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Isabel Rossen, Mark J Hurlstone, Carmen Lawrence
Childhood vaccination is widely considered to be one of the most successful public health interventions. Yet, the effective delivery of vaccination depends upon public willingness to vaccinate. Recently, many countries have faced problems with vaccine hesitancy, where a growing number of parents perceive vaccination to be unsafe or unnecessary, leading some to delay or refuse vaccines for their children. Effective intervention strategies for countering this problem are currently sorely lacking, however. Here, we propose that this may be because existing strategies are grounded more in intuition than insights from psychology...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Jonas Geuens, Thijs Willem Swinnen, Rene Westhovens, Kurt de Vlam, Luc Geurts, Vero Vanden Abeele
BACKGROUND: Chronic arthritis (CA), an umbrella term for inflammatory rheumatic and other musculoskeletal diseases, is highly prevalent. Effective disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs for CA are available, with the exception of osteoarthritis, but require a long-term commitment of patients to comply with the medication regimen and management program as well as a tight follow-up by the treating physician and health professionals. Additionally, patients are advised to participate in physical exercise programs...
October 13, 2016: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Fang Yang, Joyce S Pang, Wendy J Y Cheng
This cross-sectional study examined the role of family members' use of persuasion versus pressure as distinct forms of social control by which family members attempt to encourage better diabetes management among older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The study also examined how self-efficacy might moderate the relationship between persuasion/pressure, psychological functioning, and self-care adherence. Participants were 96 men and 103 women with T2DM, with a mean age of 63.3 years. Regression results show that neither persuasion nor pressure was significantly related to self-care adherence, but persuasion and pressure were associated in complex ways with diabetes-related emotional distress and depressive symptoms for which significant interaction effects were found...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings
Sarah Bigi
The paper discusses the role of argumentative competencies for the achievement of patient engagement through communication in doctor-patient consultations. The achievement of patient engagement is being proposed by recent studies as a condition that can facilitate in particular patient adherence, which involves behavior change. One obstacle to behavior change that has been observed is reactance, i.e., resistance to persuasive messages when a threat to freedom is perceived. In the medical field, reactance theory has been mostly applied in the field of mental health, less frequently to understand non-adherence in general...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
James Price Dillard, Ruobing Li, Yan Huang
Drive theory may be seen as the first scientific theory of health and risk communication. However, its prediction of a curvilinear association between fear and persuasion is generally held to be incorrect. A close rereading of Hovland et al. reveals that within- and between-persons processes were conflated. Using a message that advocated obtaining a screening for colonoscopy, this study (N = 259) tested both forms of the inverted-U hypothesis. In the between-persons data, analyses revealed a linear effect that was consistent with earlier investigations...
October 11, 2016: Health Communication
J Mc Sharry, P J Murphy, M Byrne
BACKGROUND: Decreased sexual activity and sexual problems are common among people with cardiovascular disease, negatively impacting relationship satisfaction and quality of life. International guidelines recommend routine delivery of sexual counselling to cardiac patients. The Cardiac Health and Relationship Management and Sexuality (CHARMS) baseline study in Ireland found, similar to international findings, limited implementation of sexual counselling guidelines in practice. The aim of the current study was to develop the CHARMS multi-level intervention to increase delivery of sexual counselling by healthcare professionals...
October 10, 2016: Implementation Science: IS
Eva A van Reijmersdal, Marieke L Fransen, Guda van Noort, Suzanna J Opree, Lisa Vandeberg, Sanne Reusch, Floor van Lieshout, Sophie C Boerman
This article presents two studies examining the effects of disclosing online native advertising (i.e., sponsored content in blogs) on people's brand attitude and purchase intentions. To investigate the mechanisms underlying these effects, we integrated resistance theories with the persuasion knowledge model. We theorize that disclosures activate people's persuasion knowledge, which in turn evokes resistance strategies that people use to cope with the persuasion attempt made in the blog. We tested our predications with two experiments (N = 118 and N = 134)...
November 2016: American Behavioral Scientist
Jennifer A Heerwig
Despite the importance of individual contributors to financing federal candidates, past work has largely neglected this crucial financial constituency in favor of research on corporate and trade political action committees (PACs). By contrast, in this study I offer the first analysis of aggregate contributions from the population of individual contributors to House candidates. Using an original big dataset constructed from over fifteen million Federal Election Commission (FEC) disclosure records, I identify individual contributors (rather than contributions) and trace the variation in their strategies across types of House candidates...
November 2016: Social Science Research
James Colgrove
In recent years, vaccine refusal and associated declines in herd immunity have contributed to numerous outbreaks of infectious diseases, consumed public health resources, and provoked increasingly polarized debates between supporters and opponents of vaccines. Although the prominence of the..
October 6, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
Denise Harrison, Jodi Wilding, Amanda Bowman, Ann Fuller, Stuart G Nicholls, Catherine M Pound, Jessica Reszel, Margaret Sampson
BACKGROUND: Infant vaccinations are necessary for public health, but are painful, causing distress to the infant and caregivers. Breastfeeding and sucrose effectively reduce infants' pain during vaccinations, and these strategies are recommended in health care provider (HCP)-targeted education and vaccination pain guidelines. However studies show these strategies are infrequently used. YouTube is a popular medium to publicly share and watch videos, and many consumer posted YouTube videos show distressed infants being vaccinated with no pain treatment...
2016: PloS One
Teri L Malo, Melissa B Gilkey, Megan E Hall, Parth D Shah, Noel T Brewer
BACKGROUND: Physician communication about human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is a key determinant of uptake. To support physician communication, we sought to identify messages that would motivate HPV vaccination. METHODS: From 2014 to 2015, we surveyed national samples of parents of adolescents ages 11 to 17 (n = 1,504) and primary care physicians (n = 776). Parents read motivational messages, selected from nine longer messages developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and six brief messages developed by the study team...
October 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Lijiang Shen
The overwhelming majority of fear appeal research came from the between-individuals approach and yielded consistent evidence for a linear fear-persuasion relationship. A recent review suggested that the within-individuals approach might be more appropriate. Studies that measured fear at multiple time points have consistently revealed a curvilinear association between fear and persuasion predicted by the drive model. A Web-based experiment (N = 454) using tobacco warning labels was conducted to replicate the inverted-U shape curvilinear relationship between fear and persuasion, and to revisit the role of fear in fear appeal theories...
October 3, 2016: Health Communication
Shuo Zhou, Michael A Shapiro
This study explores the effects of habitual health risk behaviors and self-activation on resistance to narrative persuasion. In two experiments, heavier drinkers were more resistant to an anti-binge-drinking narrative public service announcement (PSA) in which a binge drinker suffers a negative outcome. Specifically, heavier drinkers were more likely to generate counterarguments, unrealism judgments, and negative evaluations about the message compared to lighter drinkers or nondrinkers. However, activating self-concept when processing the persuasive narrative reduced unrealism judgments and negative evaluations, particularly among heavier drinkers...
October 3, 2016: Health Communication
Kathryn Greene, Danielle Catona, Elvira Elek, Kate Magsamen-Conrad, Smita C Banerjee, Michael L Hecht
This article describes formative research (a pilot study, interviews, and focus groups) conducted as part of a feasibility test of 2 versions (Analysis vs. Planning) of a brief media literacy intervention titled Youth Message Development (YMD). The intervention targets high school student alcohol use with activities to understand persuasion strategies, increase counter-arguing, and then apply these new skills to ad analysis or a more engaging ad poster planning activity. Based on the theory of active involvement (Greene, 2013), the Planning curriculum is proposed to be more effective than the Analysis curriculum...
October 2016: Journal of Health Communication
Fatou Farima Bagayogo, Annick Lepage, Jean-Louis Denis, Lise Lamothe, Liette Lapointe, Isabelle Vedel
Purpose The purpose of this paper of inter-professional networks is to analyze the evolution of relationships between professional groups enacting new forms of collaboration to address clinical imperatives. Design/methodology/approach This paper uses a case study based on semi-structured interviews with physicians and nurses, document analysis and informal discussions. Findings This study documents how two inter-professional networks were developed through professional agency. The findings show that the means by which networks are developed influence the form of collaboration therein...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Health Organization and Management
Marcus A Mall, Mirjam Stahl, Simon Y Graeber, Olaf Sommerburg, Hans-Ulrich Kauczor, Mark O Wielpütz
Recent imaging studies using chest computed tomography (CT) in presymptomatic infants and young children with cystic fibrosis (CF) diagnosed by newborn screening presented compelling evidence of early onset and progression of structural lung damage in CF. These data argue persuasively that non-invasive outcome measures for early detection and sensitive monitoring of lung disease applicable in the clinical setting will be instrumental for further improvement of clinical care and the development of early intervention therapies that have the potential to prevent irreversible lung damage...
October 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
Selda Ulucanlar, Gary J Fooks, Anna B Gilmore
BACKGROUND: Tobacco industry interference has been identified as the greatest obstacle to the implementation of evidence-based measures to reduce tobacco use. Understanding and addressing industry interference in public health policy-making is therefore crucial. Existing conceptualisations of corporate political activity (CPA) are embedded in a business perspective and do not attend to CPA's social and public health costs; most have not drawn on the unique resource represented by internal tobacco industry documents...
September 2016: PLoS Medicine
Diana Yap Fui Sing, Yang Liang Boo, Roshalina Mukhlis, Pek Woon Chin, Fan Kee Hoo
BACKGROUNDS & OBJECTIVE: Antimicrobial resistance is an alarming public health threat that requires urgent global solution. Implementation of antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) is an essential practice element for healthcare institutions in gate-keeping judicious antimicrobial use. This study highlighted the development, first year experience, and result of the implementation of ASP utilizing persuasive and restrictive approaches in a Malaysian district hospital. METHODS: An observational study was conducted between January 2015 to December 2015 on implementation of ASP among hospitalized inpatients age 12 years old and above...
July 2016: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
Fang Liu, Hong-Mei Wang, Tiansheng Wang, Ya-Mei Zhang, Xi Zhu
BACKGROUND: Thymosin α1 (Tα1) as immunomodulatory treatment is supposed to be beneficial for the sepsis patients by regulating T cell subsets and inflammatory mediators. However, limited by the small sample size and the poor study design, the persuasive power of the single clinical studies is weak. This meta-analysis aimed to investigate the impact of Tα1 on the sepsis patients. METHODS: We searched for the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CBM, VIP, CNKI, WANFANG, Igaku Chuo Zasshi (ICHUSHI) and Korean literature databases reporting the effects of Tα1 on outcomes in sepsis patients...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Yuan Xia, Sameer Deshpande, Tiberius Bonates
BACKGROUND: Social marketing managers promote desired behaviors to the audience by tangibilizing them in the form of environmental opportunities in order to enhance benefits and reduce barriers. This study proposed "benchmarks" modified from those found in the past literature that would match important concepts of the social marketing framework and whose inclusion would ensure behavior change effectiveness as well as analyzed behavior change interventions on a "social marketing continuum" to assess whether the number of benchmarks and the role of specific benchmarks influence the effectiveness of physical activity promotion efforts...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
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