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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535254/invited-commentary-cassel-s-the-contribution-of-the-social-environment-to-host-resistance-a-modern-classic
#1
Sherman A James
John Cassel's 1976 paper "The Contribution of the Social Environment to Host Resistance" (Am J Epidemiol. 1976;104(2):107-123) is widely regarded as a classic in epidemiology. He makes the compelling argument that the quality of a person's social relationships, that is, the degree to which her relationships are more stressful than supportive (or vice versa) influences her susceptibility to disease independent of genetic endowment, diet, physical activity, etc. Cassel's provocative thesis was anchored in a cogent synthesis of findings from animal experiments and observational studies on diverse human populations...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529298/an-aspect-of-the-history-of-medicine-in-ancient-korea-as-examined-through-silla-buddhist-monks-annotations-on-the-chapter-on-eliminating-disease-in-the-sutra-of-golden-light-suvarnabh%C3%A4-sa-s%C3%A5-tra
#2
Chaekun Oh, Jongwook Jeon, Dongwon Shin
Nearly nothing is known of medicine in ancient Korea due to insufficient materials. With several extant prescriptions and esoteric methods of treating diseases alone, it is impossible to gauge in depth the management of medicine during this period. If one exception were to be cited, that would be the fact that the annotations for understanding the contents on Indian medicine in the "Chapter on Eliminating Disease" in the Sutra of Golden Light, a Buddhist sutra originating from India, reflected the medical knowledge of Buddhist monks from Silla (57 BC-935 AD) who were active immediately after the nation's unification of the two other kingdoms on the Korean Peninsula (668 AD) such as Wonhyo (617-686 AD), Gyeongheung (620?-700? AD), and Seungjang (684-? AD)...
December 2016: Ŭi Sahak
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525310/determinants-of-adherence-to-the-online-component-of-a-blended-intervention-for-patients-with-hip-and-or-knee-osteoarthritis-a-mixed-methods-study-embedded-in-the-e-exercise-trial
#3
Herman J de Vries, Corelien J J Kloek, Dinny H de Bakker, Joost Dekker, Daniël Bossen, Cindy Veenhof
BACKGROUND: Embedding Web-based interventions within physiotherapy has potential, but knowledge on patient adherence to these interventions is limited. INTRODUCTION: This study explores which patient-, intervention-, and environment-related factors are determinants of adherence to the online component of e-Exercise, a 12-week blended intervention for patients with hip and/or knee osteoarthritis. METHODS: A convergent mixed methods study was performed, embedded within an ongoing trial...
May 19, 2017: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523941/lifestyle-as-medicine-the-case-for-a-true-health-initiative
#4
David L Katz, Elizabeth P Frates, Jonathan P Bonnet, Sanjay K Gupta, Erkki Vartiainen, Richard H Carmona
The power of lifestyle as medicine was perceived thousands of years ago. There is now consistent and compelling science to support the important influence of lifestyle on health. Approximately 80% of chronic disease and premature death could be prevented by not smoking, being physically active, and adhering to a healthful dietary pattern. Cardiovascular disease, diabetes, stroke, dementia, and cancer are all influenced by lifestyle choices. Despite the ample evidence about what behaviors promote health, confusion still prevails among the general population...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517982/data-sharing-and-the-idea-of-ownership
#5
Jonathan Montgomery
Ideas about ownership are sometimes used in discussions of data sharing in personalised medicine. Personal health data are thought by many to be 'theirs'. Paradoxically, personalised medicine (at least in the context of genomics) relies on the aggregation of private data into a dataset that is held as a form of knowledge commons. When the notions of private and common property that lie behind this discourse are made explicit we can use thinking about the justifications and jurisprudence of property both to clarify the persuasiveness and limits of such claims, and also how they differ from other principles that are at stake in the interplay between individual and collective goods in the delivery of personalised medicine...
April 2017: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509683/conjunctival-squamous-cell-neoplasia-associated-with-ocular-cicatricial-pemphigoid
#6
Catherine J Choi, Frederick A Jakobiec, Fouad R Zakka, C Stephen Foster, James Chodosh, Suzanne K Freitag
The purpose of this study was to describe a possible causal relationship between ocular cicatricial pemphigoid (OCP) and ocular surface squamous neoplasia. Two middle-aged female patients with already diagnosed OCP were studied in regard to the subsequent onset of conjunctival squamous neoplasia. Their clinical histories, ocular examinations, clinical photographs, and results of biopsies and any ancillary immunofluorescent laboratory evaluation studies were carefully reviewed. One patient had a preinvasive squamous dysplasia and the other an invasive squamous cell carcinoma, both in the unequivocal setting of OCP with bilateral conjunctivitis, symblephara, and forniceal foreshortening...
May 15, 2017: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503914/product-selectivity-controlled-by-steric-adsorption-in-zeolite-micropores-over-a-pd-zeolite-catalyzed-hydrogenation-of-nitroarene
#7
Jian Zhang, Liang Wang, Yi Shao, Yanqin Wang, Bruce Gates, Feng-Shou Xiao
This work delineates the persuasive example for controlling the steric adsorption of molecules on metal nanoparticles by zeolite crystals, thus enhancing the selectivity in hydrogenation of reactants with more than one reducible group. Key to this success is by fixing Pd nanoparticle inside of Beta zeolite crystals to form a fixed structure (Pd@Beta). In hydrogenation of substituted nitroarenes with multiple reducible groups as model reaction, the Pd@Beta exhibits superior selectivity for the hydrogenation of the nitro group, outperforming both conventional Pd nanoparticles supported on zeolite crystals and a commercial Pd/C catalyst...
May 14, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500558/natural-peer-leaders-as-substance-use-prevention-agents-the-teens-life-choice-project
#8
Megan M Golonka, Kristen F Peairs, Patrick S Malone, Christina L Grimes, Philip R Costanzo
In adolescent social groups, natural peer leaders have been found to engage in more frequent experimentation with substance use and to possess disproportionate power to affect the behavior and social choices of their associated peer followers. In the current exploratory study, we used sociometrics and social cognitive mapping to identify natural leaders of cliques in a seventh grade population and invited the leaders to develop anti-drug presentations for an audience of younger peers. The program employed social-psychological approaches directed at having leaders proceed from extrinsic inducements to intrinsic identification with their persuasive products in the context of the group intervention process...
May 12, 2017: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500250/characterization-of-nmb-grp-and-their-receptors-brs3-nmbr-and-grpr-in-chickens
#9
Chunheng Mo, Long Huang, Lin Cui, Can Lv, Dongliang Lin, Liang Song, Guoqiang Zhu, Juan Li, Yajun Wang
The two structurally and functionally related peptides, gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and neuromedin B (NMB) play critical roles in many physiological/pathological processes in mammals. However, the information regarding the expression and functionality of avian NMB, GRP, and their receptors is limited. Here, we characterized cNMB, cGRP and their receptors (cNMBR, cGRPR, cBRS3) in chickens. Our results showed that: 1) cNMBR and cGRPR expressed in CHO cells could be potently activated by cNMB and cGRP respectively, as monitored by cell-based luciferase reporter assays, indicating that cNMBR and cGRPR are cNMB- and cGRP-specific receptors; Strikingly, BRS3 of chickens (/spotted gars), which is orthologous to mouse bombesin receptor subtype-3 (BRS3), could be potently activated by GRP and NMB, demonstrating that both peptides are the endogenous ligands for chicken(/spotted gar) BRS3; 2) Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that cGRPR is widely expressed in chicken tissues with abundant expression in the ovary, pancreas, proventriculus, spinal cord and brain, whereas cNMB, cNMBR and cBRS3 are mainly expressed in the brain and testes; 3) Interestingly, qPCR, Western blot, and immuno-staining revealed that cGRP is predominantly expressed in the anterior pituitary and mainly localized to LH-cells, suggesting that cGRP is likely a novel pituitary hormone in chickens...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498920/copy-number-variation-of-functional-rbmy1-is-associated-with-sperm-motility-an-azoospermia-factor-linked-candidate-for-asthenozoospermia
#10
Yuanlong Yan, Xiling Yang, Yunqiang Liu, Ying Shen, Wenling Tu, Qiang Dong, Dong Yang, Yongyi Ma, Yuan Yang
STUDY QUESTION: What is the influence of copy number variation (CNV) in functional RNA binding motif protein Y-linked family 1 (RBMY1) on spermatogenic phenotypes? SUMMARY ANSWER: The RBMY1 functional copy dosage is positively correlated with sperm motility, and dosage insufficiency is an independent risk factor for asthenozoospermia. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: RBMY1, a multi-copy gene expressed exclusively in the adult testis, is one of the most important candidates for male infertility in the azoospermia factor (AZF) region of the Y-chromosome...
May 12, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491046/-the-more-we-stand-for-the-more-we-fight-for-compatibility-and-legitimacy-in-the-effects-of-multiple-social-identities
#11
Maria Chayinska, Anca Minescu, Craig McGarty
This paper explores the expression of multiple social identities through coordinated collective action. We propose that perceived compatibility between potentially contrasting identities and perceived legitimacy of protest serve as catalysts for collective action. The present paper maps the context of the "Euromaidan" anti-regime protests in Ukraine and reports data (N = 996) collected through an online survey following legislation to ban protests (March-May, 2014). We measured participants' identification with three different groups (the Ukrainian nation, the online protest community, and the street movement), perception of compatibility between online protest and the street movement, perception of the legitimacy of protest, and intentions to take persuasive and confrontational collective action...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485886/false-confessions
#12
REVIEW
Saul M Kassin
As illustrated by numerous cases in recent years, DNA exonerations of innocent individuals have cast a spotlight on the counterintuitive problem of false confessions. Studying the underlying psychology scientists have found that (1) innocent people are often targeted for interrogation because police make erroneous but confident judgments of deception; (2) certain interrogation techniques-namely, lengthy sessions, presentations of false evidence, and minimization themes that imply leniency-increase the risk that innocent people will confess; (3) certain individuals are particularly vulnerable to influence-notably, those with mental health problems or intellectual impairments, which render them overly compliant or suggestible, and children and adolescents, who exhibit 'immaturity of judgment'; (4) confession evidence is highly persuasive in court as a matter of common sense, increasing perceptions of guilt, even among judges and juries who see the confession as coerced, and even at times when the confession is contradicted by exculpatory information; (5) Miranda rights to silence and to counsel are not sufficiently protective, so proposals for reform have centered on the mandatory recording of interrogations, from start to finish, and a shift toward using investigative interviewing-a less confrontational, less deceptive means of questioning suspects...
May 9, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452537/turbulent-kinetic-energy-in-the-energy-balance-of-a-solar-flare
#13
E P Kontar, J E Perez, L K Harra, A A Kuznetsov, A G Emslie, N L S Jeffrey, N H Bian, B R Dennis
The energy released in solar flares derives from a reconfiguration of magnetic fields to a lower energy state, and is manifested in several forms, including bulk kinetic energy of the coronal mass ejection, acceleration of electrons and ions, and enhanced thermal energy that is ultimately radiated away across the electromagnetic spectrum from optical to x rays. Using an unprecedented set of coordinated observations, from a suite of instruments, we here report on a hitherto largely overlooked energy component-the kinetic energy associated with small-scale turbulent mass motions...
April 14, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450593/the-science-of-persuasion
#14
Kai Kupferschmidt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 28, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446185/evidence-based-policymaking-is-not-like-evidence-based-medicine-so-how-far-should-you-go-to-bridge-the-divide-between-evidence-and-policy
#15
EDITORIAL
Paul Cairney, Kathryn Oliver
There is extensive health and public health literature on the 'evidence-policy gap', exploring the frustrating experiences of scientists trying to secure a response to the problems and solutions they raise and identifying the need for better evidence to reduce policymaker uncertainty. We offer a new perspective by using policy theory to propose research with greater impact, identifying the need to use persuasion to reduce ambiguity, and to adapt to multi-level policymaking systems.We identify insights from secondary data, namely systematic reviews, critical analysis and policy theories relevant to evidence-based policymaking...
April 26, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431345/insights-into-targeting-young-male-drivers-with-anti-speeding-advertising-an-application-of-the-step-approach-to-message-design-and-testing-satmdt
#16
I Lewis, K M White, B Ho, B Elliott, B Watson
In Australia, young drivers aged 17-25 years comprise 13% of the population yet account for 22% of all road deaths with young males over-represented in such trauma. Speeding represents a major contributing factor and advertising campaigns have long focused on promoting anti-speeding messages in the effort to reduce drivers' speeds. Positioned within a larger program of research aimed at developing, piloting, and evaluating a range of theoretically-informed anti-speeding messages, the current study reports results relating to the final phase of the research, the evaluation...
April 18, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428155/using-persuasive-technology-to-increase-physical-activity-in-people-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-by-encouraging-regular-walking-a-mixed-methods-study-exploring-opinions-and-preferences
#17
Yvonne Kiera Bartlett, Thomas L Webb, Mark S Hawley
BACKGROUND: People with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (PwCOPD) often experience breathlessness and fatigue, making physical activity challenging. Although many persuasive technologies (such as mobile phone apps) have been designed to support physical activity among members of the general population, current technologies aimed at PwCOPD are underdeveloped and only use a limited range of persuasive technology design principles. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore how acceptable different persuasive technology design principles were considered to be in supporting and encouraging physical activity among PwCOPD...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427805/confounding-causality-and-confusion-the-role-of-intermediate-variables-in-interpreting-observational-studies-in-obstetrics
#18
Cande V Ananth, Enrique F Schisterman
Both prospective and retrospective cohort, and case-control studies are some of the most important study designs in epidemiology because, under certain assumptions, they can mimic a randomized trial when done well. These assumptions include but not limited to properly accounting for two important sources of bias: confounding and selection bias. While not adjusting the causal association for an intermediate variable will yield an unbiased estimate of the exposure-outcome's total causal effect, it is often that obstetricians will want to adjust for an intermediate variable to assess if the intermediate is the underlying driver of the association...
April 17, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423816/a-method-for-co-designing-theory-based-behaviour-change-systems-for-health-promotion
#19
Rebecka Janols, Helena Lindgren
A methodology was defined and developed for designing theory-based behaviour change systems for health promotion that can be tailored to the individual. Theories from two research fields were combined with a participatory action research methodology. Two case studies applying the methodology were conducted. During and between group sessions the participants created material and designs following the behaviour change strategy themes, which were discussed, analysed and transformed into a design of a behaviour change system...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418180/-little-things-matter-exploring-the-perspectives-of-patients-with-dementia-about-the-hospital-environment
#20
Lillian Hung, Alison Phinney, Habib Chaudhury, Paddy Rodney, Jenifer Tabamo, Doris Bohl
BACKGROUND: Recognising demographic changes and importance of the environment in influencing the care experience of patients with dementia, there is a need for developing the knowledge base to improve hospital environments. Involving patients in the development of the hospital environment can be a way to create more responsive services. To date, few studies have involved the direct voice of patients with dementia about their experiences of the hospital environment. DESIGN AND METHOD: Using an action research approach, we worked with patients with dementia and a team of interdisciplinary staff on a medical unit to improve dementia care...
April 18, 2017: International Journal of Older People Nursing
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