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Persuasion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319468/what-determines-drivers-speed-a-replication-of-three-behavioural-adaptation-experiments-in-a-single-driving-simulator-study
#1
Timo Melman, David A Abbink, Marinus M van Paassen, Erwin R Boer, Joost C F de Winter
We conceptually replicated three highly cited experiments on speed adaptation, by measuring drivers' experienced risk (galvanic skin response; GSR), experienced task difficulty (self-reported task effort; SRTE), and safety margins (time-to-line-crossing; TLC) in a single experiment. The three measures were compared using a nonparametric index that captures the criteria of constancy during self-paced driving and sensitivity during forced-paced driving. In a driving simulator, 24 participants completed two forced-paced and one self-paced run...
January 10, 2018: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315400/the-potential-of-a-human-rights-approach-for-accelerating-the-implementation-of-comprehensive-restrictions-on-the-marketing-of-unhealthy-foods-and-non-alcoholic-beverages-to-children
#2
Sabrina Ionata Granheim, Stefanie Vandevijvere, Liv Elin Torheim
Overweight and obesity in children is rising at the global level, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Among the causes for this increase is the marketing of unhealthy food and beverage products, which affects children's food preferences, purchasing requests and consumption patterns. The need to address harmful marketing to children has been recognized at the World Health Organization, with Member States having agreed in 2010 to implement a set of recommendations to restrict such practices. Concurrently, there is an increasing understanding of unhealthy food and malnutrition as human rights concerns...
January 5, 2018: Health Promotion International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313717/uplifting-fear-appeals-considering-the-role-of-hope-in-fear-based-persuasive-messages
#3
Robin L Nabi, Jessica Gall Myrick
Fear appeal research has focused, understandably, on fear as the primary emotion motivating attitude and behavior change. However, while the threat component of fear appeals associates with fear responses, a fear appeals' efficacy component likely associates with a different emotional experience: hope. Drawing from appraisal theories of emotion in particular, this article theorizes about the role of hope in fear appeals, testing hypotheses with two existing data sets collected within the context of sun safety messages...
January 9, 2018: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291101/competing-opinion-diffusion-on-social-networks
#4
Haibo Hu
Opinion competition is a common phenomenon in real life, such as with opinions on controversial issues or political candidates; however, modelling this competition remains largely unexplored. To bridge this gap, we propose a model of competing opinion diffusion on social networks taking into account degree-dependent fitness or persuasiveness. We study the combined influence of social networks, individual fitnesses and attributes, as well as mass media on people's opinions, and find that both social networks and mass media act as amplifiers in opinion diffusion, the amplifying effect of which can be quantitatively characterized...
November 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286820/recognizing-axionic-dark-matter-by-compton-and-de-broglie-scale-modulation-of-pulsar-timing
#5
Ivan De Martino, Tom Broadhurst, S-H Henry Tye, Tzihong Chiueh, Hsi-Yu Schive, Ruth Lazkoz
Light axionic dark matter, motivated by string theory, is increasingly favored for the "no weakly interacting massive particle era". Galaxy formation is suppressed below a Jeans scale of ≃10^{8}  M_{⊙} by setting the axion mass to m_{B}∼10^{-22}  eV, and the large dark cores of dwarf galaxies are explained as solitons on the de Broglie scale. This is persuasive, but detection of the inherent scalar field oscillation at the Compton frequency ω_{B}=(2.5  months)^{-1}(m_{B}/10^{-22}  eV) would be definitive...
December 1, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282031/competing-with-big-business-a-randomised-experiment-testing-the-effects-of-messages-to-promote-alcohol-and-sugary-drink-control-policy
#6
Maree Scully, Emily Brennan, Sarah Durkin, Helen Dixon, Melanie Wakefield, Colleen L Barry, Jeff Niederdeppe
BACKGROUND: Evidence-based policies encouraging healthy behaviours are often strongly opposed by well-funded industry groups. As public support is crucial for policy change, public health advocates need to be equipped with strategies to offset the impact of anti-policy messages. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effectiveness of theory-based public health advocacy messages in generating public support for sugary drink/alcohol policies (increased taxes; sport sponsorship bans) and improving resistance to subsequent anti-policy messages typical of the sugary drink/alcohol industry...
December 28, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280752/medical-graduates-truthful-and-useful-analytics-with-big-data-and-the-art-of-persuasion
#7
Des Gorman, T Michael Kashner
The authors propose that the provision of state-of-the-art, effective, safe, and affordable health care requires medical school graduates not only to be competent practitioners and scientists, but also to be policy makers and professional leaders. To meet this challenge in the era of big data and cloud computing, these graduates must be able to understand and critically interpret analyses of large, observational datasets from electronic health records, third party claims files, surveys, and epidemiologic health datasets...
December 26, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276703/a-framework-for-integrating-qualitative-and-quantitative-data-in-knowledge-attitude-and-practice-studies-a-case-study-of-pesticide-usage-in-eastern-uganda
#8
James Muleme, Clovice Kankya, John C Ssempebwa, Stella Mazeri, Adrian Muwonge
Knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) studies guide the implementation of public health interventions (PHIs), and they are important tools for political persuasion. The design and implementation of PHIs assumes a linear KAP relationship, i.e., an awareness campaign results in the desirable societal behavioral change. However, there is no robust framework for testing this relationship before and after PHIs. Here, we use qualitative and quantitative data on pesticide usage to test this linear relationship, identify associated context specific factors as well as assemble a framework that could be used to guide and evaluate PHIs...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276232/storybridging-four-steps-for-constructing-effective-health-narratives
#9
Anniek Boeijinga, Hans Hoeken, José Sanders
Objective: To develop a practical step-by-step approach to constructing narrative health interventions in response to the mixed results and wide diversity of narratives used in health-related narrative persuasion research. Method: Development work was guided by essential narrative characteristics as well as principles enshrined in the Health Action Process Approach. Results: The 'storybridging' method for constructing health narratives is described as consisting of four concrete steps: (a) identifying the stage of change, (b) identifying the key elements, (c) building the story, and (d) pre-testing the story...
December 2017: Health Education Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258974/partners-in-parenting-a-multi-level-web-based-approach-to-support-parents-in-prevention-and-early-intervention-for-adolescent-depression-and-anxiety
#10
Marie Bh Yap, Katherine A Lawrence, Ronald M Rapee, Mairead C Cardamone-Breen, Jacqueline Green, Anthony F Jorm
Depression and anxiety disorders in young people are a global health concern. Various risk and protective factors for these disorders are potentially modifiable by parents, underscoring the important role parents play in reducing the risk and impact of these disorders in their adolescent children. However, cost-effective, evidence-based interventions for parents that can be widely disseminated are lacking. In this paper, we propose a multi-level public health approach involving a Web-based parenting intervention, Partners in Parenting (PIP)...
December 19, 2017: JMIR Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258356/grave-fraudulence-in-medical-device-research-a-narrative-review-of-the-pin-seeding-study-for-the-pinnacle-hip-system
#11
Joan E Steffen, Ella A Fassler, Kevin J Reardon, David S Egilman
In 2001, DePuy, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Johnson & Johnson (J&J/DePuy), initiated a seeding study called the "Multi-center, Prospective, Clinical Evaluation of Pinnacle Acetabular Implants in Total Hip Arthroplasty" (PIN Study). J&J/DePuy designed this study to develop new business opportunities during the launch of their Pinnacle Hip System (PHS) and generate survivorship data for marketing. This article, the first review of a seeding trial for a medical device, examines internal company documents relating to the PIN Study; the analysis herein focuses on the integrity of J&J/DePuy's research practices in conception, implementation, and analysis...
2018: Accountability in Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247831/persuasion-strategies-and-sexual-solicitations-and-interactions-in-online-sexual-grooming-of-adolescents-modeling-direct-and-indirect-pathways
#12
Manuel Gámez-Guadix, Carmen Almendros, Esther Calvete, Patricia De Santisteban
Online sexual grooming and exploitation of adolescents is receiving increasing social attention. Drawing on a social influence framework, the aim of this study was to test a model of the direct and mediated relationships between an adult's use of persuasion strategies and online sexual grooming of early adolescents. The initial sample of the study consisted of 2731 early Spanish adolescents between 12 and 15 years old (50.6% female). Of these, 196 adolescents (7.17% of the total; 53% girls) were involved in online grooming (mean age = 14...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244200/from-hohensch%C3%A3-nhausen-to-guantanamo-bay-psychology-s-role-in-the-secret-services-of-the-gdr-and-the-united-states
#13
Moritz Michels, Martin Wieser
This paper presents a historical analysis of the genesis, context, and function of "Operative Psychology," a little-known branch of applied psychology developed by employees of the Ministry of State Security in the German Democratic Republic. For 25 years, theories and practices of Operative Psychology were taught to elite agents at the Juridical Academy in Potsdam, introducing them to various "silent" psychological techniques of persuasion, interrogation, and repression. After highlighting the economic and political context that increased the need for "silent" techniques of observation and repression, an overview of the topics that were taught and researched at the chair for Operative Psychology is given...
December 15, 2017: Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235680/the-storied-analyst-desire-and-persuasion-in-the-clinical-vignette
#14
Dhipthi Mulligan
Beginning with the quintessentially psychoanalytic tales of Freud, the case history has held a privileged position in the history and practice of psychoanalysis. Psychoanalysts grow up with, grow into, and grow out of these narratives as clinical practitioners. Alongside the representational aspects of these case histories, there is a rhetorical or persuasive force that significantly influences us. The author contends that the theory of narrative and rhetoric can inform the how, the why, and the "so what?" of our relationship to these stories of psychoanalysis...
October 2017: Psychoanalytic Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230905/muscle-control-and-non-specific-chronic-low-back-pain
#15
REVIEW
Marc Russo, Kristiaan Deckers, Sam Eldabe, Kyle Kiesel, Chris Gilligan, John Vieceli, Peter Crosby
OBJECTIVES: Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is the most prevalent of the painful musculoskeletal conditions. CLBP is a heterogeneous condition with many causes and diagnoses, but there are few established therapies with strong evidence of effectiveness (or cost effectiveness). CLBP for which it is not possible to identify any specific cause is often referred to as non-specific chronic LBP (NSCLBP). One type of NSCLBP is continuing and recurrent primarily nociceptive CLBP due to vertebral joint overload subsequent to functional instability of the lumbar spine...
December 12, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230510/manfred-eigen-the-realization-of-his-vision-of-biophysical-chemistry
#16
REVIEW
Herbert Jäckle, Carmen Rotte, Peter Gruss
Manfred Eigen turned 90 on May 9th, 2017. He celebrated with a small group of colleagues and friends on behalf of the many inspired by him over his lifetime-whether scientists, artists, or philosophers. A small group of friends, because many-who by their breakthroughs have changed the face of science in different research areas-have already died. But it was a special day, devoted to the many genius facets of Manfred Eigen's oeuvre, and a day to highlight the way in which he continues to exude a great, vital and unbroken passion for science as well as an insatiable curiosity beyond his own scientific interests...
December 11, 2017: European Biophysics Journal: EBJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225946/did-the-right-to-health-get-across-the-line-examining-the-united-nations-resolution-on-the-sustainable-development-goals
#17
REVIEW
Claire E Brolan, Vannarath Te, Nadia Floden, Peter S Hill, Lisa Forman
Since the new global health and development goal, Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 3, and its nine targets and four means of implementation were introduced to the world through a United Nations (UN) General Assembly resolution in September 2015, right to health practitioners have queried whether this goal mirrors the content of the human right to health in international law. This study examines the text of the UN SDG resolution, Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, from a right to health minimalist and right to health maximalist analytic perspective...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214955/compulsory-organ-retrieval-morally-but-not-socially-justified
#18
Philip M Rosoff
The number of patients with organ failure who could potentially benefit from transplantation continues to exceed the available supply of organs. Despite numerous efforts to increase the number of donors, there remains an enormous mismatch between demand and supply. Large numbers of people still die with potentially transplantable organs remaining in situ, most frequently as a result of family objections. I argue that there are no persuasive moral arguments against mandated organ retrieval from all dead individuals who meet clinical criteria...
January 2018: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214815/using-the-theory-of-planned-behavior-to-guide-focus-group-development-of-messages-aimed-at-increasing-compliance-with-a-tobacco-free-policy
#19
Rachael A Record, Nancy G Harrington, Donald W Helme, Matthew W Savage
PURPOSE: This study details the persuasive message development for a theory-based campaign designed to increase compliance with a university's tobacco-free policy. APPROACH: The theory of planned behavior (TPB) guided message design and evaluation for focus group-tested messages that were adapted to the context of complying with a tobacco-free policy. SETTING: The study was conducted at a university located in the tobacco belt. PARTICIPANTS: Undergraduate focus group participants (n = 65) were mostly male (69%), white (82%), and freshman (62%) who smoked at least 1 cigarette in the last 30 days; on-campus smoking percentages were never/rare (60%), occasionally (23%), and often/frequently (16%)...
January 2018: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196175/anti-tubercular-and-probiotic-properties-of-coagulase-negative-staphylococci-isolated-from-koozh-a-traditional-fermented-food-of-south-india
#20
Ameer Khusro, Chirom Aarti, Azger Dusthackeer, Paul Agastian
In the last few years, the demand for the tremendous therapeutic applications of indigenous probiotic bacteria from diversified fermented food products has surged. In view of this, the present study was documented to evaluate the anti-tubercular and probiotic properties of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) indigenous to Koozh, a traditional fermented food product of South India. A total of 18 isolates were purified from Koozh, and tested for anti-tubercular activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv using luciferase reporter phage (LRP) assay...
November 28, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
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