather only aids to the court. Above and beyond that, the medical experts must conduct themselves in such a manner as to avoid at all times any appearance of prejudice during the course of the judicial proceedings.
June 22, 2017: Handchirurgie, Mikrochirurgie, Plastische Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639419/examining-the-role-of-positive-and-negative-intergroup-contact-and-anti-immigrant-prejudice-in-brexit
#4
Rose Meleady, Charles R Seger, Marieke Vermue
This study examined the interplay of anti-immigrant prejudice and intergroup contact experience on voting intentions within Britain's 2016 referendum on its membership in the European Union. In the days before the referendum, we asked more than 400 British people how they planned to vote. We measured a number of demographic factors expected to predict voting intentions as well as individuals' prejudice towards and intergroup contact experience (positive and negative) with EU immigrants. Anti-immigrant prejudice was a strong correlate of support for Brexit...
June 21, 2017: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633619/the-affect-misattribution-procedure
#5
Sarah Teige-Mocigemba, Manuel Becker, Jeffrey W Sherman, Regina Reichardt, Karl Christoph Klauer
The Affect Misattribution Procedure (AMP) has been forwarded as one of the most promising alternatives to the Implicit Association Test and the evaluative-priming task for measuring attitudes such as prejudice indirectly. We investigated whether the AMP is indeed able to detect an evaluative out-group bias. In contrast to recent conclusions about the robustness of AMP effects, six out of seven pilot studies indicated that participants did not show any prejudice effects in the AMP. Yet, these pilot studies were not fully conclusive with regard to our research question because they investigated different domains of prejudice, used small sample sizes, and employed a modified AMP version...
May 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631413/young-children-seek-out-biased-information-about-social-groups
#6
Harriet Over, Adam Eggleston, Jenny Bell, Yarrow Dunham
Understanding the origins of prejudice necessitates exploring the ways in which children participate in the construction of biased representations of social groups. We investigate whether young children actively seek out information that supports and extends their initial intergroup biases. In Studies 1 and 2, we show that children choose to hear a story that contains positive information about their own group and negative information about another group rather than a story that contains negative information about their own group and positive information about the other group...
June 20, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622573/the-specificity-of-public-stigma-a-comparison-of-suicide-and-depression-related-stigma
#7
Lindsay Sheehan, Rachel Dubke, Patrick W Corrigan
Each year, approximately 1.3 million Americans survive a suicide attempt. While stigma has been reported by suicide attempt survivors, limited research has examined how suicide stigma may differ from the stigma of mental illness. U.S. adults (n = 440) completed an online survey in which they were randomly assigned to one of four vignettes. Vignettes depicted a target individual with either past depression, past suicide attempt, death by suicide, or no information on suicide or mental illness (control). Participants completed a general measure of stigma, a suicide-specific stigma measure, and were surveyed on the recovery potential of individuals with mental illness and suicide attempt...
June 8, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622095/black-and-white-lies-race-based-biases-in-deception-judgments
#8
E Paige Lloyd, Kurt Hugenberg, Allen R McConnell, Jonathan W Kunstman, Jason C Deska
In six studies ( N = 605), participants made deception judgments about videos of Black and White targets who told truths and lies about interpersonal relationships. In Studies 1a, 1b, 1c, and 2, White participants judged that Black targets were telling the truth more often than they judged that White targets were telling the truth. This truth bias was predicted by Whites' motivation to respond without prejudice. For Black participants, however, motives to respond without prejudice did not moderate responses (Study 2)...
June 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622057/sending-messages-how-faculty-influence-professionalism-teaching-and-learning
#9
Lorraine Hawick, Jennifer Cleland, Simon Kitto
BACKGROUND: Ambiguity in understanding what "professionalism" means, and uncertainty in how best to teach it, remains. This study aimed to explore experiences of senior faculty in their endeavor to develop and include professionalism within a curriculum reform (CR), and illuminate challenges encountered. METHODS: Using a qualitative case study approach, data were collected from interviews with faculty who were involved in a major CR, plus archived document analysis to provide context, and aid triangulation...
June 16, 2017: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617005/using-adolescents-drawings-to-reveal-stereotypes-about-ethnic-groups-in-guatemala
#10
Brien K Ashdown, Judith L Gibbons, Yetilú de Baessa, Carrie M Brown
It is important to identify stereotypes about indigenous people because those stereotypes influence prejudice and discrimination, both obstacles to social justice and universal human rights. The purpose of the current study was to document the stereotypes, as held by Guatemalan adolescents, of indigenous Maya people (e.g., Maya) and nonindigenous Ladinos in Guatemala (the 2 main ethnic groups in Guatemala). Guatemalan adolescents (N = 465; 38.3% female; Mage = 14.51 years; SDage = 1.81 years) provided drawings and written characteristics about indigenous Maya and nonindigenous Ladino people, which were then coded for patterns in the data...
June 15, 2017: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611715/from-threat-to-relief-expressing-prejudice-toward-atheists-as-a-self-regulatory-strategy-protecting-the-religious-orthodox-from-threat
#11
Małgorzata Kossowska, Paulina Szwed, Aneta Czernatowicz-Kukuczka, Maciek Sekerdej, Miroslaw Wyczesany
We claim that religious orthodoxy is related to prejudice toward groups that violate important values, i.e., atheists. Moreover, we suggest that expressing prejudice may efficiently reduce the threat posed by this particular group among people who hold high levels, but not low levels, of orthodox belief. We tested these assumptions in an experimental study in which, after being exposed to atheistic worldviews (value-threat manipulation), high and low orthodox participants were allowed (experimental condition) or not (control condition) to express prejudice toward atheists...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610847/-application-of-the-cultural-competence-model-in-the-experience-of-care-in-nursing-professionals-primary-care
#12
María Dolores Gil Estevan, María Del Carmen Solano Ruíz
OBJECTIVE: To know the experiences and perceptions of nurses in providing care and health promotion, women belonging to groups at risk of social vulnerability, applying the model of cultural competence Purnell. DESIGN: Phenomenological qualitative study. LOCATION: Department of Health Elda. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 22 primary care professional volunteers. METHOD: Semi-structured interviews and focus groups with recording and content analysis, according to the theory model of cultural competence...
June 10, 2017: Atencion Primaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591214/-the-devil-has-entered-you-a-qualitative-study-of-men-who-have-sex-with-men-msm-and-the-stigma-and-discrimination-they-experience-from-healthcare-professionals-and-the-general-community-in-bosnia-and-herzegovina
#13
Stela Stojisavljevic, Bosiljka Djikanovic, Bojana Matejic
Men who have sex with men (MSM) are often exposed to unequal treatment in societies worldwide as well as to various forms of stigma and discrimination in healthcare services. Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H) is a postconflict developing country located in Southeast Europe and the Western Balkans, where little is known about the experiences of MSM regarding their communities and interactions with healthcare services. The aim of this study was to explore the types of experiences MSM face and to assess the level of stigma and discrimination they are exposed to in this setting...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587556/methodological-guidelines-to-investigate-altered-states-of-consciousness-and-anomalous-experiences
#14
Alexander Moreira-Almeida, Francisco Lotufo-Neto
Anomalous experiences (AE) (uncommon experiences or one that is believed to deviate from the usually accepted explanations of reality: hallucinations, synesthesia, experiences interpreted as telepathic…) and altered states of consciousness (ASC) have been described in all societies of all ages. Even so, scientists have long neglected the studies on this theme. To study AE and ASC is not necessary to share the beliefs we explore, they can be investigated as subjective experiences and correlated with other data, like any other human experience...
June 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582690/use-of-alcohol-and-drugs-in-the-view-of-people-living-with-hiv-aids-a-qualitative-study
#15
M A A Oliveira Serra, R Araújo E Silva, E P Beserra, T N Melo, L V Sousa, M F M Araújo
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the meaning of the experiences of patients infected by HIV using antiretroviral therapy, regarding the use of alcohol and drugs. STUDY DESIGN: A qualitative phenomenological study. METHOD: A total of 25 patients receiving antiretroviral treatment participated in the investigation, of which 14 were male and 11 were females, who expressed their feelings and perceptions through participation in focus groups and the interpretation of costumes...
June 2, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569291/misadventure-in-muirhouse-hiv-infection-a-modern-plague-and-persisting-public-health-problem
#16
R Robertson
This story is of particular interest and importance to Edinburgh and Scottish medicine. It describes the events in one general medical practice in Edinburgh, the Muirhouse Medical Group, and their impact and relationship to the AIDS pandemic. For many, the origin of HIV in the UK is now history. Since the introduction of HIV/AIDS into the intravenous illegal drug using community, much has changed but problems remain that should concern policy makers and clinicians. Reflections on the recent history of the HIV epidemic among drug users in the UK provide important insights into risks for current policy making and the potentially problematic direction that policy has taken...
March 2017: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566126/survey-on-knowledge-attitude-and-practice-about-blood-donation-among-continuing-medical-education-cme-students-in-sichuan-province-china
#17
Lei Gao, Qiang Wang
The study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of blood donation among continuing medical education students in Sichuan.This study was carried out on 841 continuing medical education students using a self-administered structured questionnaire. The statistical analysis was done by using the SPSS software.Among the 800 students, 424 were donors and 417 were non-donors The score of knowledge (mean11.71±2.22 VS 8.46±3.27) and attitude (mean 9.19±2.42 VS 7.08±2.02) in donors were statistically significant higher than the non-donors...
May 10, 2017: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553600/knowledge-awareness-practices-and-adherence-to-treatment-of-patients-with-primary-hypothyroidism-in-delhi
#18
Pradeep Kumar, Deepak Khandelwal, Suresh Mittal, Deep Dutta, Sanjay Kalra, Pratima Katiyar, Vivek Aggarwal
BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of data on knowledge, awareness, and practices (KAP) of patients with hypothyroidism in India. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To study the KAP and adherence to treatment of participants with primary hypothyroidism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An observational cross-sectional study was conducted in Endocrinology Outpatient Department of Maharaja Agrasen Hospital, Punjabi Bagh, New Delhi. Two-fifty consecutive primary hypothyroidism participants, aged ≥18 years, who were on treatment for at least 3 months responded to a structured questionnaire, to assess their KAP about the disease and adherence to treatment...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551199/resilience-in-the-face-of-peer-victimisation-and-discrimination-the-who-when-and-why-in-five-patterns-of-adjustment
#19
Daniela Fonseca Freitas, Susana Coimbra, Edna Maria Marturano, Susana C Marques, José Egídio Oliveira, Anne Marie Fontaine
Victimisation has a negative effect on psychosocial functioning. Based on the resilience theory, and with a sample of 2975 Portuguese students, the present study aims to: i) identify patterns of adjustment in the face of peer victimisation and perceptions of discrimination; ii) explore the association between the patterns of adjustment and the characteristics of participants (the who) and of the victimisation (the when and why). Cluster analysis revealed five patterns of adjustment: Unchallenged; Externally Maladjusted; Internally Maladjusted; Resilient, and At-Risk...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544860/behavioral-processes-in-long-lag-intervention-studies
#20
Dale T Miller, Jennifer E Dannals, Julian J Zlatev
We argue that psychologists who conduct experiments with long lags between the manipulation and the outcome measure should pay more attention to behavioral processes that intervene between the manipulation and the outcome measure. Neglect of such processes, we contend, stems from psychology's long tradition of short-lag lab experiments where there is little scope for intervening behavioral processes. Studying process in the lab invariably involves studying psychological processes, but in long-lag field experiments it is important to study causally relevant behavioral processes as well as psychological ones...
May 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
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