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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433723/elimination-of-the-cryptic-plasmid-in-leuconostoc-citreum-by-crispr-cas9-system
#1
Ye-Ji Jang, Seung-Oh Seo, Seul-Ah Kim, Ling Li, Tae-Jip Kim, Sun Chang Kim, Yong-Su Jin, Nam Soo Han
Leuconostoc spp. are important lactic acid bacteria for the fermentation of foods. In particular, L. citreum strains isolated from various foods have been used as host strains for genetic and metabolic engineering studies. In order to develop a food-grade genetic engineering system, L. citreum CB2567 was isolated from Kimchi. However, the isolated bacterium contained a cryptic plasmid which was difficult to eliminate. As the existence of the plasmid might hinder strain engineering, we eliminated the plasmid using an RNA-guided DNA endonuclease CRISPR/Cas9 system...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433004/plackett-burman-design-and-response-surface-optimization-of-medium-trace-nutrients-for-glycolipopeptide-biosurfactant-production
#2
Maurice George Ekpenyong, Sylvester Peter Antai, Atim David Asitok, Bassey Offiong Ekpo
Background: A glycolipopeptide biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain IKW1 reduced the surface tension of fermentation broth from 71.31 to 24.62 dynes/cm at a critical micelle concentration of 20.80 mg/L. The compound proved suitable for applications in emulsion stabilization in food, as well as in cosmetic and pharmaceutical formulations. Method: In the present study, Plackett-Burman design (PBD) and response surface method (RSM) were employed to screen and optimize concentrations of trace nutrients in the fermentation medium, to increase surfactant yield...
April 23, 2017: Iranian Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429701/-microbiota-and-metabolic-syndrome
#3
Yüksel Altuntaş, Adnan Batman
The role of gut bacteria in the pathogenesis and treatment of various diseases has been a focus of attention in the last 10 years. Prevalence of diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases continues to increase, in spite of technological developments and treatment alternatives. Microbial dysbiosis, described as the decrease of useful bacteria and the increase of harmful bacteria, has been associated with diabetes, obesity, atherosclerosis, and metabolic syndrome. In microbial dysbiosis, increase of harmful metabolites and changes to composition of bile acids occur via carbohydrate and protein fermentation...
April 2017: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneği Arşivi: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneğinin Yayın Organıdır
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428778/evidence-for-nitric-oxide-synthase-activity-in-staphylococcus-xylosus-mediating-nitrosoheme-formation
#4
Geoffrey Ras, Véronique Zuliani, Patrick Derkx, Tim M Seibert, Sabine Leroy, Régine Talon
Staphylococcus xylosus is used as a starter culture in fermented meat products and contributes to color formation by the reduction of nitrate to nitrite. Nitrite is a food additive that is chemically turned to nitric oxide (NO) in meat but its safety has been questioned. The objective of this study was to determine the ability of NO synthase (NOS) of S. xylosus C2a to produce NO. For this purpose, a nos deletion mutant (Δnos) in S. xylosus was constructed and NO production was evaluated in a test based on its ability to form nitrosomyoglobin and nitrosoheme...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428298/genome-sequence-of-staphylococcus-saprophyticus-dpc5671-a-strain-isolated-from-cheddar-cheese
#5
Andrea S Bertuzzi, Caitriona M Guinane, Fiona Crispie, Kieran N Kilcawley, Paul L H McSweeney, Mary C Rea
The draft genome sequence of Staphylococcus saprophyticus DPC5671, isolated from cheddar cheese, was determined. S. saprophyticus is a common Gram-positive bacterium detected on the surface of smear-ripened cheese and other fermented foods.
April 20, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425297/new-approaches-for-itaconic-acid-production-bottlenecks-and-possible-remedies
#6
Richa Bafana, R A Pandey
Currently, growing attention is being devoted to the conversion of biomass into value-added products, such as itaconic acid (IA), which is considered as the cleanest alternative to petroleum-based acrylic acid. IA is an unsaturated dicarboxylic acid that is used as a building block chemical for the production of several value-added products such as poly-itaconic acid. IA and its derivatives have a wide range of potential applications in textile, paint, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. Presently, industries are producing IA on the large scale by fermentation from glucose...
April 20, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423948/fermentation-at-non-conventional-conditions-in-food-and-bio-sciences-by-the-application-of-advanced-processing-technologies
#7
Maria J Mota, Rita P Lopes, Mohamed Koubaa, Shahin Roohinejad, Francisco J Barba, Ivonne Delgadillo, Jorge A Saraiva
The interest in improving the yield and productivity values of relevant microbial fermentations is an increasingly important issue for the scientific community. Therefore, several strategies have been tested for the stimulation of microbial growth and manipulation of their metabolic behavior. One promising approach involves the performance of fermentative processes during non-conventional conditions, which includes high pressure (HP), electric fields (EF) and ultrasound (US). These advanced technologies are usually applied for microbial inactivation in the context of food processing...
April 20, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423943/high-value-added-lipids-produced-by-microorganisms-a-potential-use-of-sugarcane-vinasse
#8
Bruna Soares Fernandes, João Paulo Fernandes Vieira, Fabiano Jares Contesini, Paulo Eduardo Mantelatto, Marcelo Zaiat, José Geraldo da Cruz Pradella
This review aims to present an innovative concept of high value added lipids produced by heterotrophic microorganisms, bacteria and fungi, using carbon sources, such as sugars, acids and alcohols that could come from sugarcane vinasse, which is the main byproduct from ethanol production that is released in the distillation step. Vinasse is a rich carbon source and low-cost feedstock produced in large amounts from ethanol production. In 2019, the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply estimates that growth of ethanol domestic consumption will be 58...
April 20, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423055/comparative-analysis-of-the-expression-level-of-recombinant-ginsenoside-transforming-%C3%AE-glucosidase-in-gras-hosts-and-mass-production-of-the-ginsenoside-rh2-mix
#9
Muhammad Zubair Siddiqi, Chang-Hao Cui, Seul-Ki Park, Nam Soo Han, Sun-Chang Kim, Wan-Taek Im
The ginsenoside Rh2, a pharmaceutically active component of ginseng, is known to have anticancer and antitumor effects. However, white ginseng and red ginseng have extremely low concentrations of Rh2 or Rh2-Mix [20(S)-Rh2, 20(R)-Rh2, Rk2, and Rh3]. To enhance the production of food-grade ginsenoside Rh2, an edible enzymatic bioconversion technique was developed adopting GRAS host strains. A β-glucosidase (BglPm), which has ginsenoside conversion ability, was expressed in three GRAS host strains (Corynebacterium glutamicum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactococus lactis) by using a different vector system...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422292/high-theabrownins-instant-dark-tea-product-by-aspergillus-niger-via-submerged-fermentation-alpha-glucosidase-and-pancreatic-lipase-inhibition-and-antioxidant-activity
#10
Yuwan Wang, Mingyue Zhang, Zhengzhu Zhang, Hengqian Lu, Xueling Gao, Pengxiang Yue
BACKGROUND: Theabrownins (TB) are bioactive components usually extracted from Chinese dark tea, where they are present in low concentrations. This study aimed to produce an instant dark tea high in theabrownins via submerged fermentation by the fungus Aspergillus niger. Three fermentation parameters that affect theabrownins content, namely inoculum size, liquid-solid ratio and rotation speed, were optimized using response surface methodology. RESULT: Optimum fermentation conditions were modeled to be an inoculum of 5...
April 19, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420945/controversies-and-recent-developments-of-the-low-fodmap-diet
#11
Peta Hill, Jane G Muir, Peter R Gibson
The low-fermentable oligo-, di-, and monosaccharide and polyol (FODMAP) diet is a 2-phased intervention, with strict reduction of all slowly absorbed or indigestible short-chain carbohydrates (ie, FODMAPs) followed by reintroduction of specific FODMAPs according to tolerance. The efficacy of the elimination phase of the FODMAP diet is well established, but the success of maintaining this diet has been shown in only a few observational studies. How the efficacy of the low-FODMAP diet compares with that of other therapies has received limited attention, but recent studies have shown this diet to be comparable or superior to diets that address eating style and choice of food as well as to gut hypnotherapy...
January 2017: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419691/the-low-diverse-gastric-microbiome-of-the-jellyfish-cotylorhiza-tuberculata-is-dominated-by-four-novel-taxa
#12
Tomeu Viver, Luis H Orellana, Janet K Hatt, Mercedes Urdiain, Sara Díaz, Michael Richter, Josefa Antón, Massimo Avian, Rudolf Amann, Konstantinos T Konstantinidis, Ramon Rosselló-Móra
Cotylorhiza tuberculata is an important scyphozoan jellyfish producing population blooms in the Mediterranean probably due to pelagic ecosystem's decay. Its gastric cavity can serve as a simple model of microbial - animal digestive associations, yet poorly characterized. Using state-of-the-art metagenomic population binning and catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH), we show that only four novel clonal phylotypes were consistently associated with multiple jellyfish adults...
April 17, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419503/comparison-of-the-quantitative-dry-culture-methods-with-both-conventional-media-and-most-probable-number-method-for-the-enumeration-of-coliforms-and-escherichia-coli-coliforms-in-food
#13
Hajime Teramura, Kojiro Sota, Mihoko Iwasaki, Hirokazu Ogihara
Sanita-kun(™) CC (coliform count) and EC (Escherichia coli/coliform count), sheet quantitative culture systems which can avoid chromogenic interference by lactase in food, were evaluated in comparison with conventional methods for these bacteria. Based on the results of inclusivity and exclusivity studies using 77 microorganisms, sensitivity and specificity of both Sanita-kun(™) met the criteria for ISO 16140. Both media were compared with deoxycholate agar, violet red bile agar, Merck Chromocult(™) coliform agar (CCA), 3M Petrifilm(™) CC and EC (PEC), and 3-tube MPN, as reference methods, in 100 naturally contaminated food samples...
April 17, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419163/response-of-microbial-community-of-organic-matter-impoverished-arable-soil-to-long-term-application-of-soil-conditioner-derived-from-dynamic-rapid-fermentation-of-food-waste
#14
Jiaqi Hou, Mingxiao Li, Xuhui Mao, Yan Hao, Jie Ding, Dongming Liu, Beidou Xi, Hongliang Liu
Rapid fermentation of food waste can be used to prepare soil conditioner. This process consumes less time and is more cost-effective than traditional preparation technology. However, the succession of the soil microbial community structure after long-term application of rapid fermentation-derived soil conditioners remains unclear. Herein, dynamic rapid fermentation (DRF) of food waste was performed to develop a soil conditioner and the successions and diversity of bacterial communities in an organic-matter-impoverished arable soil after six years of application of DRF-derived soil conditioner were investigated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417207/impact-of-food-processing-on-rye-product-properties-and-their-in-vitro-digestion
#15
Daniel P Johansson, José L Vázquez Gutiérrez, Rikard Landberg, Marie Alminger, Maud Langton
PURPOSE: Rye products have been reported to elicit postprandial insulin and glucose responses which may be beneficial for prevention of type-2 diabetes. However, mechanisms underlying variations in responses related to processing techniques are not fully understood. METHODS: Five differently processed rye products (sourdough-fermented bread, fermented and unfermented crispbread, extrusion-cooked rye, and porridge) and refined wheat bread were characterised. Two in vitro methods, a dynamic method simulating digestion in the stomach and small intestine and a static method, simulating conditions in the stomach were used to determine viscosity development, structural changes and release of glucose during digestion...
April 17, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416855/production-and-characterization-of-functional-properties-of-protein-hydrolysates-from-egg-shell-membranes-by-lactic-acid-bacteria-fermentation
#16
Surangna Jain, Anil Kumar Anal
This study aimed to ferment the chicken eggshell membrane (ESM) using the lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus plantarum for preparation of functional and bioactive protein hydrolysates. Cultivation at an initial pH of 8.0 for 36 h resulted in maximum protein concentration (177.3 mg/g) and degree of hydrolysis (25.1%) of the hydrolysates. Fermentation resulted in the production of hydrolysates that demonstrated excellent solubility (90.7%), good foaming capacity (36.7%) and emulsification activity (94.6 m(2)/g)...
April 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416515/multivariate-modelling-of-faecal-bacterial-profiles-of-patients-with-ibs-predicts-responsiveness-to-a-diet-low-in-fodmaps
#17
Sean M P Bennet, Lena Böhn, Stine Störsrud, Therese Liljebo, Lena Collin, Perjohan Lindfors, Hans Törnblom, Lena Öhman, Magnus Simrén
OBJECTIVE: The effects of dietary interventions on gut bacteria are ambiguous. Following a previous intervention study, we aimed to determine how differing diets impact gut bacteria and if bacterial profiles predict intervention response. DESIGN: Sixty-seven patients with IBS were randomised to traditional IBS (n=34) or low fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) (n=33) diets for 4 weeks. Food intake was recorded for 4 days during screening and intervention...
April 17, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414956/geosmin-as-a-source-of-the-earthy-musty-smell-in-fruits-vegetables-and-water-origins-impact-on-foods-and-water-and-review-of-the-removing-techniques
#18
REVIEW
Viacheslav Liato, Mohammed Aïder
The earthy-musty smell produced by Streptomyces sp. is assigned to geosmin and is responsible for the major organoleptic defects found in drinking water, fruits and vegetables such as grapes, mushrooms, carrots, and beet. Geosmin is also found in juices and musts before fermentation and its presence has been associated with partial presence of Botrytis cinerea. It has a variable detection threshold depending on the matrix and the detection level ranges from 5 to 50 ng/L. On the sensory level, very few individuals are immune to geosmin and although the intensity of the defect caused by this molecule decreases rapidly in the nose, a bad taste is very persistent in the mouth...
April 8, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414174/iterative-integration-of-multiple-copy-pathway-genes-in-yarrowia-lipolytica-for-heterologous-%C3%AE-carotene-production
#19
Shuliang Gao, Yangyang Tong, Li Zhu, Mei Ge, Yian Zhang, Daijie Chen, Yu Jiang, Sheng Yang
β-Carotene is a terpenoid molecule with high hydrophobicity that is often used as an additive in foods and feed. Previous work has demonstrated the heterologous biosynthesis of β-carotene from an intrinsic high flux of acetyl-CoA in 12 steps through 11 genes in Yarrowia lipolytica. Here, an efficient biosynthetic pathway capable of producing 100-fold more β-carotene than the baseline construct was generated using strong promoters and multiple gene copies for each of the 12 steps. Using fed-batch fermentation with an optimized medium, the engineered pathway could produce 4g/L β-carotene, which was stored in lipid droplets within engineered Y...
April 13, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413727/a-transdisciplinary-approach-to-the-initial-validation-of-a-single-cell-protein-as-an-alternative-protein-source-for-use-in-aquafeeds
#20
Michael Tlusty, Andrew Rhyne, Joseph T Szczebak, Bradford Bourque, Jennifer L Bowen, Gary Burr, Christopher J Marx, Lawrence Feinberg
The human population is growing and, globally, we must meet the challenge of increased protein needs required to feed this population. Single cell proteins (SCP), when coupled to aquaculture production, offer a means to ensure future protein needs can be met without direct competition with food for people. To demonstrate a given type of SCP has potential as a protein source for use in aquaculture feed, a number of steps need to be validated including demonstrating that the SCP is accepted by the species in question, leads to equivalent survival and growth, does not result in illness or other maladies, is palatable to the consumer, is cost effective to produce and can easily be incorporated into diets using existing technology...
2017: PeerJ
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