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fermented foods

Maria Schirone, Pierina Visciano, Rosanna Tofalo, Giovanna Suzzi
The consumption of food containing high amounts of histamine and other biogenic amines can cause food poisoning with different symptoms linked to the individual sensitivity and the detoxification activity. Histamine is the only biogenic amine with regulatory limits set by the European Commission in fish and fishery products, because it can lead to a fatal outcome. However, also fermented foods can be involved in outbreaks and sporadic cases of intoxication. The factors affecting the presence of histamine in food are variable and product specific including the availability of the precursor amino acid, the presence of microorganisms producing decarboxylases, and the conditions allowing their growth and enzyme production...
October 18, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Bharat Bhushan, S K Tomar, Arun Chauhan
An appropriate selection of Lactobacillus strain (probiotic/starter/functional) on the basis of its techno-functional characteristics is required before developing a novel fermented functional food. We compared vitamin B12 (B12, cobalamin) producing Lactobacillus plantarum isolates, BHM10 and BCF20, for functional (vitamin over-production, genomic insight to B12 structural genes, and probiotic attributes) and technological [milks (skim and soy) fermentation and B12 bio-fortification] characteristics. Addition of B12 precursors (5-amonolevulinate and dimethylbenzimidazole) to cobalamin-free fermentation medium increased vitamin production in BHM10, BCF20, and DSM20016 (a positive standard) by 3...
October 17, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Martinus J A Daas, Antonius H P van de Weijer, Willem M de Vos, John van der Oost, Richard van Kranenburg
BACKGROUND: Due to the finite nature of global oil resources we are now faced with the challenge of finding renewable resources to produce fuels and chemicals in the future. Lactic acid has great potential as a precursor for the production of bioplastics alternatives to conventional plastics. Efficient lactic acid fermentation from non-food lignocellulosic substrates requires pretreatment and saccharification to generate fermentable sugars. A fermentation process that requires little to no enzyme additions, i...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Chun Chen, Qiang Huang, Xiong Fu, Rui Hai Liu
This study investigated the in vitro fermentation of polysaccharides from Morus alba L., the contribution of its carbohydrates to the fermentation, and the effect on the composition of gut microbiota. Over 48 h of fermentation, the pH value in the fecal culture decreased from 7.12 to 6.14, and the total short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and acetic, propionic, and butyric acids all significantly increased. After 48 h of fermentation, 45.36 ± 1.36% of the total carbohydrates in the polysaccharide, including 35...
October 17, 2016: Food & Function
Nicole H Martin, Aljoša Trmčić, Tsung-Han Hsieh, Kathryn J Boor, Martin Wiedmann
Testing for coliforms has a long history in the dairy industry and has helped to identify raw milk and dairy products that may have been exposed to unsanitary conditions. Coliform standards are included in a number of regulatory documents (e.g., the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Grade "A" Pasteurized Milk Ordinance). As a consequence, detection above a threshold of members of this method-defined, but diverse, group of bacteria can result in a wide range of regulatory outcomes. Coliforms are defined as aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, Gram negative, non-sporeforming rods capable of fermenting lactose to produce gas and acid within 48 h at 32-35°C; 19 genera currently include at least some strains that represent coliforms...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yosra Ben-Fadhel, Sabrina Saltaji, Mohamed Ali Khlifi, Stephane Salmieri, Khanh Dang Vu, Monique Lacroix
The antimicrobial activity of essential oils (EOs), organic acid (OA) salts and natamycin, a natural antifungal produced during fermentation by the bacterium Streptomyces natalensis, was assessed against four pathogens (Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium and Aspergillus niger). The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of each antimicrobial (AM) was assessed to determine their efficiency on tested microbial species in order to select the most efficient. Then, the interactions between different antimicrobial compounds showing the lowest MIC were determined by the checkerboard method...
October 11, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Donatella Cimini, Ottavia Argenzio, Sergio D'Ambrosio, Licia Lama, Ilaria Finore, Rosario Finamore, Olimpia Pepe, Vincenza Faraco, Chiara Schiraldi
In the present work the recently isolated strain Basfia succiniciproducens BPP7 was evaluated for the production of succinic acid up to the pilot fermentation scale in separate hydrolysis and fermentation experiments on Arundo donax, a non-food dedicated energy crop. An average concentration of about 17g/L of succinic acid and a yield on consumed sugars of 0.75mol/mol were obtained demonstrating strain potential for further process improvement. Small scale experiments indicated that the concentration of acetic acid in the medium is crucial to improve productivity; on the other hand, interestingly, short-term (24h) adaptation to higher acetic acid concentrations, and strain recovery, were also observed...
October 3, 2016: Bioresource Technology
Giovanni Gasbarrini, Fiorenza Bonvicini, Annagiulia Gramenzi
Gut microbiota promotes healthy effects on the host and prevents diseases. Probiotic (probios, for life) are defined as "live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host." At the beginning of 1900s Louis Pasteur identified the microorganisms responsible for the process of fermentation, whereas E. Metchnikoff associated the enhanced longevity of Bulgarian rural people to the regular consumption of fermented dairy products such as yogurt. He suggested that lactobacilli might counteract the putrefactive effects of gastrointestinal metabolism that contributed to illness and aging...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Valeriy A Poroyko, Alba Carreras, Abdelnaby Khalyfa, Ahamed A Khalyfa, Vanessa Leone, Eduard Peris, Isaac Almendros, Alex Gileles-Hillel, Zhuanhong Qiao, Nathaniel Hubert, Ramon Farré, Eugene B Chang, David Gozal
Chronic sleep fragmentation (SF) commonly occurs in human populations, and although it does not involve circadian shifts or sleep deprivation, it markedly alters feeding behaviors ultimately promoting obesity and insulin resistance. These symptoms are known to be related to the host gut microbiota. Mice were exposed to SF for 4 weeks and then allowed to recover for 2 weeks. Taxonomic profiles of fecal microbiota were obtained prospectively, and conventionalization experiments were performed in germ-free mice...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
Heather E Hallen-Adams, Mallory J Suhr
Many species of fungi have been detected in the healthy human gut; however, nearly half of all taxa reported have only been found in one sample or one study. Fungi capable of growing in and colonizing the gut are limited to a small number of species, mostly Candida yeasts and yeasts in the family Dipodascaceae (Galactomyces, Geotrichum, Saprochaete). Malassezia and the filamentous fungus Cladosporium are potential colonizers; more work is needed to clarify their role. Other commonly-detected fungi come from the diet or environment but either cannot or do not colonize (Penicillium and Debaryomyces species, which are common on fermented foods but cannot grow at human body temperature), while still others have dietary or environmental sources (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a fermentation agent and sometime probiotic; Aspergillus species, ubiquitous molds) yet are likely to impact gut ecology...
October 13, 2016: Virulence
Debkumar Chakraborty, Baljinder Kaur, Karthikeyan Obulisamy, Ammaiyappan Selvam, Jonathan W C Wong
Owing to its flavoring, antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticarcinogenic nature, vanillin is widely used in foods, beverages, perfumes and pharmaceutical products. Ferulic acid (FA) is an important precursor of vanillin which is abundant in cereals like maize, rice and wheat and sugar beet. A major drawback of microbial vanillin production from FA is the degradation and biotransformation of toxic vanillin to other phenolic derivatives. The present study is undertaken to explore microbial vanillin production from FA precursor rice bran by employing vanillin-resistant Pediococcus acidilactici BD16, a natural lactic acid bacteria isolate...
October 13, 2016: Environmental Technology
Janifer Raj Xavier, Karna Venkata Ramana
Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and levan attract much attention due to a wide range of applications in food technology and pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry. Bacillus licheniformis ANT 179, isolated from Antarctica soil, produced levansucrase and levan in a medium containing sucrose as carbon substrate. In this study, characterization of levansucrase and production of short-chain FOS and levan were investigated. Temperature and pH optimum of the enzyme were found to be 60 °C and pH 6.0, respectively. The optimization of fermentation conditions for levan production using sugarcane juice by response surface methodology (RSM) was carried out...
October 12, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Jayanta Kumar Patra, Gitishree Das, Spiros Paramithiotis, Han-Seung Shin
Different types of fermented foods such as chongkukjang, doenjang, ganjang, gochujang, and kimchi are plentifully available and widely consumed in north eastern Asian countries including Korea. Among them, kimchi is one of the most popular Korean traditional food. It is prepared by fermenting the baechu cabbage together with other vegetables and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with functional potential. Many types of ingredients are added to kimchi to enhance its taste, flavor, nutritional value, texture etc. A number of bacteria are involved in the fermentation of kimchi, but LAB are the dominant species in the fermentation process...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Isaac Olufemi Olatoye, Oluwayemisi Folashade Daniel, Sunday Ayobami Ishola
BACKGROUND AND AIM: There are global public health and economic concerns on chemical residues in food of animal origin. The use of antibiotics in dairy cattle for the treatment of diseases such as mastitis has contributed to the presence of residues in dairy products. Penicillin residues as low as 1 ppb can lead to allergic reactions and shift of resistance patterns in microbial population as well as interfere with the processing of several dairy products. Antibiotic monitoring is an essential quality control measure in safe milk production...
September 2016: Veterinary World
Pravin M Rathi, Vinay G Zanwar
There has been increasing interest in the entity "Non-celiac gluten sensitivity" in recent years which was first of its in 1980s. This "re-discovered" disorder is characterized by intestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms which occur after ingestion of gluten containing food. The number of such patients who neither have celiac disease nor wheat allergy, but appear to benefit from gluten withdrawal is increasing substantially. However it still remains a controversial and its pathogenesis is not well understood...
March 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Hidenobu Nakao, Katsuichi Saito, Satoru Tomita, Yukio Magariyama, Yoshihisa Kaizuka, Yoshihiko Takeda
The ecological functions of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been utilized in human life for food processing and probiotic therapy. Understanding the interaction mechanisms between LAB and food ingredients may help to clarify the fermentation process and physiological functions of LAB in the production of fermented foods made from plant materials and dairy products. However, the interaction mechanisms have yet to be fully clarified. Although laser diffraction was used for measuring the size changes of aggregates caused by the interaction between LAB and food ingredients, aggregate sizes could not be determined because of the precipitation of aggregates and its disruption from stirring...
2016: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
Tateo Fujii, Daisuke Kyoui, Hajime Takahashi, Takashi Kuda, Bon Kimura, Yukio Washizu, Eiji Emoto, Tadahiro Hiramoto
Kusaya is a salted, dried fish product traditionally produced on the Izu Islands in Japan. Fish are added to kusaya gravy repeatedly and intermittently, and used over several hundred years, which makes unique microbiota and unique flavors. In this study, we performed a metagenomic analysis to compare the composition of the microbiota of kusaya gravy between different islands. Twenty samples obtained from a total of 13 manufacturers on three islands (Hachijojima, Niijima, and Oshima Islands) were analyzed. The statistical analysis revealed that the microbiota in kusaya gravy maintain a stable composition regardless of the production steps, and that the microbiota are characteristic to the particular islands...
September 29, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
María Belem Arce-Vázquez, Edith Ponce-Alquicira, Ezequiel Delgado-Fornué, Ruth Pedroza-Islas, Gerardo Díaz-Godínez, J Soriano-Santos
Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) is an enzyme that produces cyclodextrins (CDs) from starch and related carbohydrates, producing a mixture of α-, β-, and γ-CDs in different amounts. CGTase production, mainly by Bacillus sp., depends on fermentation conditions such as pH, temperature, concentration of nutrients, carbon and nitrogen sources, among others. Bacillus megaterium CGTase produces those three types of CDs, however, β-CD should prevail. Although, waxy corn starch (CS) is used industrially to obtain CGTase and CDs because of its high amylopectin content, alternative sources such as amaranth starch (AS) could be used to accomplish those purposes...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Samaneh Kazemi, Gholam Khayati, Mohammad Faezi-Ghasemi
BACKGROUND: Enzymatic hydrolysis of lactose is one of the most important biotechnological processes in the food industry, which is accomplished by enzyme β-galactosidase (β-gal, β-D-galactoside galactohydrolase, EC, trivial called lactase. Orthogonal arrays design is an appropriate option for the optimization of biotechnological processes for the production of microbial enzymes. METHODS: Design of experimental (DOE) methodology using Taguchi orthogonal array (OA) was employed to screen the most significant levels of parameters, including the solid substrates (wheat straw, rice straw, and peanut pod), the carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratios, the incubation time, and the inducer...
May 25, 2016: Iranian Biomedical Journal
Zhihua Li, Junpeng Rui, Xiangzhen Li, Jiabao Li, Ling Dong, Qiaolian Huang, Chi Huang, Zipeng Wang, Lu Li, Pu Xuan, Yuming Tang, Fusheng Chen
Doubanjiang-meju, a major ingredient of Chinese fermented food for several centuries, is produced using broad bean, wheat flour and salt. In this study, we investigated prokaryotic community succession and metabolite changes using high-throughput sequencing and (1)H-NMR methods. After 35 days, bacterial communities, except Lactobacillus and Acinetobacter, were relatively stable until the end of fermentation, and consisted predominantly of the genera Tetragenococcus, Lactobacillus, Staphylococcus, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas and Streptococcus...
March 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
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