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L Zimmer, P Fourneret
Methylphenidate (MPH) remains the only accessible psychostimulant used in France in the attention and behavior disturbances of attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity (ADHD). Its prescription has been extended during the past decade to other neurodevelopmental disorders in children and adolescents, also associated with a deficit of attentional resources or, more broadly, fragility of executive functions. Despite its efficiency, validated by more than 400 randomized controlled and double-blind studies, and the good tolerance of MPH in these indications, this treatment remains limited in France because of many fears and other prejudices on the part of medical practitioners and/or families...
March 12, 2018: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Jolanda van Dijke, Inge van Nistelrooij, Pien Bos, Joachim Duyndam
BACKGROUND: Empathy is a contested concept in the field of care ethics. According to its proponents, empathy is a unique way to connect with others, to understand what is at stake for them, and to help guide moral deliberation. According to its critics, empathy is biased, inaccurate or a form of projection that does not truly grasp and respect the otherness of the other, and that may be distorted by prejudices. OBJECTIVES: We aim to contribute to a better understanding of the significance of empathy in care ethics by reviewing both the functions and limitations of empathy in this field...
January 1, 2018: Nursing Ethics
Caroline C Kingdon, Erinna W Bowman, Hayley Curran, Luis Nacul, Eliana M Lacerda
BACKGROUND: People with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) continue to struggle to have their condition recognised as disabling in the face of public and professional prejudice and discrimination. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the functional status and well-being of people with well-characterised ME/CFS with people with multiple sclerosis (PWMS), as well as healthy controls (HCs). METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we used data collected as part of the UK ME/CFS Biobank to compare actual participant scores from the Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form-36 v2™ (SF-36v2™) between groups, as a proxy for impact of disability, and from a bespoke questionnaire seeking data on employment and income...
March 13, 2018: PharmacoEconomics Open
N Derek Brown, Larry R Martinez, Michelle Mikki R Hebl
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 12, 2018: Journal of General Internal Medicine
Jeanine Lm Skorinko, Stacey Sinclair
Sharing reality with an interaction partner is a key element of social connections. One way in which shared reality can be formed in an interpersonal situation is through affiliative social tuning. Affliative social tuning occurs when individuals experience a desire to get along with their interaction partner and this affiliative motivation encourages the individual to spontaneously and genuinely align their attitudes and/or behaviors with their interaction partner to achieve a sense of shared reality. In this review, we examine when and how affiliative social tuning of implicit prejudice occurs...
February 23, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
José Ramón Ausó-Pérez, Gloria María Rodríguez-Blanes
BACKGROUND: Synovial proliferation is a rather frequent intraoperative finding during the surgery of a total knee replacement. The aim of this study is to asses whether the standard procedure of a synovectomy results in changes in blood loss and in the need for transfusion in the immediate postoperative time after the total knee replacement. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was performed with 120 patients undergoing total knee replacement (60 with synovectomy and 60 without it)...
March 9, 2018: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
Lucius Caviola, Jim A C Everett, Nadira S Faber
We introduce and investigate the philosophical concept of 'speciesism' -the assignment of different moral worth based on species membership -as a psychological construct. In five studies, using both general population samples online and student samples, we show that speciesism is a measurable, stable construct with high interpersonal differences, that goes along with a cluster of other forms of prejudice, and is able to predict real-world decision-making and behavior. In Study 1 we present the development and empirical validation of a theoretically driven Speciesism Scale, which captures individual differences in speciesist attitudes...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Aneeta Rattan, Carol S Dweck
Organizations are increasingly concerned with fostering successful diversity. Toward this end, diversity research has focused on trying to reduce prejudice and biased behavior. But what happens when prejudice in the workplace inevitably occurs? Research also needs to focus on whether recovery and repair of social relations after expressions of prejudice are possible. To begin investigating this question, we develop a new framework for understanding reactions to prejudice in the workplace. We hypothesized that when women and minorities choose to confront a prejudiced comment in a workplace interaction (vs...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Applied Psychology
Stefania Sarsah Cobbinah, Jan Lewis
Racial discrimination has been increasingly reported to have a causal link with morbidity and mortality of Black Americans, yet this issue is rarely addressed in a public health perspective. Racism affects health at different levels: institutional racism is a structural and legalized system that results in differential access to health services; cultural racism refers to the negative racial stereotypes, often reinforced by media, that results in poorer psychological and physiological wellbeing of the minorities...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
Erica Briones-Vozmediano, Daniel La Parra-Casado, Carmen Vives-Cases
This qualitative study identifies health professionals' dominant, adaptive, and liberating narratives regarding inter-ethnic relations when talking about intimate partner violence (IPV) and the health system responses to the way it affects Roma women. Dominant narratives are oppressive internalized stories that shape social perceptions of members of both dominant and minority groups, adaptive narratives refer to those that acknowledge asymmetry and inequality, and liberating narratives directly challenge oppression with resistant views of stereotypes and negative interpretations...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Community Psychology
Antony S R Manstead
Drawing on recent research on the psychology of social class, I argue that the material conditions in which people grow up and live have a lasting impact on their personal and social identities and that this influences both the way they think and feel about their social environment and key aspects of their social behaviour. Relative to middle-class counterparts, lower/working-class individuals are less likely to define themselves in terms of their socioeconomic status and are more likely to have interdependent self-concepts; they are also more inclined to explain social events in situational terms, as a result of having a lower sense of personal control...
February 28, 2018: British Journal of Social Psychology
Sabine Pirchio, Ylenia Passiatore, Angelo Panno, Fridanna Maricchiolo, Giuseppe Carrus
The increasing flow of immigrants in many European countries and the growing presence of children from immigrant families in schools makes it relevant to study the development of prejudice in children. Parents play an important role in shaping children's values and their attitudes toward members of other ethnic groups; an intergenerational transmission of prejudice has been found in a number of studies targeting adolescents. The present study aims to investigate the intergenerational transmission of ethnic prejudice in 3- to 9- year-old children and its relations to parenting styles...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Loris Vezzali, Gian Antonio Di Bernardo, Sofia Stathi, Alessia Cadamuro, Barbara Lášticová, Simona Andraščiková
Research has provided evidence that the effects of intergroup contact on prejudice reduction are not limited to the outgroup one has contact with (primary outgroup). Rather, they extend to secondary outgroups uninvolved in the contact situation (secondary transfer effect; Pettigrew, 2009, Social Psychology, 40, 55). We aimed to provide the first empirical evidence for the emergence of the secondary transfer effect among children. Majority (Italian) and minority (with an immigrant background) elementary schoolchildren were administered a questionnaire including measures of contact with the primary outgroup (minority children for the majority, majority children for the minority), prejudice towards the primary outgroup and towards a dissimilar secondary outgroup (disabled children), and social dominance orientation...
February 24, 2018: British Journal of Social Psychology
Emilia Aiello, Ainhoa Flecha, Olga Serradell
Whereas the topic of the 'cultural sensitivity' of healthcare systems has been addressed extensively in the US and the UK, literature on the subject in most European countries, specifically looking at the situation of Roma, is still scarce. Drawing on qualitative research conducted mainly in the city of Barcelona under the communicative approach with Roma subjects who have stable socioeconomic positions and higher cultural capitals (end-users, professionals of the healthcare system, and key informants of a regional policy oriented to the improvement of Roma living conditions), the present study aims to fill this gap...
February 22, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Alexandrina Moisuc, Markus Brauer, Anabel Fonseca, Nadine Chaurand, Tobias Greitemeyer
This research examined the personality characteristics of individuals who 'speak up' and confront perpetrators of norm transgressions. We tested whether those who intervene tend to be 'bitter complainers' or 'well-adjusted leaders'. In four studies (total N = 1,003), we measured several individual differences that are directly implicated by at least one of the two concepts. We also presented participants with uncivil, discriminatory, and immoral behaviours and asked them how likely they would be to intervene if they were to witness each of these behaviours as a bystander...
February 21, 2018: British Journal of Social Psychology
Jeffery Yen, Kevin Durrheim, Romin W Tafarodi
The implicit association test (IAT) and concept of implicit bias have significantly influenced the scientific, institutional, and public discourse on racial prejudice. In spite of this, there has been little investigation of how ordinary people make sense of the IAT and the bias it claims to measure. This article examines the public understanding of this research through a discourse analysis of reactions to the IAT and implicit bias in the news media. It demonstrates the ways in which readers interpreted, related to, and negotiated the claims of IAT science in relation to socially shared and historically embedded concerns and identities...
February 16, 2018: British Journal of Social Psychology
Nagore Cuevas, Marta Martins, Pedro M Costa
Estuaries, coastal lagoons and other transition ecosystems tend to become the ultimate reservoirs of pollutants transported by continental runoff, among which pesticides constitute the class of most concern. High amounts of dissolved and particulated organic matter greatly contribute to the accumulation of pesticides that eventually become trapped in sediments or find their way along food chains. Perhaps not so surprisingly, it is common to find elevated levels of pesticides in estuarine sediments decades after their embargo...
February 15, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Sarah Wilkins-Laflamme
There has been growing discussion surrounding the phenomenon of Islamophobia in Western societies over the last few years. However, in-depth empirical research of the prevalence and patterns of prejudice toward Muslims remains scarce, especially in the Canadian context. With data from the 2011 Canadian Election Study and the 2014 General Social Survey, this study measures the extent to which negative feelings toward Muslims are present among the general adult population, and the extent to which Muslim Canadians themselves say they have experienced discrimination in recent years due to their religion, ethnicity, and culture...
February 2018: Canadian Review of Sociology, Revue Canadienne de Sociologie
Betty Hsiao, Sonal Balla, Kristin Mattocks, Liana Fraenkel
OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to explore the factors that influence risk tolerance among women from different racial/ethnic groups. METHODS: In-depth individual interviews of Non-Hispanic Black, Non-Hispanic White, and Hispanic women aged 20-45 were conducted by a trained interviewer (S.B.) using a semi-structured interview guide to elicit the factors that influence risk tolerance among minority women. The interviews were audiotaped and professionally transcribed with a final sample size of 36 determined by thematic saturation...
February 13, 2018: Arthritis Care & Research
Éverson de Brito Damasceno, Jakson Gomes de Figueiredo, Jean Marcel Bezerra França, Júlio Cesar Duarte Veras, Raul Elton Araújo Borges, Lucas Pereira de Melo
This paper analyzes the experience of people living with the Berardinelli-Seip Syndrome in the Brazilian Northeast. This qualitative study was developed with eleven informants, namely, nine people living with the syndrome and two mothers. Information was gathered using participant observation, social characterization and semi-structured interviews. Data were analyzed by means of a thematic coding technique. Two categories emerged: (1) 'the secret is to shut your mouth': food management in daily life; and (2) 'Ah, is it a transvestite?' body, gender, and masculinization...
February 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
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