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Skin of color

Xiucun Li, Jianli Cui, Suraj Maharjan, Ziping Jiang, Laijin Lu, Xu Gong
OBJECTIVE: The posterior thigh region has been neglected as a donor site for free perforator flaps, likely due to difficulties in positioning the patient during surgery. This study describes the clinical application of the posterior thigh perforator flap based on the third perforating artery of the profunda femoris artery (PFA). METHODS: The free posterior thigh perforator flap based on the third perforating artery of the PFA was used for reconstruction of soft tissue defects in nine patients between February 2010 and May 2014...
October 19, 2016: Annals of Plastic Surgery
Amir Zahir, Chesahna Kindred, Brunhilde Blömeke, Carsten Goebel, Anthony A Gaspari
BACKGROUND: Allergic contact dermatitis after exposure to p-phenylenediamine (PPD)-containing hair dye products is a common and important clinical problem. Because there is a high rate of cross-elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis to other important hair dye products (such as p-toluene diamine and other aminophenol hair dyes) in PPD-allergic patients, safer alternative dyes with excellent hair coloring options are needed. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to study tolerance to Me-PPD in a PPD-allergic cohort...
October 21, 2016: Dermatitis
Manickam Sugumaran, Hanine Barek
Animals synthesize melanin pigments for the coloration of their skin and use it for their protection from harmful solar radiation. Insects use melanins even more ingeniously than mammals and employ them for exoskeletal pigmentation, cuticular hardening, wound healing and innate immune responses. In this review, we discuss the biochemistry of melanogenesis process occurring in higher animals and insects. A special attention is given to number of aspects that are not previously brought to light: (1) the molecular mechanism of dopachrome conversion that leads to the production of two different dihydroxyindoles; (2) the role of catecholamine derivatives other than dopa in melanin production in animals; (3) the critical parts played by various biosynthetic enzymes associated with insect melanogenesis; and (4) the presence of a number of important gaps in both melanogenic and sclerotinogenic pathways...
October 20, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Mariza Miranda Theme-Filha, Marcia Leonardi Baldisserotto, Ana Claudia Santos Amaral Fraga, Susan Ayers, Silvana Granado Nogueira da Gama, Maria do Carmo Leal
BACKGROUND: Unintended pregnancy, a pregnancy that have been either unwanted or mistimed, is a serious public health issue in Brazil. It is reported for more than half of women who gave birth in the country, but the characteristics of women who conceive unintentionally are rarely documented. The aim of this study is to analyse the prevalence and the association between unintended pregnancy and a set of sociodemographic characteristics, individual-level variables and history of obstetric outcomes...
October 17, 2016: Reproductive Health
Sertan Kaya, Mustafa Bayraktar, Sinan Kockara, Mutlu Mete, Tansel Halic, Halle E Field, Henry K Wong
BACKGROUND: Automated skin lesion border examination and analysis techniques have become an important field of research for distinguishing malignant pigmented lesions from benign lesions. An abrupt pigment pattern cutoff at the periphery of a skin lesion is one of the most important dermoscopic features for detection of neoplastic behavior. In current clinical setting, the lesion is divided into a virtual pie with eight sections. Each section is examined by a dermatologist for abrupt cutoff and scored accordingly, which can be tedious and subjective...
October 6, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
L Chen, D L Wang, Z R Wei, B Wang, J P Qi, G F Sun
Objective: To investigate the effects of local transplantation of autologous adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) on the formation of hyperplastic scar on rabbit ears. Methods: ADSCs were isolated from inguinal fat of six New Zealand rabbits and then sub-cultured. ADSCs of the third passage of each rabbit were used in the following experiments. Six full-thickness skin defect wounds with diameter of 6 mm on the ventral surface of every rabbit ear were made. Wound healing and local-tissue proliferation were observed, and complete epithelization time of wounds and formation time of hyperplastic scar were recorded...
October 20, 2016: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
Yingwang Gao, Jinfeng Geng, Xiuqin Rao, Yibin Ying
Skinning injury on potato tubers is a kind of superficial wound that is generally inflicted by mechanical forces during harvest and postharvest handling operations. Though skinning injury is pervasive and obstructive, its detection is very limited. This study attempted to identify injured skin using two CCD (Charge Coupled Device) sensor-based machine vision technologies, i.e., visible imaging and biospeckle imaging. The identification of skinning injury was realized via exploiting features extracted from varied ROIs (Region of Interests)...
October 18, 2016: Sensors
Anna V Motorina, Nadezhda V Palkina, Anna V Komina, Tatiana G Ruksha, Ivan P Artyukhov, Vasily V Kozlov
The melanocortin 1 receptor is a Gs protein-coupled receptor implicated in melanogenesis regulation. The receptor gene is highly polymorphic, which accounts for the association of several of its single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with an increased risk of melanoma. The present study aimed to evaluate the distribution of melanocortin 1 receptor gene variants R151C, R160W, and D294H within the Russian population of Eastern Siberia and its association with melanoma development. Melanoma patients (n=95) admitted to Krasnoyarsk Territorial Oncological Center and healthy controls (n=334) were enrolled in the study...
October 13, 2016: European Journal of Cancer Prevention
Lillian Oglesby, Anthony Ananga, James Obuya, Joel Ochieng, Ernst Cebert, Violeta Tsolova
The skin color of grape berry is very important in the wine industry. The red color results from the synthesis and accumulation of anthocyanins, which is regulated by transcription factors belonging to the MYB family. The transcription factors that activate the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes have been isolated in model plants. However, the genetic basis of color variation is species-specific and its understanding is relevant in many crop species. This study reports the isolation of MybA1, and MYBCS-1 genes from muscadine grapes for the first time...
October 12, 2016: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Min-Hui Hung, Chun-Ta Liao, Chung-Jan Kang, Shiang-Fu Huang
Most parotid tumors grow slowly, and sometimes these patients do not request surgical treatment until the tumors become large and affect their appearance. The surgical treatment of these large tumors is usually accompanied by large skin defects after excision, and it is challenging for surgeons to close the defect primarily. This report describes the case of a 68-year-old man with a left parotid gland tumor (largest dimension, 110 mm) and the case of a 79-year-old man with a left parotid gland tumor measuring approximately 77 mm that had existed for decades...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Annelisa Silva E Alves de Carvalho Santos, Erika Aparecida Silveira, Marianne de Oliveira Falco
This study aimed to estimate the incidence of gastrointestinal symptoms (GIS) and associated factors in an outpatient cohort of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) followed between October 2009 and July 2011. We evaluated nausea and/or vomiting, dyspepsia, heartburn, diarrhea, constipation, and flatulence. The outcome variable was the presence of three or more GIS. Sociodemographic (sex, skin color, age, income, years of schooling), lifestyle (smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity level), clinical (antiretroviral therapy, time of HIV infection, CD4 lymphocyte count, viral load), and anthropometric (nutritional status and waist circumference) variables were investigated...
2016: PloS One
Bruno Luciano Carneiro Alves de Oliveira, Ronir Raggio Luiz
OBJECTIVE: The skin color/race and urbanity are structural determinants of health. The relationship between these variables produces structure of social stratification that defines inequalities in the experiences of life and death. Thus, this study describes the characteristics of the mortality indicators by skin color/race according level of urbanity and aggregation to the metropolitan region (MR) of 5565 cities in Brazil, controlling for gender and age. DESIGN: Descriptive study which included the calculation of measures relating to 1,050,546 deaths in the year survey of 2010 by skin color/race White, Black, and Brown according to both sexes, for five age groups and three levels of urbanity of cities in Brazil that were aggregated or not to the MR in the year of study...
October 17, 2016: Ethnicity & Health
Zhenbin Wang, Qing Wang, Lin Wang, Weidong Xu, Yuanqing He, Yunliang Li, Song He, Haile Ma
BACKGROUND: Collagen hydrolysates (CHs) has been demonstrated to have positive effect on skin photo-aging by topical application or oral ingestion. However, there's little report about its influence on skin chronological aging so far. RESULTS: Nine-month-old female ICR mice were given normal AIN-93M diets containing the CHs (2.5%, 5% and 10%, respectively) from Nile tilapia scale. After 6 months, the collagen content and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) activities significantly increased (p < 0...
October 17, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Jin Kyung Chae, Jeong Hee Kim, Eun Jung Kim, Kun Park
BACKGROUND: The patient and observer scar assessment scale (POSAS) recently emerged as a promising method, reflecting both observer's and patient's opinions in evaluating scar. This tool was shown to be consistent and reliable in burn scar assessment, but it has not been tested in the setting of skin graft scar in skin cancer patients. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate facial skin graft scar applied to POSAS and to compare with objective scar assessment tools. METHODS: Twenty three patients, who diagnosed with facial cutaneous malignancy and transplanted skin after Mohs micrographic surgery, were recruited...
October 2016: Annals of Dermatology
Taeko Mizutani, Hijiri Sumida, Yuki Sagawa, Yuri Okano, Hitoshi Masaki
BACKGROUND: Carbonylated proteins (CPs) are generated by the reaction of basic amino acid residues in proteins with aldehyde compounds produced during lipid peroxidation. CPs in the stratum corneum (SC) impact skin conditions such as skin moisture functions including water content and transepidermal water loss (TEWL). In addition, CPs can be frequently seen in the SC from sun-exposed sites compared with sun-protected sites. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to reveal whether CPs could be a generation source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the SC following exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and to identify the type of ROS and its generation mechanism...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Dermatological Science
Prateek Mahalwar, Ajeet Pratap Singh, Andrey Fadeev, Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard, Uwe Irion
The conspicuous striped coloration of zebrafish is produced by cell-cell interactions among three different types of chromatophores: black melanophores, orange/yellow xanthophores and silvery/blue iridophores. During color pattern formation xanthophores undergo dramatic cell shape transitions and acquire different densities, leading to compact and orange xanthophores at high density in the light stripes, and stellate, faintly pigmented xanthophores at low density in the dark stripes. Here, we investigate the mechanistic basis of these cell behaviors in vivo, and show that local, heterotypic interactions with dense iridophores regulate xanthophore cell shape transition and density...
October 14, 2016: Biology Open
Namita Chandra, Sanjay Kumar, Vaibhav Raj, Pawan Kumar Vishwakarma, Sheela Sinha, Ram Prakash Saha
BACKGROUND Jarcho-Levin syndrome, also known as spondylothoracic dysplasia and spondylocostal dysplasia, is characterized by varieties of vertebrae and rib anomalies. Jarcho-Levin syndrome is a clinical-radiological diagnosis with clinical evidence of short neck, short trunk, normal-sized limbs, or increased arm span, and vertebral and rib defects on the skeletal survey. CASE REPORT About 400 cases have been reported in world literature and 18 in our Indian literature. We report the case of a one-day-old female baby with a short trunk, short neck, low hairline, apparently long limbs, protuberant abdomen, mild midfacial dysmorphism, low-set ears, and a high-arched palate...
October 14, 2016: American Journal of Case Reports
A Paganelli, S Ciardo, G Odorici, G Pellacani, A Conti
Pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP) is a rare, chronic inflammatory skin disorder characterized by the presence of small follicular hyperkeratotic papules that coalesce into yellow-pink (salmon-colored) patches, usually beginning at the head and neck and often resulting in generalized erythroderma(1) . Other main clinical features are "islands" of sparing within the affected skin, palmoplantar keratoderma, nail dystrophy, oral involvement and eventually ectropion. The age of onset has a peak between 50 and 70 years but a juvenile presentation is not uncommon...
October 14, 2016: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Adolfo G Cuevas, Beverly Araujo Dawson, David R Williams
We examined 22 articles to compare Black Latinos/as' with White Latinos/as' health and highlight findings and limitations in the literature. We searched 1153 abstracts, from the earliest on record to those available in 2016. We organized the articles into domains grounded on a framework that incorporates the effects of race on Latinos/as' health and well-being: health and well-being, immigration, psychosocial factors, and contextual factors. Most studies in this area are limited by self-reported measures of health status, inconsistent use of race and skin color measures, and omission of a wider range of immigration-related and contextual factors...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Public Health
Ulrik Lyngs, Emma Cohen, Wallisen Tadashi Hattori, Martha Newson, Daniel T Levin
Previous research has found that the perceived brightness of a face can be distorted by the social category of race. Thus, Levin and Banaji (2006) found, in a U.S. sample, that faces of identical brightness were perceived to be lighter if they had stereotypical White American features than if they had Black American features. Here, we present 2 experiments conducted in Natal, Brazil, that extend this line of research. Experiment 1 tested if the brightness distortion effect would generalize to a Brazilian population...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
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