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Persuasion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933186/gender-effects-in-a-multischool-alcohol-media-literacy-study-with-preadolescents
#1
Chloe S Gordon, Steven J Howard, Lisa K Kervin, Sandra C Jones
OBJECTIVE: Alcohol media literacy (AML) programs have achieved positive results for alcohol prevention; however, gender may moderate program effectiveness. This study investigated gender differences for an Australian AML intervention. METHOD: Fifth and sixth graders ( N = 165), allocated to an intervention or wait-list control group, participated in an AML program. Student questionnaires were administered at three time points. RESULTS: The intervention resulted in significantly higher media deconstruction skills but did not lead to less preference for branded merchandise or greater understanding of persuasive intent, and these effects did not differ by gender...
September 1, 2017: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932388/appeal-to-fear-in-health-care-appropriate-or-inappropriate
#2
J Keith Simpson
AIM: This paper examines appeal to fear in general: its perceived positive aspects, its negative characteristics, its appropriate as well as its fallacious use. BACKGROUND: Appeal to fear is a commonly used marketing method that attempts to change behaviour by creating anxiety in those receiving a fearful message. It is regularly used in public health initiatives such as anti-smoking, anti-drunk driving campaigns as well as in hypertension awareness campaigns. Some chiropractors appear to use appeal to fear to promote subluxation awareness and thereby encourage the use of chiropractic treatment...
2017: Chiropractic & Manual Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931171/motivating-parent-support-for-physical-activity-the-role-of-framed-persuasive-messages
#3
Rebecca Bassett-Gunter, Rachael Stone, Jocelyn Jarvis, Amy Latimer-Cheung
Parent support for physical activity (PA) is a behavior unto itself that requires motivation. Persuasive messages may be one method for motivating parent support for their children's PA. Message framing is one strategy for optimizing the impact of messages. The current study examined the relative effectiveness of gain- versus loss-framed messages for encouraging parent support for children's PA. Regardless of message frame, parents had an increase in social cognitive antecedents (e.g. perceived behavioral control, intentions) and support for children's PA following message exposure...
October 1, 2017: Health Education Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931011/individual-versus-group-decision-making-jurors-reliance-on-central-and-peripheral-information-to-evaluate-expert-testimony
#4
Jessica M Salerno, Bette L Bottoms, Liana C Peter-Hagene
To investigate dual-process persuasion theories in the context of group decision making, we studied low and high need-for-cognition (NFC) participants within a mock trial study. Participants considered plaintiff and defense expert scientific testimony that varied in argument strength. All participants heard a cross-examination of the experts focusing on peripheral information (e.g., credentials) about the expert, but half were randomly assigned to also hear central information highlighting flaws in the expert's message (e...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926561/mechanisms-of-accelerated-liver-fibrosis-in-hiv-hcv-coinfection
#5
Theofilos Chrysanthidis, Georgia Loli, Simeon Metallidis, Georgios Germanidis
Although there is evidence that HCV progresses rapidly in HIV/HCV coinfected patients in comparison with HCV monoinfected, the HIV-, HCV- and host/genetic-related factors, as well as the exact mechanisms implicated in this process are not fully elucidated. Furthermore, cure of HCV in those coinfected seems possible with the new antiviral drugs, but high cost as well as insufficient identification, linkage with care and treatment hamper the achievement of this goal. Research on the subject, could reveal an important prognostic marker for the effectiveness of persuasion of patients with HIV/HCV coinfection with a predicted accelerated fibrosis course, in order to facilitate and prioritize, not in terms of guidelines but in the real life situation, their treatment with a medically just framework...
September 19, 2017: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919639/using-a-narrative-to-spark-safer-sex-communication
#6
Lennie Donné, John Hoeks, Carel Jansen
OBJECTIVE: College students are a group at risk for contracting sexually transmitted infections (STIs). While they are generally well informed about STIs, they do not consistently use condoms. An important element in preventing STIs is safer sex communication, especially with a sexual partner. This may be difficult, however, because of a lack of experience in talking about safer sex or because of the absence of suitable role models. In this study, a narrative intervention was tested that was developed to provide receivers with a social script for safer sex communication...
October 2017: Health Education Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905329/kant-s-formula-of-humanity-and-assisted-reproductive-technology-a-case-for-duties-to-future-children
#7
Tatiana Patrone
The paper asks the question whether Kant's ethical theory can be applied to issues in assisted reproductive technology (ART). It argues against three objections to applying Kant's ethics to ART: (i) the non-identity objection, (ii) the gen-ethics objection, and (iii) the care-ethics objection. After showing that neither of the three objections is sufficiently persuasive the paper proposes a reading of Kant's 'formula of humanity,' and especially its negative clause (i.e., the 'merely as means' clause), that can be of some guidance in ART...
September 13, 2017: Monash Bioethics Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903704/emotion-decoding-and-incidental-processing-fluency-as-antecedents-of-attitude-certainty
#8
John V Petrocelli, Melanie B Whitmire
Previous research demonstrates that attitude certainty influences the degree to which an attitude changes in response to persuasive appeals. In the current research, decoding emotions from facial expressions and incidental processing fluency, during attitude formation, are examined as antecedents of both attitude certainty and attitude change. In Experiment 1, participants who decoded anger or happiness during attitude formation expressed their greater attitude certainty, and showed more resistance to persuasion than participants who decoded sadness...
July 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903672/cognitive-and-interpersonal-features-of-intellectual-humility
#9
Mark R Leary, Kate J Diebels, Erin K Davisson, Katrina P Jongman-Sereno, Jennifer C Isherwood, Kaitlin T Raimi, Samantha A Deffler, Rick H Hoyle
Four studies examined intellectual humility-the degree to which people recognize that their beliefs might be wrong. Using a new Intellectual Humility (IH) Scale, Study 1 showed that intellectual humility was associated with variables related to openness, curiosity, tolerance of ambiguity, and low dogmatism. Study 2 revealed that participants high in intellectual humility were less certain that their beliefs about religion were correct and judged people less on the basis of their religious opinions. In Study 3, participants high in intellectual humility were less inclined to think that politicians who changed their attitudes were "flip-flopping," and Study 4 showed that people high in intellectual humility were more attuned to the strength of persuasive arguments than those who were low...
June 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902319/-performance-based-regulation-a-strategy-to-increase-breastfeeding-rates
#10
Fernanda Cobo-Armijo, Sofía Charvel, Mauricio Hernández-Ávila
The decreasing breastfeeding rate in México is of public health concern. In this paper we discus an innovative regulatory approach -Performance Based Regulation- and its application to improve breastfeeding rates. This approach, forces industry to take responsibility for the lack of breastfeeding and its consequences. Failure to comply with this targets results in financial penalties. Applying performance based regulation as a strategy to improve breastfeeding is feasible because: the breastmilk substitutes market is an oligopoly, hence it is easy to identify the contribution of each market participant; the regulation's target population is clearly defined; it has a clear regulatory standard which can be easily evaluated, and sanctions to infringement can be defined under objective parameters...
May 2017: Salud Pública de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893283/perceived-fussy-eating-in-australian-children-at-14%C3%A2-months-of-age-and-subsequent-use-of-maternal-feeding-practices-at-2%C3%A2-years
#11
Rebecca Byrne, Elena Jansen, Lynne Daniels
BACKGROUND: Concerns about fussy eating are common amongst parents of young children. However, studies of the long-term impact of fussy eating show mixed results with regard to adequacy of dietary intake and child growth. This may be in part because there is no accepted definition of fussy eating and studies measure the construct in different ways, commonly relying on parent perception. This longitudinal analysis explores maternal and child characteristics associated with maternal perception of her toddler as a fussy eater in early toddlerhood and subsequent use of feeding practices at 2 years...
September 11, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885727/does-benefit-justify-research-with-children
#12
Ariella Binik
The inclusion of children in research gives rise to a difficult ethical question: What justifies children's research participation and exposure to research risks when they cannot provide informed consent? This question arises out of the tension between the moral requirement to obtain a subject's informed consent for research participation, on the one hand, and the limited capacity of most children to provide informed consent, on the other. Most agree that children's participation in clinical research can be justified...
September 8, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884634/the-context-and-quality-of-evidence-used-by-tobacco-interests-to-oppose-anvisa-s-2012-regulations-in-brazil
#13
Raphael Lencucha, Clelio de Lima Pontes
Evidence is an important resource for policy makers. Alongside its practical utility, evidence is a persuasive strategic and rhetorical tool. This study scrutinises the information used by tobacco interests in opposition to Brazil's National Health Surveillance Agency's (ANVISA) 2012 regulations. We analysed one prominent document widely cited in the policy discourse, produced by Fundação Getulio Vargas (FGV) in 2010 when ANVISA initiated public consultations. The FGV document formed the basis of opposition to the regulations...
September 8, 2017: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870489/bisphenol-a-and-immunotoxic-potential-a-commentary
#14
Ian Kimber
Bisphenol A (BPA) is used in the manufacture of polycarbonate and epoxy resin plastics. There has been interest in the possibility that BPA has immunotoxic properties, and a variety of investigations have explored this. Among the approaches taken have been human observational and cross-sectional studies, investigations using experimental animals, and in vitro studies, some of which have been reviewed previously by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This commentary aims to provide a focused review of data regarding the ability of BPA to perturb the immune system, including the developing immune system, and to cause related adverse health effects...
September 1, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866535/blinded-with-science-or-informed-by-charts-a-replication-study
#15
Pierre Dragicevic, Yvonne Jansen
We provide a reappraisal of Tal and Wansink's study "Blinded with Science", where seemingly trivial charts were shown to increase belief in drug efficacy, presumably because charts are associated with science. Through a series of four replications conducted on two crowdsourcing platforms, we investigate an alternative explanation, namely, that the charts allowed participants to better assess the drug's efficacy. Considered together, our experiments suggest that the chart seems to have indeed promoted understanding, although the effect is likely very small...
August 29, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857962/women-s-awareness-of-and-responses-to-messages-about-breast-cancer-overdiagnosis-and-overtreatment-results-from-a-2016-national-survey
#16
Rebekah H Nagler, Erika Franklin Fowler, Sarah E Gollust
BACKGROUND: Scientists, clinicians, and other experts aim to maximize the benefits of cancer screening while minimizing its harms. Chief among these harms are overdiagnosis and overtreatment. Although available data suggest that patient awareness of these harms is low, we know little about how patients respond to information about these phenomena. OBJECTIVES: Using the case of breast cancer screening, this study assesses women's awareness of and reactions to statements about overdiagnosis and overtreatment...
August 28, 2017: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857850/interventions-to-improve-hand-hygiene-compliance-in-the-icu-a-systematic-review
#17
Sinéad Lydon, Michael Power, Jennifer McSharry, Molly Byrne, Caoimhe Madden, Janet Elaine Squires, Paul O'Connor
OBJECTIVES: To synthesize the literature describing interventions to improve hand hygiene in ICUs, to evaluate the quality of the extant research, and to outline the type, and efficacy, of interventions described. DATA SOURCES: Systematic searches were conducted in November 2016 using five electronic databases: Medline, CINAHL, PsycInfo, Embase, and Web of Science. Additionally, the reference lists of included studies and existing review papers were screened. STUDY SELECTION: English language, peer-reviewed studies that evaluated an intervention to improve hand hygiene in an adult ICU setting, and reported hand hygiene compliance rates collected via observation, were included...
August 28, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854820/associations-between-social-control-motivation-and-exercise-how-romantic-partners-influence-exercise-during-young-adulthood
#18
Tiffany L Berzins, Judith Gere, Scout M Kelly, John A Updegraff
This study investigated whether positive and negative romantic partner social control attempts (persuasion and pressure, respectively) were related to approach-avoidance motives and exercise among young adults ( N = 98), using daily reports. Daily persuasion was linked to higher daily approach motives. At the person level, persuasion was associated with higher approach and avoidance motives in addition to more frequent, longer exercise. Pressure was associated with higher daily relationship stress, which was associated with higher daily avoidance motives...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846124/self-efficacy-of-osteopathic-medical-students-in-a-rural-urban-underserved-pathway-program
#19
Sharon L Casapulla
Context: Self-efficacy has been shown to play a role in medical students' choice of practice location. More physicians are needed in rural and urban underserved communities. Ohio University Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine has a co-curricular training program in rural and urban underserved practice to address this shortage. Objective: To assess whether participation in the co-curricular program in rural and urban underserved practice affects self-efficacy related to rural and underserved urban practice...
September 1, 2017: Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843255/development-of-a-colorectal-cancer-screening-intervention-for-iranian-adults-appling-intervention-mapping
#20
Fereshteh Besharati, Akram Karimi-Shahanjarini, Seyed Mohammad Mehdi Hazavehei, Saeid Bashirian, Fahimeh Bagheri, Javad Faradmal
Background: While the incidence rate of the colorectal cancer (CRC) has been increasing over the last three decades in Iran, very limited interventions to increase CRC screening have been developed for Iranian population. The purpose of this study was to describe the use of Intervention Mapping (IM) for applying theory and evidence and considering local contexts to develop a CRC screening program among adults in Iran. Materials and Methods: From April 2014 to July 2016 following the IM process, six steps were formulated and implemented...
August 27, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
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