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Aaron Wightman, Aviva Goldberg, Douglas Diekema
Children with severe intellectual disability have historically been excluded from solid organ transplantation. The purpose of this article was to review the arguments for excluding this population, including claims of poorer recipient and graft survival, a lower QoL as pediatric recipients become adults, and poorer outcomes for other, more deserving pediatric transplant candidates, and make the case that these arguments are no longer persuasive. We will argue that pediatric transplant centers for reasons of social justice, value of relationships, power differential, and fairness should generally not consider intellectual ability or disability as a criterion when making decisions regarding organ transplant eligibility...
May 21, 2018: Pediatric Transplantation
Daniel Gero, Bors Hulesch, Marco Bueter
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cumulating evidence is available to demonstrate the efficacy of bariatric surgery (BS) in achieving weight loss and optimizing comorbidities. However, currently, only a minority of eligible patients approaches bariatric centers. The underuse of BS can no longer be explained by the lack of evidence supporting its beneficial outcomes along with its favorable safety-profile, rather, by the supporting infrastructure, insurance coverage, and mindset of society, including potential patients and allied healthcare professionals...
May 21, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
David Beresford-Jones, Alexander Pullen, George Chauca, Lauren Cadwallader, Maria García, Isabel Salvatierra, Oliver Whaley, Víctor Vásquez, Susana Arce, Kevin Lane, Charles French
Moseley's (1975) Maritime Foundations of Andean Civilization hypothesis challenges, in one of humanity's few pristine hearths of civilization, the axiom that agriculture is necessary for the rise of complex societies. We revisit that hypothesis by setting new findings from La Yerba II (7571-6674 Cal bp) and III (6485-5893 Cal bp), Río Ica estuary, alongside the wider archaeological record for the end of the Middle Preceramic Period on the Peruvian coast. The La Yerba record evinces increasing population, sedentism, and "Broad Spectrum Revolution" features, including early horticulture of Phaseolus and Canavalia beans...
2018: Journal of archaeological method and theory
Alisa A Padon, Rajiv N Rimal, Michael Siegel, William DeJong, Timothy S Naimi, David H JernFigan
Background: Youth exposure to alcohol marketing has been shown to be an important contributor to the problem of underage drinking in the U.S. More work is needed on identifying and minimizing content with particular appeal to youth. Design and Methods: We tested the association between the youth-appeal of marketing content of televised alcohol advertisements and the brand-specific alcohol consumption of both underage youth and adults. We used existing data from three sources: a brand-specific alcohol consumption survey among underage youth ( N =1032), a brand-specific alcohol consumption survey among adults ( N ~13,000), and an analysis of content appealing to youth (CAY) in a sample of televised alcohol advertisements ( n =96) aired during the youth survey...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Public Health Research
Emily Moyer-Gusé, Melissa J Robinson, Jessica Mcknight
Outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases have increased due, in part, to misconceptions about vaccine safety (Kennedy et al., 2011). Extant literature has examined various messages designed to correct false beliefs about vaccination risks and to urge parents to vaccinate their children. The present study is designed to contribute to this literature by drawing on the broader research and theory on resistance to persuasion and correcting false beliefs. We examine the effects of a humorous (vs. non-humorous) message about the importance of the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine on parents' vaccine hesitancy...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Health Communication
Mi Jamie Zhou, Baozhou Lu, Weiguo Patrick Fan, G Alan Wang
Existing research on antecedent of funding success mainly focuses on basic project properties such as funding goal, duration, and project category. In this study, we view the process by which project owners raise funds from backers as a persuasion process through project descriptions. Guided by the unimodel theory of persuasion, this study identifies three exemplary antecedents (length, readability, and tone) from the content of project descriptions and two antecedents (past experience and past expertise) from the trustworthy cue of project descriptions...
2018: Information Systems Frontiers: a Journal of Research and Innovation
Donald A P Bundy, Laura J Appleby, Mark Bradley, Kevin Croke, T Deirdre Hollingsworth, Rachel Pullan, Hugo C Turner, Nilanthi de Silva
For more than 100 years, countries have used mass drug administration as a public health response to soil-transmitted helminth infection. The series of analyses published as Disease Control Priorities is the World Bank's vehicle for exploring the cost-effectiveness and value for money of public health interventions. The first edition was published in 1993 as a technical supplement to the World Bank's World Development Report Investing in Health where deworming was used as an illustrative example of value for money in treating diseases with relatively low morbidity but high prevalence...
2018: Advances in Parasitology
Han-Kuang Tien, Wen Chung
This research addressed adults' health check-ups through the lens of Role Transportation Theory. This theory is applied to narrative advertising that lures adults into seeking health check-ups by causing audiences to empathize with the advertisement's character. This study explored the persuasive mechanism behind narrative advertising and reinforced the Protection Motivation Theory model. We added two key perturbation variables: optimistic bias and truth avoidance. To complete the verification hypothesis, we performed two experiments...
May 10, 2018: Health Communication
Richard J T Hamshaw, Julie Barnett, Jane S Lucas
Moving on from literature that focuses on how consumers use social media and the benefits of organizations utilizing platforms for health and risk communication, this study explores how specific characteristics of tweets affect the way in which they are perceived. An online survey with 251 participants with self-reported food hypersensitivity (FH) took part in an online experiment to consider the impact of tweet characteristics on perceptions of source credibility, message credibility, persuasiveness, and intention to act upon the presented information...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Lara Varpio
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 7, 2018: Perspectives on Medical Education
Shannon M Burns, Lianne Barnes, Perri L Katzman, Daniel L Ames, Emily B Falk, Matthew D Lieberman
Activity in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during persuasive messages predicts future message-consistent behavior change, but there are significant limitations to the types of persuasion processes that can be invoked inside an MRI scanner. For instance, real world persuasion often involves multiple people in conversation. Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) allows us to move out of the scanner and into more ecologically valid contexts. As a first step, the current study used fNIRS to replicate an existing fMRI persuasion paradigm (i...
May 4, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Pierre Mallia
The autonomy of patients participating in research means that a proper informed consent process must take place. This means that information must be given according to a reasonable person standard implying what legally and ethical a reasonable person participating in the research would want to know. The research must assure that the patient has understood all the information given and that a voluntary choice has been made. This means that no form of coercion must take place and that information must not be manipulated in such a way as to influence the participant...
May 3, 2018: Early Human Development
Rosa Maimone, Marco Guerini, Mauro Dragoni, Tania Bailoni, Claudio Eccher
Automatically monitoring and supporting healthy lifestyle is a recent research trend, fostered by the availability of low-cost monitoring devices, and it can significantly contribute to the prevention of chronic diseases deriving from incorrect diet and lack of physical activity. In this paper, we present a general purpose architecture for persuasion scenarios and behavioral change. The architecture is designed to be easily portable across languages and domains and has been implemented and evaluated in a specific system for Workplace Health Promotion (WHP) called PerKApp...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
Kerry Nolte, Barbara Guthrie, John Griffith, Tiffany Kim
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Black women are disproportionately affected by HIV. Increasing status awareness through partner testing can improve status awareness and reduce transmission. Varying approaches to encourage HIV testing are described but a measurement instrument is lacking. The AIDS Discussion Strategy Scale (ADSS) was adapted into the HIV Testing Approach Scale (HTAS) to measure Black women's approaches to encourage partners to test for HIV. METHODS: Preliminary adaptation included five steps to ensure validity...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Nursing Measurement
Jordan M Neil, Aisling Gough, Frank Kee, Thomas J George, Jeffrey Pufahl, Janice L Krieger
Cancer decision-making interventions commonly utilize narratives as a persuasive strategy to increase identification with the message source, promote involvement with the topic, and elicit greater willingness to adopt recommended behaviors. However, there is little empirical research examining the mechanisms underlying the effectiveness of this strategy in the context of cancer research participation. Data for the current manuscript were collected as part of a larger study conducted with cancer patients (N = 413) from the USA, UK, and the Republic of Ireland...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
Marie Berg, Karolina Linden, Annsofie Adolfsson, Carina Sparud Lundin, Agneta Ranerup
BACKGROUND: Numerous Web-based interventions have been implemented to promote health and health-related behaviors in persons with chronic conditions. Using randomized controlled trials to evaluate such interventions creates a range of challenges, which in turn can influence the study outcome. Applying a critical perspective when evaluating Web-based health interventions is important. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to critically analyze and discuss the challenges of conducting a Web-based health intervention as a randomized controlled trial...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Roland Imhoff, Pia Lamberty, Olivier Klein
Classical theories of attitude change point to the positive effect of source expertise on perceived source credibility persuasion, but there is an ongoing societal debate on the increase in anti-elitist sentiments and conspiracy theories regarding the allegedly untrustworthy power elite. In one correlational ( N = 275) and three experimental studies ( N = 195, N = 464, N = 225), we tested the novel idea that people who endorse a conspiratorial mind-set (conspiracy mentality) indeed exhibit markedly different reactions to cues of epistemic authoritativeness than those who do not: Whereas the perceived credibility of powerful sources decreased with the recipients' conspiracy mentality, that of powerless sources increased independent of and incremental to other biases, such as the need to see the ingroup in particularly positive light...
April 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Jane Cockle-Hearne, Deborah Barnett, James Hicks, Mhairi Simpson, Isabel White, Sara Faithfull
BACKGROUND: Distress after prostate cancer treatment is a substantial burden for up to one-third of men diagnosed. Physical and emotional symptoms and health service use can intensify, yet men are reticent to accept support. To provide accessible support that can be cost effectively integrated into care pathways, we developed a unique, Web-based, self-guided, cognitive-behavior program incorporating filmed and interactive peer support. OBJECTIVE: To assess feasibility of the intervention among men experiencing distress after prostate cancer treatment...
April 30, 2018: JMIR Cancer
Tsuyoshi Okuhara, Hirono Ishikawa, Masafumi Okada, Mio Kato, Takahiro Kiuchi
Background: The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination percentage among age-eligible girls in Japan is only in the single digits. This signals the need for effective vaccine communication tactics. This study aimed to examine the influence of statistical data and narrative HPV vaccination recommendation massages on recipients' vaccination intentions. Methods: This randomized controlled study covered 1,432 mothers who had daughters aged 12-16 years. It compared message persuasiveness among four conditions: statistical messages only; narrative messages of a patient who experienced cervical cancer, in addition to statistical messages; narrative messages of a mother whose daughter experienced cervical cancer, in addition to statistical messages; and a control...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Sonja Windhager, Fred L Bookstein, Hanna Mueller, Elke Zunner, Sylvia Kirchengast, Katrin Schaefer
Studies of human social perception become more persuasive when the behavior of raters can be separated from the variability of the stimuli they are rating. We prototype such a rigorous analysis for a set of five social ratings of faces varying by body fat percentage (BFP). 274 raters of both sexes in three age groups (adolescent, young adult, senior) rated five morphs of the same averaged facial image warped to the positions of 72 landmarks and semilandmarks predicted by linear regression on BFP at five different levels (the average, ±2 SD, ±5 SD)...
April 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
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