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Attitude change

Allyson Brothers, Martina Gabrian, Hans-Werner Wahl, Manfred Diehl
Background and Objectives: This two-study article describes the development and evaluation of a multidimensional questionnaire based on the subjective aging construct Awareness of Age-Related Change (AARC). AARC captures the inherent multidimensionality and complexity of aging attitudes, which are strongly linked to indicators of successful aging, including health and well-being. Research Design and Methods: In Study 1, we generated a large item pool related to subjective aging experiences and then evaluated the psychometric properties of a 189-item version of the AARC questionnaire in a sample of 396 adults aged 40-95 years...
February 26, 2018: Gerontologist
Renato Foschi, Marco Innamorati, Ruggero Taradel
The present paper is focused on the evolution of the position of the Catholic Church toward psychoanalysis. Even before Freud's The Future of an Illusion (1927), psychoanalysis was criticized by Catholic theologians. Psychoanalysis was viewed with either contempt or with indifference, but nonpsychoanalytic psychotherapy was accepted, especially for pastoral use. Freudian theory remained for most Catholics a delicate and dangerous subject for a long time. From the center to the periphery of the Vatican, Catholic positions against psychoanalysis have varied in the way that theological stances have varied...
March 12, 2018: Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences
Ildiko Tombor, Eleni Vangeli, Robert West, Lion Shahab
BACKGROUND: Understanding how people transition between phases of not making a quit attempt to stopping smoking successfully is important in order to optimize interventions. This study aimed to explore differences in attitudes towards smoking and quitting among smokers and ex-smokers. METHODS: Adult (age 18 and over) successful (n = 8), unsuccessful (n = 8) and never quitters (n = 7) were recruited through stop-smoking services in England. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and data were analysed using framework analysis...
2018: Journal of Substance Use
Michael A Moncrieff, Pierre Lienard
Our research brings to light features of the social world that impact moral judgments and how they do so. The moral vignette data presented were collected in rural and urban Croatian communities that were involved to varying degrees in the Croatian Homeland War. We argue that rapid shifts in moral accommodations during periods of violent social strife can be explained by considering the role that coordination and social agents' ability to reconfigure their social network (i.e., relational mobility) play in moral reasoning...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Lori J Bernstein, Graham A McCreath, Joyce Nyhof-Young, Dilan Dissanayake, Jill B Rich
PURPOSE: One in three breast cancer survivors experiences persistent cognitive changes that can negatively impact daily functioning and quality of life. In our cancer center, the largest tertiary cancer center in Canada, patients with self-reported cancer-related cognitive dysfunction (CRCD) are offered psychoeducation intended to reduce distress about CRCD symptoms and improve everyday cognitive performance, but evidence regarding this intervention's impact is lacking. Here, we assess whether a 1-hour (h), individual psychoeducational intervention designed to promote self-management of CRCD symptoms can improve attitudes and coping with memory-related difficulties in women with breast cancer...
March 10, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
A F Crawshaw, H Kirkbride
Approximately 13% of the UK population in 2015 was born overseas. Most migrants have come to the UK to work or study although there has been a small increase in the number of asylum applications in the UK in recent years, reflective of the ongoing humanitarian situation across Europe. Migrants in the UK tend to be young and healthy, but some may face unique health needs as a result of their experiences before, during and after migration. For these needs to be appropriately recognised and addressed, evidence-based advice is needed for UK professionals...
March 7, 2018: Public Health
Gregory D Kearney, Ronny A Bell
The geographic position and high level of poverty in the southeastern United States are significant risk factors that contribute to the region's high vulnerability to climate change. The goal of this study was to evaluate beliefs and perceptions of global warming among those living in poverty in the poorest counties in the southeastern United States. Results from this project may be used to support public health efforts to increase climate-related messaging to vulnerable and underserved communities. This was an ecological study that analyzed public opinion poll estimates from previously gathered national level survey data (2016)...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
Hersha Patel, Esther L Moss, Susan M Sherman
BACKGROUND: Primary HPV cervical screening is due to be implemented in England within the next 2years however, the acceptability of HPV testing as the primary screening test is unclear. This study explores women's awareness and attitudes towards HPV testing/screening. METHODS: Qualitative interviews (semi-structured and focus group) were conducted with forty-six women (aged 25-65years) from community and secondary care settings. Data was analysed using the inductive-framework method...
March 9, 2018: Psycho-oncology
Gabrielle Wong-Parodi, M Beatrice Dias, Michael Taylor
BACKGROUND: Air quality affects us all and is a rapidly growing concern in the 21st century. We spend the majority of our lives indoors and can be exposed to a number of pollutants smaller than 2.5 microns (particulate matter, PM2.5 ) resulting in detrimental health effects. Indoor air quality sensors have the potential to provide people with the information they need to understand their risk and take steps to reduce their exposure. One such sensor is the Speck sensor developed at the Community Robotics, Education and Technology Empowerment Lab at Carnegie Mellon University...
March 8, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Leslie Sheu, Catherine Burke, Dylan Masters, Patricia S O'Sullivan
Phenomenon: Preclerkship medical education has undergone extensive reform, and the clerkship years are growing targets for curricular innovation. As institutions implement new preclerkship curricula to better prepare medical students to practice medicine in the context of modern healthcare systems, the perspective of clerkship leaders regarding clerkship student roles and potential for change will facilitate redefining these roles so that preclerkship educational innovations can continue into clerkships. APPROACH: In this qualitative exploratory study, authors conducted semistructured interviews with clerkship and site directors for eight core clerkships from April to May 2016...
March 6, 2018: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
James F B Houston, Jessica E Morgan
Purpose Close collaboration between NHS clinicians and managers is essential in providing effective healthcare, but relationships between the two groups are often poor. Paired learning is a peer-peer buddying tool that can break down barriers, increase knowledge and change attitudes. Paired learning has been used with doctors and managers but not for multi-professional clinicians. The purpose of this paper is to assess whether a paired learning programme (PLP) can improve knowledge and attitudes between multi-professional NHS clinicians and managers...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Health Organization and Management
Currie Moore, Rabiya Majeed-Ariss, Anuradha Jayanti, Sandip Mitra, Suzanne Skevington, Alison Wearden
OBJECTIVES: Despite home haemodialysis (HHD) being associated with significant health and psychosocial benefits, it remains an under-utilized dialysis modality for people with chronic kidney disease. Self-cannulation, where patients insert their own needles for dialysis, is a key component of HHD. Recent research suggests that the prospect of self-cannulation is a barrier for patients, but there is little research which examines why this is the case. The aim of this study was to explore male HHD patients' experiences and attitudes towards self-cannulation...
March 6, 2018: British Journal of Health Psychology
Mahat Jimale Mohamed, Sophie Ochola, Victor O Owino
Background: Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is recommended for 6 months of age, with continued breastfeeding for 2 years of age or beyond. There is paucity of information on the disparity in Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) on EBF between primiparous and multiparous mothers. This study compared the KAP on EBF between primiparous and multiparous mothers attending Wajir County Hospital, Wajir County, Kenya and investigated the association between maternal knowledge and attitudes and EBF...
2018: International Breastfeeding Journal
Britt Klein, Lisa Clinnick, Jessica Chesler, Andrew Stranieri, Adam Bignold, Richard Dazeley, Suzanne McLaren, Sue Lauder, Venki Balasubramanian
BACKGROUND: This regional pilot site 'end-user attitudes' study explored nurses' experiences and impressions of using the Nurses' Behavioural Assistant (NBA) (a knowledge-based, interactive ehealth system) to assist them to better respond to behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) and will be reported here. METHODS: Focus groups were conducted, followed by a four-week pilot site 'end-user attitudes' trial of the NBA at a regional aged care residential facility (ACRF)...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Katherine L Turner, Erin Pearson, Allison George, Kathryn L Andersen
BACKGROUND: Women's access to abortion care is often denied or hampered due to a range of barriers, many of which are rooted in abortion stigma. Abortion values clarification and attitude transformation (VCAT) workshops are conducted with abortion providers, trainers, and policymakers and other stakeholders to mitigate the effects of abortion stigma and increase provision of and access to abortion care. This study assesses changes in knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions of VCAT workshop participants...
March 5, 2018: Reproductive Health
Guillaume Chevance, Nelly Héraud, Alain Varray, Julie Boiché
The aim of this study was to examine the role of explicit and implicit attitudes in the improvement of exercise capacity during a 5-week pulmonary rehabilitation (PR). A total of 105 patients performed walking tests at baseline and at the end of PR. Change between performances was computed at the end of PR, and Minimal-Clinically-Important-Difference (MCID) were used to categorize patients as responders (i.e. change above MCID, N = 54) or non-responders (i.e. change below MCID, N = 51). At baseline, implicit attitudes were measured through a physical activity versus sedentary behavior Implicit Association Test; explicit attitudes toward physical activity and sedentary behavior were measured by questionnaires...
March 5, 2018: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Tsu-Hsin Howe, Ching-Fan Sheu, Jim Hinojosa
Cooperative learning provides an important vehicle for active learning, as knowledge is socially constructed through interaction with others. This study investigated the effect of cooperative learning on occupational therapy (OT) theory knowledge attainment in professional-level OT students in a classroom environment. Using a pre- and post-test group design, 24 first-year, entry-level OT students participated while taking a theory course in their second semester of the program. Cooperative learning methods were implemented via in-class group assignments...
2018: Journal of Allied Health
Lori Fewster-Thuente, Tamzin J Batteson
It is imperative to incorporate education on interprofessional competencies into the curriculum of healthcare provider students in order to meet the individual program accreditation standards. However, what is missing is a theoretical foundation for the education. The purpose of this paper was to examine if the qualitative data from a mixed-methods study using low-fidelity simulation of a case study that demonstrated changes in interprofessional attitudes and behaviors in healthcare provider students aligned with Kolb's Experiential Learning Theory (ELT)...
2018: Journal of Allied Health
Teresa A Rummans, M Caroline Burton, Nancy L Dawson
The opioid crisis that exists today developed over the past 30 years. The reasons for this are many. Good intentions to improve pain and suffering led to increased prescribing of opioids, which contributed to misuse of opioids and even death. Following the publication of a short letter to the editor in a major medical journal declaring that those with chronic pain who received opioids rarely became addicted, prescriber attitude toward opioid use changed. Opioids were no longer reserved for treatment of acute pain or terminal pain conditions but now were used to treat any pain condition...
March 2018: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
N Ammon, S Mason, J M Corkery
OBJECTIVES: Eighty-two percent of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive adolescents live in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Despite the availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART), adherence levels are suboptimal, leading to poor outcomes. This systematic review investigated factors impacting ART adherence among adolescents in SSA, including religious beliefs and intimate relationships. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted between June and August 2016 using eight electronic databases, including Cochrane and PubMed...
March 1, 2018: Public Health
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