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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140500/the-persuasion-network-is-modulated-by-drug-use-risk-and-predicts-anti-drug-message-effectiveness
#1
Richard Huskey, J Michael Mangus, Benjamin O Turner, René Weber
While a persuasion network has been proposed, little is known about how network connections between brain regions contribute to attitude change. Two possible mechanisms have been advanced. One hypothesis predicts that attitude change results from increased connectivity between structures implicated in affective and executive processing in response to increases in argument strength. A second functional perspective suggests that highly arousing messages reduce connectivity between structures implicated in the encoding of sensory information, which disrupts message processing and thereby inhibits attitude change...
November 11, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133909/tactile-frequency-specific-high-gamma-activities-in-human-primary-and-secondary-somatosensory-cortices
#2
Seokyun Ryun, June Sic Kim, Hyeongrae Lee, Chun Kee Chung
Humans can easily detect vibrotactile stimuli up to several hundred hertz, but underlying large-scale neuronal processing mechanisms in the cortex are largely unknown. Here, we investigated the macroscopic neural correlates of various vibrotactile stimuli including artificial and naturalistic ones in human primary and secondary somatosensory cortices (S1 and S2, respectively) using electrocorticography (ECoG). We found that tactile frequency-specific high-gamma (HG, 50-140 Hz) activities are seen in both S1 and S2 with different temporal dynamics during vibration (>100 Hz)...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133409/psychological-targeting-as-an-effective-approach-to-digital-mass-persuasion
#3
S C Matz, M Kosinski, G Nave, D J Stillwell
People are exposed to persuasive communication across many different contexts: Governments, companies, and political parties use persuasive appeals to encourage people to eat healthier, purchase a particular product, or vote for a specific candidate. Laboratory studies show that such persuasive appeals are more effective in influencing behavior when they are tailored to individuals' unique psychological characteristics. However, the investigation of large-scale psychological persuasion in the real world has been hindered by the questionnaire-based nature of psychological assessment...
November 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132275/evidence-of-biased-advertising-in-the-case-of-social-egg-freezing
#4
Christopher Barbey
Oocyte cryopreservation, or 'egg freezing,' is the practice of preserving unfertilised oocytes for later fertilisation. This practice allows women to extend their reproductive years. In 2014, Facebook and Apple announced that they would subsidise their female employees' elective - or 'social' - use of egg freezing so that these women can more easily reconcile the demands of career and family life. This announcement engendered controversy and moral debate. Given that social egg freezing (SEF) is becoming more popular, ethical and empirical analyses are warranted...
November 2017: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132089/neural-effects-of-environmental-advertising-an-fmri-analysis-of-voice-age-and-temporal-framing
#5
Luis-Alberto Casado-Aranda, Myriam Martínez-Fiestas, Juan Sánchez-Fernández
Ecological information offered to society through advertising enhances awareness of environmental issues, encourages development of sustainable attitudes and intentions, and can even alter behavior. This paper, by means of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and self-reports, explores the underlying mechanisms of processing ecological messages. The study specifically examines brain and behavioral responses to persuasive ecological messages that differ in temporal framing and in the age of the voice pronouncing them...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129108/promoting-mental-health-resource-use-on-campus-by-trying-something-new
#6
Sara Champlin, Gwendelyn Nisbett
PURPOSE: To design and test a persuasive health promotion campaign that aligns with the qualities of trying something new for the first time. Given that a majority of students have not previously sought/considered professional mental health assistance before, the hypothesis tested in this study asked whether a campaign that takes this into account is effective with this audience. DESIGN: Participants viewed an online informational message (n = 84), information message plus first-time experience banner (n = 99), or 1 of 4 full campaigns, each depicting a student story and photo about a first-time experience (moving from home [n = 48], skydiving [n = 52], acting in a play [n = 48], and exercising with personal trainer [n = 48])...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128824/a-new-model-based-on-adiabatic-flame-temperature-for-evaluation-of-the-upper-flammable-limit-of-alkane-air-co2-mixtures
#7
Mingqiang Wu, Gequn Shu, Rui Chen, Hua Tian, Xueying Wang, Yue Wang
For security issue of alkane used in Organic Rankine Cycle, a new model to evaluate the upper flammability limits for mixtures of alkanes, carbon dioxide and air has been proposed in present study. The linear relationship was found at upper flammability limits between molar fraction of diluent in alkane-CO2 mixture and calculated adiabatic flame temperature. The prediction ability of the variable calculated adiabatic flame temperature model that incorporated the linear relationship above is greatly better than the models that adopted the fixed calculated adiabatic flame temperature at upper flammability limit...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121056/epidemic-spreading-in-multiplex-networks-influenced-by-opinion-exchanges-on-vaccination
#8
Lucila G Alvarez-Zuzek, Cristian E La Rocca, José R Iglesias, Lidia A Braunstein
Through years, the use of vaccines has always been a controversial issue. People in a society may have different opinions about how beneficial the vaccines are and as a consequence some of those individuals decide to vaccinate or not themselves and their relatives. This attitude in face of vaccines has clear consequences in the spread of diseases and their transformation in epidemics. Motivated by this scenario, we study, in a simultaneous way, the changes of opinions about vaccination together with the evolution of a disease...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112107/a-scoping-review-of-emergency-department-discharge-instructions-for-children-and-adolescents-with-mental-disorders
#9
Andrea L Murphy, Janet Curran, Amanda S Newton, Debbie Emberly, Cecilia McRae, Shannon MacPhee
BACKGROUND: Although most young people under the age of 25 years with mental health presentations to the emergency department (ED) are discharged home, several studies suggest discharge instructions are inadequate. We conducted a scoping review to characterize and map the literature, identify research gaps, and prioritize targeted areas for future reviews for ED discharge instructions for young people with mental disorders. METHODS: Our review was conducted in an iterative approach with 6 stages including identifying the research question, identifying relevant studies, study selection, data extraction, collaring and summarizing, and stakeholder engagement...
July 3, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101497/using-a-teaching-intervention-and-calibrated-peer-review%C3%A2-diagnostics-to-improve-visual-communication-skills
#10
Ann Saterbak, Anoosha Moturu, Tracy Volz
Rice University's bioengineering department incorporates written, oral, and visual communication instruction into its undergraduate curriculum to aid student learning and to prepare students to communicate their knowledge and discoveries precisely and persuasively. In a tissue culture lab course, we used a self- and peer-review tool called Calibrated Peer Review™ (CPR) to diagnose student learning gaps in visual communication skills on a poster assignment. We then designed an active learning intervention that required students to practice the visual communication skills that needed improvement and used CPR to measure the changes...
November 3, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099239/physician-approaches-to-conflict-with-families-surrounding-end-of-life-decision-making-in-the-icu-a-qualitative-study
#11
Hashim M Mehter, Jessica B McCannon, Jack A Clark, Renda Soylemez Wiener
RATIONALE: Families of critically ill patients are often asked to make difficult decisions to pursue, withhold or withdraw aggressive care or resuscitative measures, exercising "substituted judgment" from the imagined standpoint of the patient. Conflict may arise between intensive care unit (ICU) physicians and family members regarding the optimal course of care. OBJECTIVES: To characterize how ICU physicians approach and manage conflict with surrogates regarding end-of-life decision-making...
November 3, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076203/evaluation-of-a-parent-targeted-video-in-portuguese-to-improve-pain-management-practices-in-neonates
#12
Mariana Bueno, Rebeca Nogueira Costa, Patrícia Ponce de Camargo, Taine Costa, Denise Harrison
AIMS: To assess parents' knowledge on breastfeeding, skin to skin care, and sweet solutions as neonatal analgesic strategies, and to evaluate parents' perception on the feasibility, acceptability, and usefulness of the Portuguese version of the 'Be Sweet to Babies' video. BACKGROUND: Neonatal pain management during blood sampling is suboptimal and knowledge translation strategies are needed to improve clinical practices. The 'Be Sweet to Babies' video is a parent-targeted knowledge translation tool that shows the effectiveness of breastfeeding, skin to skin contact, and sweet solutions for procedural pain relief...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075779/reconstruction-the-final-dimension-in-head-and-neck-surgery-the-2017-hayes-martin-lecture
#13
Mark K Wax
The Hayes Martin lecture is dedicated to a giant who was essential to developing the surgical management of patients with head and neck cancer. Since that time, advents in anesthesia, intensive care, and improved diagnostic abilities have improved our ability to surgically manage and treat head and neck cancer. The original paradigm of resection, reconstruction, and rehabilitation was formulated as we endeavored to develop paradigms of treatment for our patients. We have maximized our resective and reconstructive abilities...
October 26, 2017: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074330/motor-dysfunction-as-an-intermediate-phenotype-across-schizophrenia-and-other-psychotic-disorders-progress-and-perspectives
#14
Dusan Hirjak, Katharina M Kubera, Philipp A Thomann, Robert C Wolf
Primary motor abnormalities (PMA), as found in patients with schizophrenia, are quantitatively and qualitatively distinct markers of motor system abnormalities. PMA have been often referred to phenomena that are present across schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. A dysfunction of frontoparietal and subcortical networks has been proposed as core pathophysiological mechanism underlying the expression of PMA. However, it is unclear at present if such mechanisms are a common within schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders...
October 23, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065333/validated-spectroscopic-methods-for-determination-of-anti-histaminic-drug-azelastine-in-pure-form-analytical-application-for-quality-control-of-its-pharmaceutical-preparations
#15
Amal A El-Masry, Mohammed E A Hammouda, Dalia R El-Wasseef, Saadia M El-Ashry
Two simple, sensitive, rapid, validated and cost effective spectroscopic methods were established for quantification of antihistaminic drug azelastine (AZL) in bulk powder as well as in pharmaceutical dosage forms. In the first method (A) the absorbance difference between acidic and basic solutions was measured at 228nm, whereas in the second investigated method (B) the binary complex formed between AZL and Eosin Y in acetate buffer solution (pH3) was measured at 550nm. Different criteria that have critical influence on the intensity of absorption were deeply studied and optimized so as to achieve the highest absorption...
October 18, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063881/antimicrobial-prescribing-patterns-of-surgical-speciality-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-india-role-of-persuasive-intervention-for-changing-antibiotic-prescription-behaviour
#16
Chand Wattal, Shilpi Khanna, Neeraj Goel, Jaswinder Kaur Oberoi, B K Rao
BACKGROUND: Inappropriate use of antibiotics globally has been linked to increase in antibiotic resistance. OBJECTIVES: This interventional study assessed the impact of antibiotic prescription feedback and focus group discussions (FGD) on hospital-based prescribers before and after the FGD. STUDY DESIGN: The present study was performed at a tertiary care centre in New Delhi, wherein 45 units from surgical specialities were included for FGD...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060005/rich-context-information-for-just-in-time-adaptive-intervention-promoting-physical-activity
#17
F Cruciani, C Nugent, I Cleland, P McCullagh
Sedentary lifestyle and inadequate levels of physical activity represent two serious health risk factors. Nevertheless, within developed countries, 60% of people aged over 60 are deemed to be sedentary. Consequently, interest in behavior change to promote physical activity is increasing. In particular, the role of emerging mobile apps to facilitate behavior change has shown promising results. Smart technologies can help in providing rich context information including an objective assessment of the level of physical activity and information on the emotional and physiological state of the person...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056518/shaping-children-s-healthy-eating-habits-with-food-placements-food-placements-of-high-and-low-nutritional-value-in-cartoons-children-s-bmi-food-related-parental-mediation-strategies-and-food-choice
#18
Brigitte Naderer, Jörg Matthes, Alice Binder, Franziska Marquart, Mira Mayrhofer, Agnes Obereder, Ines Spielvogel
Research on media induced food choices of children has not sufficiently investigated whether food placements of snacks high in nutritional value can strengthen children's healthy eating behavior. Furthermore, we lack knowledge about the moderating role of children's individual characteristics such as parental food-related mediation or BMI. The current study combines data from an experiment involving children with a survey of their parents. We exposed children to a cartoon either containing no food placements, placements of mandarins (i...
January 1, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047319/hedge-fund-managers-with-psychopathic-tendencies-make-for-worse-investors
#19
Leanne Ten Brinke, Aimee Kish, Dacher Keltner
It is widely assumed that psychopathic personality traits promote success in high-powered, competitive contexts such as financial investment. By contrast, empirical studies find that psychopathic leaders can be charming and persuasive, but poor performers who mismanage, bully, and engage in unethical behavior. By coding nonverbal behaviors displayed in semistructured interviews, we identified the psychopathic, Machiavellian, and narcissistic tendencies in 101 hedge fund managers, and examined whether these traits were associated with financial performance over the course of 10 diverse years of economic volatility (2005-2015)...
October 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046228/should-we-perform-in-utero-mri-on-a-fetus-at-increased-risk-of-a-brain-abnormality-if-ultrasonography-is-normal-or-shows-non-specific-findings
#20
REVIEW
P D Griffiths, C Mooney, M Bradburn, D Jarvis
There are a number of reasons why a pregnant woman might be considered to have an increased risk of carrying a fetus with a brain abnormality, but they fall broadly into two groups. First, there may be a relevant family history usually, but not always, when a fetus/child from a previous pregnancy has a developmental brain abnormality and a clinical geneticist judges that there is a risk of recurrence. Second, there may be findings in their current pregnancy that increases the risk of the fetus either having a developmental brain abnormality or accruing acquired brain pathology...
October 15, 2017: Clinical Radiology
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