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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768605/-transcultural-adaptation-of-the-antifat-attitudes-test-to-brazilian-portuguese
#1
Angélica Almeida Obara, Marle Dos Santos Alvarenga
Obese individuals are often blamed for their own condition and the targets of discrimination and prejudice. The scope of this study is to describe the cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian Portuguese and the validation of the Antifat Attitudes Test - specifically developed for evaluation of negative attitudes toward the obese individual. The scale has 34 statements distributed in three subscales - Social/Character Disparagement (15 items), Physical/Romantic Unattractiveness (10 items) and Weight Control/Blame (9 items)...
May 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766842/continuous-low-dose-antibiotic-prophylaxis-to-prevent-urinary-tract-infection-in-adults-who-perform-clean-intermittent-self-catheterisation-the-antic-rct
#2
Robert Pickard, Thomas Chadwick, Yemi Oluboyede, Catherine Brennand, Alexander von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, Doreen McClurg, Jennifer Wilkinson, Laura Ternent, Holly Fisher, Katherine Walton, Elaine McColl, Luke Vale, Ruth Wood, Mohamed Abdel-Fattah, Paul Hilton, Mandy Fader, Simon Harrison, James Larcombe, Paul Little, Anthony Timoney, James N'Dow, Heather Armstrong, Nicola Morris, Kerry Walker, Nikesh Thiruchelvam
BACKGROUND: People carrying out clean intermittent self-catheterisation (CISC) to empty their bladder often suffer repeated urinary tract infections (UTIs). Continuous once-daily, low-dose antibiotic treatment (antibiotic prophylaxis) is commonly advised but knowledge of its effectiveness is lacking. OBJECTIVE: To assess the benefit, harms and cost-effectiveness of antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent UTIs in people who perform CISC. DESIGN: Parallel-group, open-label, patient-randomised 12-month trial of allocated intervention with 3-monthly follow-up...
May 2018: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766757/a-comparison-of-juror-decision-making-in-race-based-and-sexual-orientation-based-hate-crime-cases
#3
Bradlee W Gamblin, Andre Kehn, Karen Vanderzanden, Joelle C Ruthig, Kelly M Jones, Brittney L Long
Several constructs have been identified as relevant to the juror decision-making process in hate crime cases. However, there is a lack of research on the relationships between these constructs and their variable influence across victim group. The purpose of the current study was to reexamine factors relevant to the juror decision-making process in hate crime cases within a structural model, and across victim group, to gauge the relative strength and explanatory power of various predictors. In the current study, 313 participants sentenced a perpetrator found guilty of a hate crime committed against either a Black man or a gay man; participants also responded to individual difference measures relevant to mock juror hate crime decision making, including prejudice toward the victim's social group...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755213/stereotype-content-warmth-and-competence-endure
#4
Susan T Fiske
Two dimensions persist in social cognition, whether people are making sense of individuals or groups. The Stereotype Content Model terms the basic dimensions perceived warmth (trustworthiness, friendliness) and competence (capability, assertiveness). Measured reliably and validly, these Big Two dimensions converge across methods: survey, cultural, laboratory, and biobehavioral approaches. Generality across place, levels, and time further support the framework. Parallel pairs have emerged repeatedly over the history of psychology and in current theories...
April 2018: Current Directions in Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754682/-prejudices-and-racism-nursing-home-teams-share-their-experience
#5
Abdellaziz Djellal
Many nursing homes look after residents from the majority population and employ staff from minority ethnic groups. This situation in these homes can generate a certain number of tensions resulting from racial discrimination. Employees share their experience.
May 2018: Revue de L'infirmière
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754680/-racism-between-representations-of-the-other-and-nursing-practices
#6
Marguerite Cognet
The care environment, renowned for being humanistic and egalitarian, has long remained impenetrable to sociological studies. Surveys, however, reveal another side, where prejudices, unequal treatment and racism in care are expressed. Medicine is itself built on racial categories which still pervade epidemiology and genetics.
May 2018: Revue de L'infirmière
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746285/colourism-a-global-adolescent-health-concern
#7
Nadia Craddock, Ncoza Dlova, Phillippa C Diedrichs
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Colourism, a form of prejudice and discrimination based solely upon skin colour, stands to jeopardize the physical health, wellbeing and life chances of adolescents of colour, globally. RECENT FINDINGS: Research shows that adolescents can experience colourism at school and college, in the criminal justice system, at work and in the media they consume. It is therefore unsurprising that adolescents of colour often express a desire for lighter skin tones and/or are dissatisfied with their skin tone...
May 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741731/expression-of-grim-19-in-unexplained-recurrent-spontaneous-abortion-and-possible-pathogenesis
#8
Yang Yang, Laiyang Cheng, Xiaohui Deng, Hongling Yu, Lan Chao
STUDY QUESTION: Is aberrant expression of gene associated with retinoid-interferon-induced mortality-19 (GRIM-19) associated with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (URSA)? SUMMARY ANSWER: GRIM-19 deficiency may regulate regulatory T cell/ T helper 17 cell (Treg/Th17) balance partly through reactive oxygen species (ROS) - mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling axis in URSA. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Immunological disorders may cause impaired maternal immune tolerance to the fetus and result in fetal rejection...
May 8, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739294/the-mixed-outcomes-of-taking-ownership-for-implicit-racial-biases
#9
Erin Cooley, Ryan F Lei, Taylor Ellerkamp
One potential strategy for prejudice reduction is encouraging people to acknowledge, and take ownership for, their implicit biases. Across two studies, we explore how taking ownership for implicit racial bias affects the subsequent expression of overt bias. Participants first completed an implicit measure of their attitudes toward Black people. Then we either led participants to think of their implicit bias as their own or as stemming from external factors. Results revealed that taking ownership for high implicit racial bias had diverging effects on subsequent warmth toward Black people (Study 1) and donations to a Black nonprofit (Study 2) based on people's internal motivations to respond without prejudice (Internal Motivation Scale [IMS])...
May 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736897/the-normalization-of-intersex-bodies-and-othering-of-intersex-identities-in-australia
#10
EDITORIAL
Morgan Carpenter
Once described as hermaphrodites and later as intersex people, individuals born with intersex variations are routinely subject to so-called "normalizing" medical interventions, often in childhood. Opposition to such practices has been met by attempts to discredit critics and reasserted clinical authority over the bodies of women and men with "disorders of sex development." However, claims of clinical consensus have been selectively constructed and applied and lack evidence. Limited transparency and lack of access to justice have helped to perpetuate forced interventions...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730465/the-social-neuroscience-of-race-based-and-status-based-prejudice
#11
REVIEW
Bradley D Mattan, Kevin Y Wei, Jasmin Cloutier, Jennifer T Kubota
The largely independent neuroscience literatures on race and status show increasingly that both constructs shape how we evaluate others. Following an overview and comparison of both literatures, we suggest that apparent differences in the brain regions supporting race-based and status-based evaluations may tap into distinct components of a common evaluative network. For example, perceiver motivations and/or category cues (e.g., perceptual vs. knowledge-based) can differ depending on whether one is processing race and/or status, ultimately recruiting distinct mechanisms within this common evaluative network...
April 19, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729553/attachment-and-prejudice
#12
REVIEW
Katherine B Carnelley, Elle M Boag
There is a paucity of research that examines prejudice from an attachment theory perspective. Herein we make theoretical links between attachment patterns and levels of prejudice. Perceptions of outgroup threat, which activate the attachment system, are thought to lead to fear and prejudice for those high in attachment anxiety, and to distancing and prejudice for those high in attachment avoidance. We review the literature that examines the associations between attachment patterns and prejudice; evidence from attachment priming studies suggests a causal role of attachment security in reducing prejudice...
April 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716421/construing-the-essence-the-effects-of-construal-level-on-genetic-attributions-for-individual-and-social-group-differences
#13
Jaime L Napier, Jamie B Luguri, John F Dovidio, Kathleen A Oltman
The present research links a nonsocial, contextual influence (construal level) to the tendency to endorse genetic attributions for individual and social group differences. Studies 1 to 3 show that people thinking in an abstract (vs. concrete) mind-set score higher on a measure of genetic attributions for individual and racial group differences. Study 4 showed that abstract (vs. concrete) construal also increased genetic attributions for novel groups. Study 5 explored the potential downstream consequences of construal on intergroup attitudes, and found that abstract (vs...
April 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705827/religious-discrimination-scale-development-and-initial-psychometric-evaluation
#14
G E Kawika Allen, Kenneth T Wang, P Scott Richards, Mason Ming, Han Na Suh
This study presents the development and initial psychometric evaluation of the Religious Discrimination Scale (RDS). This 11-item instrument identified three dimensions based on perceived discrimination experiences of members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS): Perceived Prejudice, Closet Symptoms, and Negative Labels. The psychometric evaluations of the RDS indicated a strong and clear factor structure as well as good internal consistency reliability. The test of measurement and structural invariance across gender also suggested that the RDS scale is equally appropriate to be used with both men and women...
April 28, 2018: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704979/improving-emergency-health-care-workers-knowledge-competency-and-attitudes-toward-lesbian-gay-bisexual-and-transgender-patients-through-interdisciplinary-cultural-competency-training
#15
Sarah Bristol, Teresa Kostelec, Ryan MacDonald
INTRODUCTION: Emergency staff members have a unique role in providing episodic care to marginalized populations. The lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community is a marginalized population that is routinely encountered by ED staff. Implicit prejudice may influence emergency staff interactions and contribute to distrust of health care providers by some members of the LGBT community. The purpose of our study is to evaluate aggregate ED health care team member's knowledge and attitudes toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people pre- and post-cultural competency training education...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Emergency Nursing: JEN: Official Publication of the Emergency Department Nurses Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696989/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-ancient-greece-the-obtuse-man-of-theophrastus
#16
Marcelo M Victor, Bruna S da Silva, Djenifer B Kappel, Claiton Hd Bau, Eugenio H Grevet
We present an ancient Greek description written by the philosopher Theophrastus in his classic book ' Characters' comparable with modern attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. The arguments are based in one chapter of this book-The Obtuse Man-presenting features of a character closely resembling the modern description of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. In a free comparative exercise, we compared Theophrastus descriptions with modern Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed...
April 1, 2018: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694405/initial-prejudices-create-cross-generational-intergroup-mistrust
#17
Eric Luis Uhlmann, Aleksey Korniychuk, Tomasz Obloj
The present investigation modeled the emergence and persistence of intergroup bias and discrimination in artificial societies. Initial unfair prejudices held by members of a dominant group elicit confirmatory behavior (diminished cooperation) from members of a subordinate group via a self-fulfilling prophecy. Further, when individual learning is tempered by conformity to peers, inaccurate beliefs about the stigmatized subordinate group persist long-term. Even completely replacing dominant group members with enlightened individuals through generational change is inadequate to break the cycle of intergroup distrust and non-collaboration...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682754/are-people-more-prejudiced-towards-groups-that-are-perceived-as-coherent-a-meta-analysis-of-the-relationship-between-out-group-entitativity-and-prejudice
#18
Elena R Agadullina, Andrey V Lovakov
A meta-analysis was conducted to examine the relationship between out-group entitativity and prejudice. A quantitative analysis of 85 effect sizes from 33 independent samples showed a significant positive relationship between entitativity and prejudice (Fisher's z = .414, 95% CI [0.272, 0.557], p < .0001). Three possible moderators of the relationship between entitativity and prejudice were tested: conceptualization of the entitativity (essence-based entitativity scale, agency-based entitativity scale, common entitativity scale), the target of the prejudice, and the measures of prejudice (attitudes, emotions, behaviour towards out-group)...
April 16, 2018: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679153/stigma-as-a-barrier-to-recognizing-personal-mental-illness-and-seeking-help-a-prospective-study-among-untreated-persons-with-mental-illness
#19
Georg Schomerus, Susanne Stolzenburg, Simone Freitag, Sven Speerforck, Deborah Janowitz, Sara Evans-Lacko, Holger Muehlan, Silke Schmidt
It is unclear to what extent failure to recognize symptoms as potential sign of a mental illness is impeding service use, and how stigmatizing attitudes interfere with this process. In a prospective study, we followed a community sample of 188 currently untreated persons with mental illness (predominantly depression) over 6 months. We examined how lack of knowledge, prejudice and discrimination impacted on self-identification as having a mental illness, perceived need, intention to seek help, and help-seeking, both with respect to primary care (visiting a general practitioner, GP) and specialist care (seeing a mental health professional, MHP)...
April 20, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671920/who-said-dialogue-conversations-are-easy-the-communication-between-communication-vulnerable-people-and-health-care-professionals-a-qualitative-study
#20
Steffy E A Stans, Ruth J P Dalemans, Uta R Roentgen, Hester W H Smeets, Anna J H M Beurskens
OBJECTIVE: To gain insight into how communication vulnerable people and health-care professionals experience the communication in dialogue conversations, and how they adjust their conversation using augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) or other communication strategies. METHODS: Communication vulnerable clients and health-care professionals in a long-term care institution were observed during a dialogue conversation (n = 11) and subsequently interviewed (n = 22) about their experiences with the conversation...
April 19, 2018: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
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