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History of Psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756495/historicizing-transcultural-psychiatry-people-epistemic-objects-networks-and-practices
#1
Emmanuel Delille, Ivan Crozier
The history of transcultural psychiatry has recently attracted much historical attention, including a workshop in March 2016 in which an international panel of scholars met at the Maison de Sciences de l'Homme Paris-Nord (MSH-PN). Papers from this workshop are presented here. By conceiving of transcultural psychiatry as a dynamic social field that frames its knowledge claims around epistemic objects that are specific to the field, and by focusing on the ways that concepts within this field are used to organize intellectual work, several themes are explored that draw this field into the historiography of psychiatry...
May 1, 2018: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755375/influence-of-crhr1-polymorphisms-and-childhood-abuse-on-suicide-attempts-in-affective-disorders-a-gxe-approach
#2
Birgit Ludwig, Klemens Kienesberger, Laura Carlberg, Patrick Swoboda, Alexandra Bernegger, Romina Koller, Qingzhong Wang, Michelle Inaner, Melanie Zotter, Nestor D Kapusta, Helmuth Haslacher, Martin Aigner, Siegfried Kasper, Alexandra Schosser
Background: Previous studies have shown that the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis (HPA-axis) is closely involved in the development of affective disorders. Given that early life events are also linked to dysregulation of the same system, there might be an association between childhood adversities and suicidal behavior in affective disorders, moderated by HPA-axis genes. We aimed to investigate a potential association between childhood trauma and previous suicide attempts in affective disorder patients, moderated by variants of the corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) gene...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739387/variability-and-dimensionality-of-students-and-supervisors-mini-cex-scores-in-undergraduate-medical-clerkships-a-multilevel-factor-analysis
#3
Christoph Berendonk, Anja Rogausch, Armin Gemperli, Wolfgang Himmel
BACKGROUND: The mini clinical evaluation exercise (mini-CEX)-a tool used to assess student-patient encounters-is increasingly being applied as a learning device to foster clinical competencies. Although the importance of eliciting self-assessment for learning is widely acknowledged, little is known about the validity of self-assessed mini-CEX scores. The aims of this study were (1) to explore the variability of medical students' self-assessed mini-CEX scores, and to compare them with the scores obtained from their clinical supervisors, and (2) to ascertain whether learners' self-assessed mini-CEX scores represent a global dimension of clinical competence or discrete clinical skills...
May 8, 2018: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733868/investigation-of-belinostat-induced-genomic-instability-by-molecular-cytogenetic-analysis-and-pathway-focused-gene-expression-profiling
#4
S M Attia, M A Al-Hamamah, M R Alotaibi, G I Harisa, M M Attia, S F Ahmad, M A Ansari, A Nadeem, S A Bakheet
Histone deacetylases (HDACs), which regulate transcription and specific functions such as tumor suppression by p53, are frequently altered in tumors and have a contentious role in carcinogenesis. HDAC inhibitors, which have a long history of use in psychiatry and neurology, have recently been tested as possible treatments for tumors. Belinostat received regulatory approval in the USA on July 3, 2014, for use against peripheral T-cell lymphoma. However, the unavailability of information on belinostat genotoxicity in normal cells and the molecular mechanisms involved in the genetic instability after exposure to belinostat encouraged us to conduct this study...
May 4, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730870/effects-of-gender-reassignment-on-quality-of-life-and-mental-health-in-people-with-gender-dysphoria
#5
Berna Özata Yıldızhan, Şahika Yüksel, Mirella Avayu, Handan Noyan, Eren Yıldızhan
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to compare the life style, family and social relationships (social adaptation) and the quality of life in people with gender dysphoria with and without history of sex reassignment surgery. METHOD: Twenty  individuals (SR group) who were earlier followed   in Istanbul University Psychiatry Department Psychoneurosis and Psychotherapy Unit with gender dysphoria diagnosis in  order  to  have confirmative reports for the sex reassignment (SR) surgery were interviewed at least one year after the surgery...
2018: Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729979/metabolic-syndrome-and-associated-factors-among-psychiatric-patients-in-jimma-university-specialized-hospital-south-west-ethiopia
#6
Sintayehu Asaye, Shiferaw Bekele, Daniel Tolessa, Waqtola Cheneke
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome is a multisystem disorder which coined to describe the recognized clustering of metabolic and cardiovascular abnormalities including obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and abnormalities of glucose homeostasis. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and associated factors of metabolic syndrome among psychiatric patients in Jimma University Specialized Hospital. METHODS: This study was conducted at Jimma University Specialized hospital psychiatric ward from May 15 to July 16, 2015...
April 24, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723033/adolescent-clinical-populations-and-associations-between-trauma-and-behavioral-and-emotional-problems
#7
Doyanne Darnell, Aaron Flaster, Karin Hendricks, Amanda Kerbrat, Katherine Anne Comtois
OBJECTIVE: Trauma exposure is common during childhood and adolescence and is associated with youth emotional and behavioral problems. The present study adds to the current literature on trauma exposure among adolescent clinical populations by examining the association between trauma exposure and adolescent self-report of emotional and behavioral problems broadly, including internalizing and externalizing symptoms, in addition to the trauma-specific symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)...
May 3, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719288/the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-a-brief-history
#8
Walter L Miller
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is central to homeostasis, stress responses, energy metabolism, and neuropsychiatric function. The history of this complex system involves discovery of the relevant glands (adrenal, pituitary, hypothalamus), hormones (cortisol, corticotropin, corticotropin-releasing hormone), and the receptors for these hormones. The adrenal and pituitary were identified by classical anatomists, but most of this history has taken place rather recently, and has involved complex chemistry, biochemistry, genetics, and clinical investigation...
May 2, 2018: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707086/epigenetics-of-metabolic-syndrome-as-a-mood-disorder
#9
REVIEW
Sermin Kesebir
Mood disorders comprise major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder (BD) and the milder forms of these two disorders. Reccurring MDD is also known as unipolar disorder. The distinction between unipolar and bipolar disorders was first suggested in 1957 by Leonard and was made official after support by several studies in 1980. Indeed, in 150 AD, Aretaeus of Cappadocia wrote "It seems to me that melancholia is the beginning and a part of mania". Additionally, Kraepelin, who proposed the first medical disease model in psychiatry a century ago, considered recurrent unipolar depression cases under the category of bipolar disorder and conceptualized spectrum disorders...
June 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704415/ways-of-understanding-of-religious-delusions-associated-with-a-change-of-identity-on-the-example-of-identification-with-jesus-christ
#10
REVIEW
Krzysztof Dyga, Radosław Stupak
Identification with Christ among psychiatric patients is an example of a complex and multifaceted phenomenon. As a delusion it includes a misidentification (change of identity) in the layer of content and, usually, grandiosity and/or paranoid traits in the formal aspect. What is more, it fits in the category of religious delusions, which are perhaps the most controversial type of delusions and as such require special sensitivity as well as knowledge beyond psychology or psychiatry. The aim of the articleis to show the phenomenon of identification with Christ among psychiatric patients, taking into account different ways of its explaining and understanding...
February 28, 2018: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698543/clinical-course-and-prevalence-of-coercive-measures-an-observational-study-among-involuntarily-hospitalised-psychiatric-patients
#11
Florian Hotzy, Sonja Moetteli, Anastasia Theodoridou, Andres Ricardo Schneeberger, Erich Seifritz, Paul Hoff, Matthias Jäger
AIMS OF THE STUDY: In daily clinical work, coercion continues to be highly prevalent, with rates differing between countries and sometimes even within countries or between wards of the same hospital. Previous research found inconsistent characteristics of individuals who underwent coercive measures during psychiatric treatment. Furthermore, there continues to be a lack of knowledge on the clinical course of people after being involuntarily committed. This study aimed to describe the rate and duration of different coercive measures and characterise a cohort of involuntarily committed patients regarding sociodemographic and clinical variables...
April 26, 2018: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687306/psychiatric-resident-participation-in-an-asylum-clinic-a-single-institutional-experience
#12
Nikhil A Patel, Nina Sreshta, Amber Frank, Robert P Marlin, J Wesley Boyd
OBJECTIVE: This study describes the experiences of adult psychiatry residents working in an established faculty-led asylum clinic within a community-based, academic residency program at the Cambridge Health Alliance. METHODS: Eighteen psychiatry residents who participated in the asylum clinic were sent electronic surveys asking about their background and experience. Respondents' responses were collected anonymously. RESULTS: Sixteen out of 18 (89%) trainees responded...
April 23, 2018: Academic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682383/polysubstance-and-behavioral-addictions-in-a-patient-with-bipolar-disorder-role-of-lifetime-subthreshold-autism-spectrum
#13
Liliana Dell'Osso, Ciro Conversano, Martina Corsi, Carlo A Bertelloni, Ivan M Cremone, Barbara Carpita, Manuel G Carbone, Camilla Gesi, Claudia Carmassi
This case report draws attention to the potential relevance of undetected autism spectrum symptoms in a bipolar patient with high work functioning showing a peculiar addictive profile with impulsive and antisocial behaviors. A 23-year-old man with a diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder (BD) and Substance Use Disorder (SUD) was hospitalized at the Psychiatric Clinic of the University of Pisa for diuretics and β -2 adrenergic agonist abuse in a remission phase of benzodiazepines and substance abuse. He reported a history of behavioral addictions in the framework of a global high work functioning with particular skills in computer science...
2018: Case Reports in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673739/association-of-serotonin-and-gaba-pathway-gene-polymorphisms-with-alcohol-dependence-a-preliminary-study
#14
Shweta Sahni, Mayanka Tickoo, Ranjan Gupta, Meera Vaswani, Atul Ambekar, Tripti Grover, Arundhati Sharma
BACKGROUND: Alcohol dependence (AD), characterized by profound disruptions in specific circuits of the brain is influenced by both environmental, which play a significant role in developing addiction and genetic factors, which make some individuals more susceptible to disruptions. Various polymorphisms in the neurotransmitter genes are reported to increase the risk of developing dependence. The present study aimed to identify association of serotonin and GABA polymorphisms with AD in Indian subjects...
April 9, 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669557/discovery-biology-of-neuropsychiatric-syndromes-dbns-a-center-for-integrating-clinical-medicine-and-basic-science
#15
Biju Viswanath, Naren P Rao, Janardhanan C Narayanaswamy, Palanimuthu T Sivakumar, Arun Kandasamy, Muralidharan Kesavan, Urvakhsh Meherwan Mehta, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian, John P John, Odity Mukherjee, Meera Purushottam, Ramakrishnan Kannan, Bhupesh Mehta, Thennarasu Kandavel, B Binukumar, Jitender Saini, Deepak Jayarajan, A Shyamsundar, Sydney Moirangthem, K G Vijay Kumar, Jagadisha Thirthalli, Prabha S Chandra, Bangalore N Gangadhar, Pratima Murthy, Mitradas M Panicker, Upinder S Bhalla, Sumantra Chattarji, Vivek Benegal, Mathew Varghese, Janardhan Y C Reddy, Padinjat Raghu, Mahendra Rao, Sanjeev Jain
BACKGROUND: There is emerging evidence that there are shared genetic, environmental and developmental risk factors in psychiatry, that cut across traditional diagnostic boundaries. With this background, the Discovery biology of neuropsychiatric syndromes (DBNS) proposes to recruit patients from five different syndromes (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, Alzheimer's dementia and substance use disorders), identify those with multiple affected relatives, and invite these families to participate in this study...
April 18, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662523/sexual-health-of-adolescent-patients-admitted-to-a-psychiatric-unit
#16
Megan E Harrison, Stephanie Veldhuijzen van Zanten, Ariana Noel, Louise Gresham, Mark L Norris, Amy Robinson, Jason Chan, Addo Boafo
Objective: To review sexual health screening practices during admission to an adolescent psychiatry unit. Method: Retrospective chart review of randomly selected youth admitted over a one-year period (2013). Data extracted included demographics, reasons for admission, sexual health history, as well as any comorbid behaviours noted. The main outcome measure was whether sexual health details were documented at any time during admission; if so, this information was extracted for analysis...
April 2018: Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661008/psychiatry-in-american-medical-education-the-case-of-harvard-s-medical-school-1900-1945
#17
Tara H Abraham
As American psychiatrists moved from the asylum to the private clinic during the early twentieth century, psychiatry acquired a growing presence within medical school curricula. This shift in disciplinary status took place at a time when medical education itself was experiencing a period of reform. By examining medical school registers at Harvard University, records from the Dean's office of Harvard's medical school, and oral histories, this paper examines the rise in prominence of psychiatry in medical education...
April 16, 2018: Canadian Bulletin of Medical History, Bulletin Canadien D'histoire de la Médecine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625572/standardized-patients-in-psychiatry-the-best-way-to-learn-clinical-skills
#18
Monika Himmelbauer, Tamara Seitz, Charles Seidman, Henriette Löffler-Stastka
BACKGROUND: Standardized patients (SP) have been successfully utilized in medical education to train students' communication skills. At the Medical University of Vienna communication training with SPs in psychiatry is a mandatory part of the curriculum. In the training, the SP plays the role of four different patients suffering from depression/suicidal tendencies, somatoform disorder, anxiety disorder, or borderline disorder while the student attempts to gather the patient's medical history...
April 6, 2018: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621902/all-for-one-and-one-for-all-mental-disorders-in-one-dimension
#19
Avshalom Caspi, Terrie E Moffitt
In both child and adult psychiatry, empirical evidence has now accrued to suggest that a single dimension is able to measure a person's liability to mental disorder, comorbidity among disorders, persistence of disorders over time, and severity of symptoms. This single dimension of general psychopathology has been termed "p," because it conceptually parallels a dimension already familiar to behavioral scientists and clinicians: the "g" factor of general intelligence. As the g dimension reflects low to high mental ability, the p dimension represents low to high psychopathology severity, with thought disorder at the extreme...
April 6, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604524/prevalence-and-clinical-correlates-of-intermittent-explosive-disorder-in-turkish-psychiatric-outpatients
#20
Volkan Gelegen, Lut Tamam
OBJECTIVE: Intermittent explosive disorder (IED) is defined as the failure to resist aggressive impulses resulting in repeated acts of verbal and/or physical aggression. Although it is frequently encountered in clinical psychiatric practice, there is a paucity of data concerning IED in the scientific literature both internationally and in Turkey. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of IED and associated sociodemographic and clinical features in a clinical setting. METHODS: A total of 406 patients who were referred to our psychiatry outpatient clinic for the first time in a six-month period were included in the study...
March 18, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
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