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History of Psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880971/the-risk-factors-of-postoperative-delirium-after-total-knee-arthroplasty
#1
Lih Wang, Sangyun Seok, Sungsoo Kim, Kyungtaek Kim, Seunghyun Lee, Kyungho Lee
We investigated the results of delirium which developed after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and the risk factors for delirium in the patients who are older than 65 years. From March 2008 to March 2012, we performed a retrospective study on 296 knees of 265 patients who were treated with TKA. They were divided into two groups: 216 patients without delirium and 49 patients diagnosed with delirium by psychiatry. We analyzed the risk factors into three categories: First, the preoperative factors including gender, age, body mass index (BMI), clinical and functional knee joint score (Knee Society Knee Score and Knee Society Function Score) and the number of underlying diseases and associations with each disease; Second, the operative factors including the anesthesia method, amount of blood loss, operating time, laboratory factors, and transfusion count; Third, the postoperative factors such as start time of walking and duration of hospital stay were analyzed...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Knee Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872258/bipolar-at-risk-criteria-an-examination-of-which-clinical-features-have-optimal-utility-for-identifying-youth-at-risk-of-early-transition-from-depression-to-bipolar-disorders
#2
Jan Scott, Steven Marwaha, Aswin Ratheesh, Iain Macmillan, Alison R Yung, Richard Morriss, Ian B Hickie, Andreas Bechdolf
BACKGROUND: A clinical and research challenge is to identify which depressed youth are at risk of "early transition to bipolar disorders (ET-BD)." This 2-part study (1) examines the clinical utility of previously reported BD at-risk (BAR) criteria in differentiating ET-BD cases from unipolar depression (UP) controls; and (2) estimates the Number Needed to Screen (NNS) for research and general psychiatry settings. METHODS: Fifty cases with reliably ascertained, ET-BD I and II cases were matched for gender and birth year with 50 UP controls who did not develop BD over 2 years...
November 21, 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858874/the-analgesic-effect-of-therapeutic-rtms-is-not-mediated-or-predicted-by-comorbid-psychiatric-or-sleep-disorders
#3
Pauliina Lindholm, Salla Lamusuo, Tero Taiminen, Arja Virtanen, Antti Pertovaara, Heli Forssell, Nora Hagelberg, Satu Jääskeläinen
BACKGROUND: Mechanisms underlying alleviation of neuropathic pain by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of primary motor cortex (M1) and right secondary somatosensory cortex (S2) are only partly known. Patients with chronic neuropathic pain often have comorbidities like depression and sleep problems. Through functional connectivity, rTMS of M1 and S2 may activate dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the target for treating depression with rTMS. Thus, the analgesic effect of rTMS could be mediated indirectly via improvement of psychiatric comorbidities or sleep...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856767/suicidal-thinking-and-behaviour-as-of-600-bce-aesop-s-fables
#4
Julian Davis, Tammie T Money, Saxby Pridmore
OBJECTIVE: Psychiatry has ignored history, anthropology, sociology and literature in the search for enlightenment regarding suicide. Our objective was to determine what, if anything, Aesop's fables had to teach us about suicide in around 600 BCE. Aesop's account is around two centuries older than the oldest text (Herodotus: The histories) previously examined by our group. METHOD: We examined two translations of Aesop's fables, seeking accounts fitting the following categories: (1) suicidal thinking, (2) suicidal behaviour without fatal consequences, and (3) suicidal behaviour with fatal consequences...
November 17, 2016: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854131/perspectives-from-patients-and-healthcare-providers-on-the-practice-of-maternal-placentophagy
#5
Stephanie A Schuette, Kara M Brown, Danielle A Cuthbert, Cynthia W Coyle, Katherine L Wisner, M Camille Hoffman, Amy Yang, Jody D Ciolino, Rebecca L Newmark, Crystal T Clark
PURPOSE: Placentophagy (maternal consumption of the placenta) has become increasingly prevalent in the past decade among women seeking to promote health and healing during the postpartum period. The purpose of this study was to assess patient and provider familiarity with and attitudes toward placentophagy, as well as patients' willingness to try placentophagy. METHODS: Two cross-sectional surveys with questions regarding placentophagy practice were distributed to healthcare providers and patients...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842739/-psychiatry-and-biopolitics-in-context-of-war-understanding-conflict-to-build-the-post-conflict
#6
Paula Ariadna Corzo Pérez
The purpose of this document is to present a review on biopolitics and psychiatry in the context of war, considering that this is where the greatest number of altered and deviant behaviours is generated. Along this line, as it is not about the psychopathology, but of its behaviour, of the approaches of Michel Foucault as regards the relationships of power, as such that it allows introducing the reader to a new perspective of thinking and understanding of the elements that have given rise to the maintenance of violent behaviour patterns and of the war itself...
October 2016: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842737/-think-practice-and-write-the-revista-colombiana-de-psiquiatr%C3%A3-a-and-the-history-of-colombian-psychiatry-in-the-second-half-of-the-twentieth-century
#7
Olga Marcela Cruz Montalvo
This article analyses the part played by Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría in the development of psychiatry as a medical speciality in Colombia. Moreover, it discusses its role in helping to consolidate the biomedical perspective and evidence-based medicine in Colombian psychiatry.
October 2016: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830378/-the-diagnostic-relevance-of-cbcl-and-ysr-in-diagnosing-ptsd-in-adolescence
#8
Sabine Völkl-Kernstock, Katrin Skala, Sophie Klomfar, Oswald D Kothgassner
BACKGROUND: The present study sought to examine the symptomatology of children and adolescents with a history of trauma experience of using the German versions of Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Youth Self Report (YSR). We pursue the question to what extent symptoms differ among adolescents with and without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A further objective is comparing self-assessment of the children and adolescents with the rating of their parents or caregivers. METHODS: Overall N = 41 patients, aged 11-18 years, and one caregiver of each patient were surveyed...
December 2016: Neuropsychiatrie: Klinik, Diagnostik, Therapie und Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829386/why-are-hospital-doctors-not-referring-to-consultation-liaison-psychiatry-a-systemic-review
#9
Kai Yang Chen, Rebecca Evans, Sarah Larkins
BACKGROUND: Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry (CLP) is a subspecialty of psychiatry that provides care to inpatients under non-psychiatric care. Despite evidence of benefits of CLP for inpatients with psychiatric comorbidities, referral rates from hospital doctors remain low. This review aims to understand barriers to CLP inpatient referral as described in the literature. METHODS: We searched on Medline, PsychINFO, CINAHL and SCOPUS, using MESH and the following keywords: 1) Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry, Consultation Liaison Psychiatry, Consultation Psychiatry, Liaison Psychiatry, Hospital Psychiatry, Psychosomatic Medicine, the 2) Referral, Consultation, Consultancy and 3) Inpatient, Hospitalized patient, Hospitalized patient...
November 9, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818368/psychogenic-non-epileptic-seizures
#10
Robert C Doss, W Curt LaFrance
Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) are diagnosed in at least 10-40% of the patients seen for long-term monitoring of epilepsy, and it is no surprise that patients with PNES are often treated for epilepsy. Given the substantial economic costs and mental health burden of misdiagnosis, it is imperative to establish early identification, correct diagnosis, and effective treatment of PNES in order to provide the greatest opportunity for remission of events, improved psychological functioning, and social-vocational outcome...
November 4, 2016: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816610/forward-psychiatry%C3%A2-%C3%A2-early-intervention-for-mental-health-problems-among-uk-armed-forces-in-afghanistan
#11
N Jones, N T Fear, S Wessely, G Thandi, N Greenberg
BACKGROUND: This observational study examined return to duty (RTD) rates following receipt of early mental health interventions delivered by deployed mental health practitioners. METHOD: In-depth clinical interviews were conducted among 975 UK military personnel referred for mental health assessment whilst deployed in Afghanistan. Socio-demographic, military, operational, clinical and therapy outcomes were recorded in an electronic health record database. Rates and predictors of EVAC were the main outcomes examined using adjusted binary logistic regression analyses...
November 3, 2016: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803237/reconstructing-the-eclectic-psychiatry-of-thomas-ferguson-rodger
#12
Sarah Phelan
This article provides an introduction to the approach of the Scottish psychiatrist Thomas Ferguson Rodger (1907-78), as reconstructed from his archive. Rodger's contribution has been largely neglected within the history of Scottish psychiatry. This paper amends this neglect through situating Rodger's eclecticism in relation to both the biopsychosocial approach of his mentors, Adolf Meyer and David Henderson, and psychiatry's de-institutionalization in the 1950s and 1960s. It is posited that Rodger's eclecticism was a considered response to the pressures of this transitional phase to balance physical, psychological and social approaches, and a critical acknowledgement of the instability of contemporary psychiatric therapeutics...
November 1, 2016: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801890/changed-gene-expression-in-subjects-with-schizophrenia-and-low-cortical-muscarinic-m1-receptors-predicts-disrupted-upstream-pathways-interacting-with-that-receptor
#13
E Scarr, M Udawela, E A Thomas, B Dean
We tested the hypothesis that, compared with subjects with no history of psychiatric illness (controls), changes in gene expression in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex from two subgroups of subjects with schizophrenia, one with a marked deficit in muscarinic M1 receptors (muscarinic receptor-deficit schizophrenia (MRDS)), would identify different biochemical pathways that would be affected by their aetiologies. Hence, we measured levels of cortical (Brodmann area 9) mRNA in 15 MRDS subjects, 15 subjects with schizophrenia but without a deficit in muscarinic M1 receptors (non-MRDS) and 15 controls using Affymetrix Exon 1...
November 1, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791968/the-whole-versus-the-sum-of-some-of-the-parts-toward-resolving-the-apparent-controversy-of-clitoral-versus-vaginal-orgasms
#14
James G Pfaus, Gonzalo R Quintana, Conall Mac Cionnaith, Mayte Parada
BACKGROUND: The nature of a woman's orgasm has been a source of scientific, political, and cultural debate for over a century. Since the Victorian era, the pendulum has swung from the vagina to the clitoris, and to some extent back again, with the current debate stuck over whether internal sensory structures exist in the vagina that could account for orgasms based largely on their stimulation, or whether stimulation of the external glans clitoris is always necessary for orgasm. METHOD: We review the history of the clitoral versus vaginal orgasm debate as it has evolved with conflicting ideas and data from psychiatry and psychoanalysis, epidemiology, evolutionary theory, feminist political theory, physiology, and finally neuroscience...
2016: Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789588/henderson-and-meyer-in-correspondence-a-transatlantic-history-of-dynamic-psychiatry-1908-29
#15
Hazel Morrison
Charting a transatlantic movement of so-called 'dynamic psychiatry' during the early twentieth century, this paper reads against the grain of established historiographies. Comparing biographical and autobiographical sources with contemporary correspondence, a history is told which considers the evolution of psychiatric knowledge and clinical practices 'from below'. Revealing a period and place when a 'dynamic' counter-culture challenged the established materialist views of Scottish psychiatry, the longevity of this challenge is considered in the concluding paragraphs...
October 27, 2016: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785752/training-psychiatry-residents-in-psychotherapy-the-role-of-manualized-treatments
#16
REVIEW
Joshua Pagano, Brandon N Kyle, Toni L Johnson, Sy Atezaz Saeed
Evidence-based treatment and manualized psychotherapy have a recent but rich history. As interest and research have progressed, defining the role of treatment manuals in resident training and clinical practice has become more important. Although there is not a universal definition of treatment manual, most clinicians and researchers agree that treatment manuals are an essential piece of evidence-based therapy, and that despite several limitations, they offer advantages in training residents in psychotherapy...
October 27, 2016: Psychiatric Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27772665/-reconciliating-neurology-and-psychiatry-the-prototypical-case-of-frontotemporal-dementia
#17
J Lagarde, M Sarazin
Frontotemporal degeneration (FTD) in its behavioral variant (bvFTD) is probably one of the conditions that best illustrates the links between psychiatry and neurology. It is indeed admitted that between a third and half of patients with this condition, especially in early-onset forms, receive an initial diagnosis of psychiatric disorder (depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder) and are then referred to a psychiatric ward. BvFTD can thus be considered a neurological disorder with a psychiatric presentation...
October 20, 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746252/surgical-approaches-in-psychiatry-a-survey-of-the-world-literature-on-psychosurgery
#18
REVIEW
Felix Neumaier, Mario Paterno, Serdar Alpdogan, Etienne E Tevoufouet, Toni Schneider, Jürgen Hescheler, Walid Albanna
Brain surgery to promote behavioral or affective changes in humans remains one of the most controversial topics at the interface of medicine, psychiatry, neuroscience, and bioethics. Rapid expansion of neuropsychiatric deep brain stimulation has recently revived the field and careful appraisal of its 2 sides is warranted: namely, the promise to help severely devastated patients on the one hand and the dangers of premature application without appropriate justification on the other. Here, we reconstruct the vivid history of the field and examine its present status to delineate the progression from crude freehand operations into a multidisciplinary treatment of last resort...
October 13, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746070/use-of-tablet-devices-in-the-management-of-agitation-among-inpatients-with-dementia-an-open-label-study
#19
Ipsit V Vahia, Rujvi Kamat, Cheng Vang, Carolina Posada, Lisa Ross, Sarah Oreck, Alok Bhatt, Colin Depp, Dilip V Jeste, Daniel D Sewell
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feasibility, safety, and utility of tablet devices as novel nonpharmacologic tools in managing older psychiatric inpatients with agitation and dementia. METHODS: Thirty-six patients at a geriatric psychiatry inpatient unit were provided with tablets when agitated and used various apps on the tablet related to communication, games, music, web browser, and photography during their stay. Study staff documented the frequency, duration, and app usage history and rated the extent to which agitation improved after tablet use...
August 4, 2016: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721969/evaluation-of-olanzapine-pamoate-depot-in-seriously-violent-males-with-schizophrenia-in-the-community
#20
John Kasinathan, Gillian Sharp, Anthony Barker
OBJECTIVES: Olanzapine is a well established treatment for schizophrenia. The olanzapine pamoate depot (long-acting injectable) formulation improves compliance and clinical trials have shown it to be effective. However, there are no previously published reports evaluating olanzapine depot in violent patients with schizophrenia in the community. We evaluated the clinical efficacy of olanzapine depot, its effect on violence, hospitalization and incarceration in community patients with schizophrenia and prior history of serious violence...
October 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology
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