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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914294/selective-agonism-of-mglu8-receptors-by-s-3-4-dicarboxyphenylglycine-does-not-affect-sleep-stages-in-the-rat
#1
María Cavas, Gianluigi Scesa, Mercedes Martín-López, José Francisco Navarro
BACKGROUND: Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlu) play a role in a number of physiological processes and behaviors, as well as in certain pathological conditions and diseases. New drugs targetting mGlu receptors are being developed with treatment purposes. Recent data indicates that glutamate is involved in sleep, and pharmacological manipulation of distinct subtypes of mGlu receptors affect sleep. Here the consequences of selective pharmacological agonism of mGlu8 receptor upon sleep and wakefulness are explored for the first time...
September 22, 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914191/beyond-the-checklist-understanding-rural-health-vulnerability-in-a-south-african-context
#2
Richard Vergunst, Leslie Swartz, Gubela Mji, Janis Kritzinger, Stine Hellum Braathen
BACKGROUND: Vulnerability in the past has sometimes been measured and understood in terms of checklists or common understanding. It is argued here that vulnerability is a more complex issue than this. Although checklists of vulnerable groups are important, they do not capture the essence and dynamics of vulnerability. OBJECTIVE: The case of rural health vulnerability in South Africa is discussed to show that classifying people into vulnerable groups does not portray the complexity and intricacies of what it means to have vulnerability...
2016: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914166/trauma-related-dissociation-psychological-features-and-psychophysiological-responses-to-script-driven-imagery-in-borderline-personality-disorder
#3
Dana Bichescu-Burian, Jürgen Steyer, Tilman Steinert, Benjamin Grieb, Stefan Tschöke
Defense reactions to threatening situations are vital adaptations to stress that protect organisms from injury and ensure survival. We retrospectively investigated the role of peritraumatic dissociation (PD) in the occurrence of severe psychopathology and dissociative patterns of reactions in borderline personality disorder (BPD). We recruited 28 patients with a clinical diagnosis of BPD and 15 healthy controls. The BPD group was divided according to the level of PD (low vs. high): BPD and PD (n = 15) and BPD only (n = 13)...
December 3, 2016: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913854/the-role-of-macromolecules-in-the-formation-of-kidney-stones
#4
REVIEW
Jeffrey D Rimer, Ann M Kolbach-Mandel, Michael D Ward, Jeffrey A Wesson
The formation of crystal aggregates, one of the critical processes in kidney stone pathogenesis, involves interactions between crystals (predominantly calcium oxalate monohydrate, COM) and urinary constituents (e.g., proteins), which serve as an adhesive "glue" between crystals in stones. To develop a better understanding of the protein-crystal interactions that lead to crystal aggregation, we have measured the effect of model proteins on bulk COM crystal properties as well as their adsorption on crystal surfaces using three synthetic polyanions: poly(aspartic acid) (polyD), poly(glutamic acid) (polyE), and poly(acrylic acid) (polyAA)...
December 2, 2016: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913762/aspen-felanpe-clinical-guidelines-nutrition-support-of-adult-patients-with-enterocutaneous-fistula
#5
Vanessa J Kumpf, Jose Eduardo de Aguilar-Nascimento, Jose Ignacio Diaz-Pizarro Graf, Amber M Hall, Liam McKeever, Ezra Steiger, Marion F Winkler, Charlene W Compher
BACKGROUND: The management of patients with enterocutaneous fistula (ECF) requires an interdisciplinary approach and poses a significant challenge to physicians, wound/stoma care specialists, dietitians, pharmacists, and other nutrition clinicians. Guidelines for optimizing nutrition status in these patients are often vague, based on limited and dated clinical studies, and typically rely on individual institutional or clinician experience. Specific nutrient requirements, appropriate route of feeding, role of immune-enhancing formulas, and use of somatostatin analogues in the management of patients with ECF are not well defined...
December 2, 2016: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913674/immunoglobulins-and-their-receptors-and-subversion-of-their-protective-roles-by-bacterial-pathogens
#6
REVIEW
Jenny M Woof
Immunoglobulins (Igs) play critical roles in immune defence against infectious disease. They elicit potent elimination processes such as triggering complement activation and engaging specific Fc receptors present on immune cells, resulting in phagocytosis and other killing mechanisms. Many important pathogens have evolved mechanisms to subvert or evade Ig-mediated defence. One such mechanism used by several pathogenic bacteria features proteins that bind the Ig Fc region and compromise engagement of host effector molecules...
December 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913659/formative-research-using-a-community-based-participatory-research-approach-to-develop-an-oral-health-intervention-for-migrant-mexican-families
#7
Tracy L Finlayson, Padideh Asgari, Lisa Hoffman, Ana Palomo-Zerfas, Martha Gonzalez, Nannette Stamm, Maria-Isabel Rocha, Arcela Nunez-Alvarez
Oral health is a leading unmet health need among migrant families. This article describes the 1-year, community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach employed to plan and develop a Líder Communitario (lay community health worker)-led educational intervention for Mexican migrant adult caregivers and their families in three underserved, remote communities in North San Diego County, California. Four partner organizations collaborated, reviewed existing oral health curricula, and sought extensive input on educational topics and research design from key informants, migrant caregivers, and Líderes Communitarios...
December 1, 2016: Health Promotion Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913596/facilitators-and-barriers-for-the-adoption-implementation-and-monitoring-of-child-safety-interventions-a-multinational-qualitative-analysis
#8
REVIEW
Beatrice Scholtes, Peter Schröder-Bäck, J Morag MacKay, Joanne Vincenten, Katharina Förster, Helmut Brand
The efficiency and effectiveness of child safety interventions are determined by the quality of the implementation process. This multinational European study aimed to identify facilitators and barriers for the three phases of implementation: adoption, implementation and monitoring (AIM process). Twenty-seven participants from across the WHO European Region were invited to provide case studies of child safety interventions from their country. Cases were selected by the authors to ensure broad coverage of injury issues, age groups and governance level of implementation (eg, national, regional or local)...
December 2, 2016: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913515/cellular-immune-responses-in-red-blood-cell-alloimmunization
#9
James C Zimring, Krystalyn E Hudson
In excess of 340 blood group antigens have now been described that vary between individuals. Thus, any unit of blood that is nonautologous represents a significant dose of alloantigen. Most blood group antigens are proteins, which differ by a single amino acid between donors and recipients. Approximately 1 out of every 70 individuals are transfused each year (in the United States alone), which leads to antibody responses to red blood cell (RBC) alloantigens in some transfusion recipients. When alloantibodies are formed, in many cases, RBCs expressing the antigen in question can no longer be safely transfused...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913387/using-multivariate-base-rates-to-interpret-low-scores-on-an-abbreviated-battery-of-the-delis-kaplan-executive-function-system
#10
Justin E Karr, Mauricio A Garcia-Barrera, James A Holdnack, Grant L Iverson
OBJECTIVE: Executive function consists of multiple cognitive processes that operate as an interactive system to produce volitional goal-oriented behavior, governed in large part by frontal microstructural and physiological networks. Identification of deficits in executive function in those with neurological or psychiatric conditions can be difficult because the normal variation in executive function test scores, in healthy adults when multiple tests are used, is largely unknown. This study addresses that gap in the literature by examining the prevalence of low scores on a brief battery of executive function tests...
December 1, 2016: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913330/ex-vivo-hifu-experiments-using-a-32-times-32-element-cmut-array
#11
Hyo-Seon Yoon, Chienliu Chang, Ji Hoon Jang, Anshuman Bhuyan, Jung Woo Choe, Amin Nikoozadeh, Ronald D Watkins, Douglas N Stephens, Kim Butts Pauly, Butrus T Khuri-Yakub
High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has been used as noninvasive treatment for various diseases. For these therapeutic applications, capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) have advantages that make them potentially preferred transducers over traditional piezoelectric transducers. In this paper, we present the design and the fabrication process of an 8 ×8 -mm (2) 32 ×32 -element 2-D CMUT array for HIFU applications. To reduce the system complexity for addressing the 1024 transducer elements, we propose to group the CMUT array elements into eight HIFU channels based on the phase delay from the CMUT element to the targeted focal point...
December 2016: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913318/walsh-hadamard-based-3d-steganography-for-protecting-sensitive-information-in-point-of-care
#12
Alsharif Abuadbba, Ibrahim Khalil
Remote points-of-care has recently had a lot of attention for their advantages such as saving lives and cost reduction. The transmitted streams usually contain (1) normal biomedical signals (e.g. ECG) and (2) highly private information (e.g. patient identity). Despite the obvious advantages, the primary concerns are privacy and authenticity of the transferred data. Therefore, this paper introduces a novel steganographic mechanism that ensures (1) strong privacy preservation of private information by random concealing inside the transferred signals employing a key, and (2) evidence of originality for the biomedical signals...
November 29, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913256/rapid-upregulation-of-the-hippocampal-connexins-36-and-45-mrna-levels-during-memory-consolidation
#13
Siamak Beheshti, Reyhaneh Zeinali, Abolghasem Esmaeili
Gap junction channels are implicated in learning and memory process. However, their role on each of the particular stages of memory formation have been studied less. In this study, the time profile of the expression levels of hippocampal connexins 36 and 45 (Cx36 and Cx45) mRNAs was measured during memory consolidation, in a passive avoidance paradigm. Totally 36 adult male rats were distributed into 5 groups of each 6. At different times profiles (30min, 3, 6 and 24h) following training, rats were decapitated and their hippocampi were immediately removed and frozen in liquid nitrogen...
November 29, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913250/identification-of-non-coding-and-coding-rnas-in-porcine-endometrium
#14
Yueying Wang, Tao Hu, Lihang Wu, Xiaoran Liu, Songyi Xue, Minggang Lei
One of the most critical periods of embryonic loss in pig is day 12 of pregnancy, when implantation begins. Here, we analyzed the gene expression on day 12 of pregnancy and non-pregnancy in the porcine endometrium using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). 237 mRNAs, 34 lncRNAs and 1 miRNA were significantly differentially expressed between the two groups. Further functional analyses were conducted to identify these differentially expressed transcripts. The results demonstrated that they participate in various biological processes, such as cell adhesion, binding, nucleic and metabolic processes...
November 29, 2016: Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913223/hepatitis-e-virus-infection-beyond-the-liver
#15
REVIEW
S Pischke, J Hartl, S D Pas, A W Lohse, B C Jacobs, A A van der Eijk
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections are not limited to the liver but may also affect other organs. Several diseases, including Guillain-Barré syndrome, neuralgic amyotrophy, glomerulonephritis, cryoglobulinemia, pancreatitis, lymphoma, thrombopenia, meningitis, thyreoiditis and myocarditis have been observed in the context of hepatitis E. To date the definite pathophysiological links between HEV and extrahepatic manifestations are not yet established. However, it is suggested that HEV-infection might be causative based on serological studies, case series, in vitro data and animal models...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913063/a-novel-approach-to-falls-classification-in-parkinson-s-disease-development-of-the-fall-related-activity-classification-frac
#16
Annie Ross, Alison J Yarnall, Lynn Rochester, Sue Lord
BACKGROUND: Falls are a major problem for people with Parkinson's disease (PD). Despite years of focused research knowledge of falls aetiology is poor. This may be partly due to classification approaches which conventionally report fall frequency. This nosology is blunt, and does not take into account causality or the circumstances in which the fall occurred. For example, it is likely that people who fall from a postural transition are phenotypically different to those who fall during high level activities...
September 3, 2016: Physiotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913057/a-comparison-of-profiles-of-transtheoretical-model-constructs-of-change-among-depressed-and-nondepressed-women-at-risk-for-an-alcohol-exposed-pregnancy
#17
Shannon K Johnson, Kirk von Sternberg, Mary M Velasquez
INTRODUCTION: The efficacy of a series of interventions to reduce risk of alcohol-exposed pregnancies is well-established, yet some subsets of women remain at risk. For instance, in CHOICES, a randomized clinical trial of an intervention to prevent alcohol-exposed pregnancy, nondepressed women reduced risk drinking at roughly twice the rate of women with depression (49% vs. 24%). This secondary analysis of CHOICES data examines constructs that can explicate differences between nondepressed and depressed women in the process of changing alcohol behavior...
November 29, 2016: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913007/higher-post-acute-myocardial-infarction-plasma-haptoglobin-level-is-associated-with-poor-long-term-overall-survival
#18
Kuang-Hsing Chiang, Yung-Ta Kao, Hsin-Bang Leu, Po-Hsun Huang, Shao-Sung Huang, Tsai-Mu Cheng, Ju-Pin Pan
AIM: To evaluate the association of post-acute myocardial infarction (AMI) plasma haptoglobin (Hp) levels with long-term overall survival in AMI patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients who were diagnosed of AMI were recruited and their Hp phenotypes and plasma levels were determined. According to previously reported cutoff point for Hp level (288.4ng/ml), patients were classified as higher Hp group (>288.4ng/ml) and lower Hp group (≤288.4ng/ml). The primary outcome was overall survival...
November 10, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912894/self-generation-and-positivity-effects-following-transcranial-random-noise-stimulation-in-medial-prefrontal-cortex-a-reality-monitoring-task-in-older-adults
#19
Nicola Mammarella, Alberto Di Domenico, Rocco Palumbo, Beth Fairfield
Activation of medial Prefrontal Cortex (mPFC) has been typically found during reality monitoring tasks (i.e., distinguishing between internal self-generated vs external information). No study, however, has yet investigated whether transcranial Random Noise Stimulation (tRNS) over the mPFC leads to a reduction in reality-monitoring misattributions in aging. In particular, stimulating mPFC should increase the number of cognitive operations engaged while encoding and this distinctive information may help older adults to discriminate between internal and external sources better...
November 15, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912783/exploring-levers-and-barriers-to-accessing-primary-care-for-marginalised-groups-and-identifying-their-priorities-for-primary-care-provision-a-participatory-learning-and-action-research-study
#20
Patrick O'Donnell, Edel Tierney, Austin O'Carroll, Diane Nurse, Anne MacFarlane
BACKGROUND: The involvement of patients and the public in healthcare has grown significantly in recent decades and is documented in health policy documents internationally. Many benefits of involving these groups in primary care planning have been reported. However, these benefits are rarely felt by those considered marginalised in society and they are often excluded from participating in the process of planning primary care. It has been recommended to employ suitable approaches, such as co-operative and participatory initiatives, to enable marginalised groups to highlight their priorities for care...
December 3, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
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