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Tadamitsu Matsuda, Taichi Kurayama, Miki Tagami, Yuji Fujino, Atsushi Manji, Yasuaki Kusumoto, Kazu Amimoto
[Purpose] This study evaluated the effects of repetitive peripheral magnetic stimulation of the soleus muscle on spinal cord and peripheral motor nerve excitability. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve healthy adults (mean age 22 years) who provided written informed consent were administered repetitive peripheral magnetic stimulation for 10 min. Pre-and post-stimulation latencies and amplitudes of H- and M-waves of the soleus muscle were measured using electromyography and compared using paired t-tests. [Results] Pre- and post-stimulation latencies (28...
May 2018: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Patrick Wiegel, Niclas Niemann, John C Rothwell, Christian Leukel
Intracortical facilitation (ICF) describes the facilitation of an EMG response (motor evoked potential) to a suprathreshold pulse (S2) of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) by a preceding subthreshold pulse (S1) given 10 to 15 ms earlier. ICF is widely assumed to originate from intracortical mechanisms. In the present study, we used spinal H-reflexes to test whether subcortical mechanisms can also contribute to the facilitation. Measurements were performed in the upper limb muscle flexor carpi radialis (FCR) in 17 healthy volunteers, and in the lower limb muscle soleus (SOL) in 16 healthy volunteers...
May 8, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Akiyoshi Matsugi
PURPOSE: The present study aimed to investigate whether spinal reflex excitability is influenced by the site of cerebellar transcranial magnetic stimulation (C-TMS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fourteen healthy volunteers (mean age: 24.6 ± 6.6 years [11 men]) participated. Participants lay on a bed in the prone position, with both ankle joints fixed to prevent unwanted movement. Right tibial nerve stimulation was provided to elicit the H-reflex in the right soleus muscle...
May 6, 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Huixue Wang, Yingji Gao, Lixin Ji, Wanshan Bai
The clinical value of soleus muscle H-reflex monitoring in general anesthesia percutaneous interlaminar approach was investigated. A total of 80 cases with unilateral L5-S1 disc herniation between January 2015 and October 2016 were randomly divided into control group (without soleus muscle H-reflex monitoring, n=40) and observation group (with soleus muscle H-reflex monitoring, n=40). Results showed that the operation time of the observation group was shorter than that of the control group (P<0.05), and the blood loss during the operation was less than that of the control group (P<0...
May 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Stefane A Aguiar, Stuart N Baker
Recently we reported in humans that electrical stimulation of the wrist extensor muscle extensor carpi radialis (ECR) could facilitate or suppress the H reflex elicited in flexor carpi radialis (FCR), for inter-stimulus intervals (ISIs) of 30 ms or 70 ms, respectively. The facilitation at 30 ms may be produced by both flexor afferents and extensor Ib afferents acting on a spinal circuit; the origin of the suppression at 70 ms is less certain. In this study, we investigated possible descending inputs to these systems...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Ehsan Ghasemi, Khosro Khademi-Kalantari, Minoo Khalkhali-Zavieh, Asghar Rezasoltani, Mehri Ghasemi, Alireza Akbarzadeh Baghban, Majid Ghasemi
BACKGROUND: Following spasticity, neural and mechanical changes of the paretic muscle often occur, which affect the muscle function. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of functional stretching exercises on neural and mechanical properties of the spastic muscle in patients with stroke. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was a single-blinded, randomized control trial. Forty five patients with stroke (experimental group: n = 30; control group: n = 15) participated in this study...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Sidney Grosprêtre, Nicolas Gueugneau, Alain Martin, Romuald Lepers
This study aimed at deciphering the origins of spinal excitability modulation that follows neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES). Ten participants (age: 24.6 ± 4.2 years) performed 2 randomized NMES sessions on plantar flexors with frequencies of stimulations of 20 or 100 Hz (pulse width: 1 ms) at 20% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Before and after each session, the posterior tibial nerve was stimulated to record H-reflex of soleus (SOL), gastrocnemius medialis (GM) and gastrocnemius lateralis (GL)...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
Akiyoshi Matsugi, Yutaka Kikuchi, Kenta Kaneko, Yuta Seko, Masato Odagaki
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the cerebellum facilitates the spinal reflex in healthy humans. The aim of this study was to investigate whether such cerebellar spinal facilitation (CSpF) appears in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) presenting with atrophy in the cerebellar gray matter and dentate nucleus. One patient with SCA type 6 and another with SCA type 31 participated in this study. TMS over the right primary motor cortex was used to induce motor-evoked potentials in the right first dorsal interosseous muscle, which were detected using electromyography...
April 13, 2018: Neuroreport
Alexander Kuck, Dick F Stegeman, Herman van der Kooij, Edwin H F van Asseldonk
Trans-spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) is an electro-modulatory tool with possible application in the rehabilitation of spinal cord injury. TsDCS generates a small electric field, aiming to induce lasting, functional neuromodulation in the targeted neuronal networks. Earlier studies have shown significant modulatory effects after application of lumbar tsDCS. However, for clinical application, a better understanding of application specific factors is required. Our goal was to investigate the effect of different electrode configurations using lumbar spinal tsDCS on spinal excitability...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Enzo Piponnier, Sébastien Ratel, Benjamin François, Sebastiàn Garcia-Vicencio, Vincent Martin
Magnetic nerve stimulation (MNS) may be a less painful alternative to electrical nerve stimulation (ENS) for Hoffmann reflex (H-reflex) measurement, however standard MNS (sMNS) techniques utilize a short stimulus duration, thereby limiting its use for H-reflex assessment. This limitation may be partly overcome by coupling two magnetic stimulators to increase the pulse duration (coupled MNS: cMNS). The aim of this study was to test this assumption by comparing the H-reflex characteristics evoked by ENS, sMNS and cMNS...
March 29, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Angèle N Merlet, Thomas Cattagni, Christophe Cornu, Marc Jubeau
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to determine the intra- and inter-session reliability of neuromuscular assessment of plantar flexor (PF) muscles at three knee angles. METHODS: Twelve young adults were tested for three knee angles (90°, 30° and 0°) and at three time points separated by 1 hour (intra-session) and 7 days (inter-session). Electrical (H reflex, M wave) and mechanical (evoked and maximal voluntary torque, activation level) parameters were measured on the PF muscles...
2018: PloS One
Essi Marttinen Rossi, Päivi Nevalainen, Helena Mäenpää, Leena Lauronen
Idiopathic toe walking is a relatively common developmental condition often leading to secondary problems such as pain and muscle contractures in the lower extremities. The cause of idiopathic toe walking is unknown, which hinders the development of treatment strategies. To test whether children with idiopathic toe walking have functional alterations in their spinal motor circuits, we studied the properties of the soleus H-reflex and its modulation with vibration in 26 idiopathic toe walkers and 16 typically developing children...
April 2018: Journal of Child Neurology
Simon Barrué-Belou, Philippe Marque, Julien Duclay
AIM: This study was designed to investigate the influence of muscle contraction type on spinal recurrent inhibition during maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) of the plantar flexor muscles. METHODS: To that purpose, the paired Hoffmann-reflex (H-reflex) technique permitted to assess changes in recurrent pathway by comparing the modulations of test, reference and conditioning H-reflexes (H', Href and H1 respectively) in the soleus muscle during isometric, concentric and eccentric MVC...
March 25, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Jakob Lorentzen, Maria Willerslev-Olsen, Helle Hüche Larsen, Christian Svane, Christian Forman, Rasmus Frisk, Simon Francis Farmer, Uwe Kersting, Jens Bo Nielsen
Toe walking requires careful control of the ankle muscles in order to absorb the impact of ground contact and maintain a stable position of the joint. The present study aimed to clarify the peripheral and central neural mechanisms involved. Fifteen healthy adults walked on a treadmill (3.0 km h-1 ). Tibialis Anterior (TA) and Soleus (Sol) EMG, knee and ankle joint angles and gastrocnemius-soleus muscle fascicle lengths were recorded. Peripheral and central contributions to the EMG activity were assessed by afferent blockade, H-reflex testing, Transcranial Magnetic Brain Stimulation (TMS) and sudden unloading of the planter flexor muscle-tendon complex...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Physiology
David Burke, G Michael Halmagyi
CANVAS is a recently defined progressive ataxic syndrome with impairment of vestibular, somatosensory and cerebellar function due to atrophic degeneration of dorsal root ganglia and dorsal columns, of cranial nerve somatosensory ganglia, of vestibular ganglia and vestibular nerves and of cerebellar Purkinje cells. While all patients eventually develop sensory impairment in a non-length dependent pattern and lose sensory nerve action potentials, some retain their tendon reflexes. Here we study 5 CANVAS patients with absent sensory nerve action potentials but intact, even brisk Achilles tendon reflexes and, in 4, preserved H reflexes in the upper and lower limbs...
April 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Malgorzata Klass, Bart Roelands, Romain Meeusen, Jacques Duchateau
PURPOSE: To determine the role of noradrenergic modulation in the control of motor output, we compared the acute effect of Reboxetine (REB), a noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, to a placebo (PLA) on knee extensors motor performance and cortical and spinal excitability. METHODS: Eleven young males took part in two randomized experiments during which they received either 8 mg of REB or a PLA. The torque produced during a maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and its variability (i...
March 22, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Stefane A Aguiar, Stuart N Baker
Non-invasive assessment of spinal circuitry in humans is limited, especially for Ib pathways in the upper limb. We developed a protocol in which we evoke the H-reflex in flexor carpi radialis (FCR) by median nerve stimulation and condition it with electrical stimulation above motor threshold over the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscle belly. Eighteen healthy adults (eight male, ten female) took part in the study. There was a clear reflex facilitation at 30 ms inter-stimulus interval (ISI), and suppression at 70 ms ISI, which was highly consistent across subjects...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Martin Keller, Wolfgang Taube, Benedikt Lauber
BACKGROUND: Motor imagery and actual movements share overlapping activation of brain areas but little is known about task-specific activation of distinct motor pathways during mental simulation of movements. For real contractions, it was demonstrated that the slow(er) motor pathways are activated differently in ballistic compared to tonic contractions but it is unknown if this also holds true for imagined contractions. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to assess the activity of fast and slow(er) motor pathways during mentally simulated movements of ballistic and tonic contractions...
February 22, 2018: Brain Stimulation
F Sammali, L Xu, C Rabotti, M Cardinale, Y Xu, J P van Dijk, M J Zwarts, Z Del Prete, M Mischi
Vibration exercise (VE) has been suggested as an effective training for improving muscle strength and coordination. However, the underlying physiological adaptation processes are not yet fully understood, limiting the development of safe and effective exercise protocols. To better understand the neuromuscular responses elicited by VE, we aimed at investigating the acute effects of superimposed vibration on the Hoffmann reflex (H-reflex), measured after fatiguing exercise. Twenty-five volunteers performed four isometric contractions of the right Flexor Carpi Radialis (FCR) with baseline load at 80% of their maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), both with no vibration and with superimposed vibration at 15, 30, and 45 Hz...
April 2018: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
Kathia Cordero, Gemma G Coronel, Miguel Serrano-Illán, Jennifer Cruz-Bracero, Johnny D Figueroa, Marino De León
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) results in debilitating autonomic dysfunctions, paralysis and significant sensorimotor impairments. A key component of SCI is the generation of free radicals that contributes to the high levels of oxidative stress observed. This study investigates whether dietary supplementation with the antioxidant vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) improves functional recovery after SCI. Female adult Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either with a normal diet or a dietary regiment supplemented with vitamin E (51 IU/g) for eight weeks...
February 26, 2018: Brain Sciences
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