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Joseph E Kerschner, Jerris R Hedges, Karen Antman, Edward Abraham, Edgar Colón Negrón, J Larry Jameson
Academic medical center (AMC) faculty, administrators, and leaders have the critical tasks of teaching and training the next generation of health care providers and biomedical researchers, as well as generating new knowledge that improves the health of all. In the United States, medical schools and their affiliated hospitals train remarkably high-quality physicians and scientists, and the research conducted at these institutions results in advances in health. To that end, AMCs have become essential engines for driving better health in the United States and the rest of the world; they also have become essential engines driving the economies of their respective communities and regions...
March 13, 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Michael A Skinnider, David D W Twa, Jordan W Squair, Norman D Rosenblum, Christine D Lukac
CONTEXT: MD/PhD programmes provide structured paths for physician-scientist training. However, considerable proportions of graduates of these programmes do not pursue careers in research consistent with their training. OBJECTIVES: We sought to identify factors associated with sustained involvement in research after completion of all postgraduate training. METHODS: Anonymised data from a national survey of Canadian MD/PhD programme graduates who had completed all physician-scientist training (n = 70) were analysed...
March 13, 2018: Medical Education
Josef Greimler, Christian H Schulze, Patricio López Sepúlveda, Patricio Novoa, Alejandro Gatica, Karl Reiter, Johannes Wessely, Carlos Baeza, Patricio Peñailillo, Eduardo Ruiz, Tod Stuessy
Oceanic islands are vulnerable ecosystems and their flora has been under pressure since the arrival of the first humans. Human activities and both deliberately and inadvertently introduced biota have had and continue to have a severe impact on island endemic plants. The number of alien plants has increased nearly linearly on many islands, perhaps resulting in extinction-based saturation of island floras. Here, we provide evidence for such a scenario in Alejandro Selkirk, Robinson Crusoe Islands (Archipelago Juan Fernández, Chile)...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Yuval D Bar-Or, Henry E Fessler, Dipan A Desai, Sammy Zakaria
INTRODUCTION: Many residents and fellows complete graduate medical education having received minimal unbiased financial planning guidance. This places them at risk of making ill-informed financial decisions, which may lead to significant harm to them and their families. Therefore, we sought to provide fellows with comprehensive unbiased financial education and empower them to make timely, constructive financial decisions. METHODS: A self-selected cohort of cardiovascular disease, pulmonary and critical care, and infectious disease fellows (n = 18) at a single institution attended a live, eight-hour interactive course on personal finance...
January 1, 2018: Curēus
Ross J Roeser
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Audiology
George J Hall, Thomas J Sargent
Between 1776 and 1920, the US Congress designed more than 200 distinct securities and stated the maximum amount of each that the Treasury could sell. Between 1917 and 1939, Congress gradually delegated all decisions about designing US debt instruments to the Treasury. In 1939, Congress began imposing a limit on the par value of total federal debt outstanding. By summing Congressional borrowing authorizations outstanding each year for each bond, we construct a time series of implied federal debt limits before 1939...
March 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Adrian Svingos, Sarah Greif, Brittany Bailey, Shelley Heaton
Children with conditions affecting cognitive processes experience high levels of sleep disturbance, which may further compound the cognitive ramifications of their disorders. Despite this, existing studies in this area have been primarily confined to only particular diagnostic groups and/or a limited scope of sleep and cognitive parameters. The current study characterized the nature of sleep problems and examined the relationship between a wide range of sleep-related problems and cognitive functioning in a large ( N = 103) diagnostically heterogeneous sample of youth (aged 6-16) referred for neuropsychological assessment...
February 28, 2018: Children
Herman Christiaan Schakel, Erilia Hao Wu, Patrick Jeurissen
BACKGROUND: Publicly funded healthcare forms an intricate part of government spending in most Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries, because of its reliance on entitlements and dedicated revenue streams. The impact of budgetary rules and procedures on publicly funded health care might thus be different from other spending categories. In this study we focus on the potential of fiscal rules to contain these costs and their design features. METHODS: We assess the relationship between fiscal rules and the level of public health care expenditure of 32 (OECD) countries between 1985 and 2014...
March 1, 2018: BMC Public Health
Thomas Raap, Rianne Pinxten, Marcel Eens
Artificial light at night (ALAN) is a widespread and increasing environmental pollutant with known negative impacts on animal physiology and development. Physiological effects could occur through sleep disruption and deprivation, but this is difficult to quantify, especially in small developing birds. Sleep loss can potentially be quantified by using oxalate, a biomarker for sleep debt in adult humans and rats. We examined the effect of ALAN on oxalate in free-living developing great tits ( Parus major ) as effects during early-life could have long-lasting and irreversible consequences...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Barbara Marlenga, Nathan King, William Pickett, Joshua Lawson, Louise Hagel, James A Dosman
Objectives: To examine sleep patterns in a large cohort of rural children and explore the association between sleep patterns and injury occurrence. Methods: Cross-sectional analyses of the baseline survey from a prospective cohort study (2012 to 2017) was conducted with 46 rural schools in Saskatchewan, Canada who distributed surveys to parents of 2275 rural dwelling farm and nonfarm children aged 0 to 17 years. Parents reported child sleep characteristics and farm or nonfarm injury in the previous calendar year...
July 2017: Paediatrics & Child Health
Rishav Raj Agarwal, Chia-Ching Lin, Kuan-Ta Chen, Vivek Kumar Singh
An ability to understand and predict financial wellbeing for individuals is of interest to economists, policy designers, financial institutions, and the individuals themselves. According to the Nilson reports, there were more than 3 billion credit cards in use in 2013, accounting for purchases exceeding US$ 2.2 trillion, and according to the Federal Reserve report, 39% of American households were carrying credit card debt from month to month. Prior literature has connected individual financial wellbeing with social capital...
2018: PloS One
Andreas Oschlies
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 22, 2018: Nature
Ashley Lynch, Thomas Best, Sarah Catherine Gutierrez, Joshua A Daily
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Journal of Graduate Medical Education
Tod Van Gunten, Edo Navot
During the global housing boom that preceded the 2007-9 financial crisis, household debt increased substantially in many European countries, posing a challenge for literature on financialization and the institutional heterogeneity of mortgage markets. This paper examines recent institutional shifts in European mortgage markets and specifies three analytically distinct models of debt accumulation: inclusion, extension and intensity. While existing research has emphasized inclusion (access to homeownership), we show that financial intensification is an important determinant of cross-national variation in debt...
February 2018: Social Science Research
Alison C Cullen, C Leigh Anderson, Pierre Biscaye, Travis W Reynolds
Previous research has shown that men and women, on average, have different risk attitudes and may therefore see different value propositions in response to new opportunities. We use data from smallholder farm households in Mali to test whether risk perceptions differ by gender and across domains. We model this potential association across six risks (work injury, extreme weather, community relationships, debt, lack of buyers, and conflict) while controlling for demographic and attitudinal characteristics. Factor analysis highlights extreme weather and conflict as eliciting the most distinct patterns of participant response...
February 15, 2018: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
Kenneth Maes, Svea Closser, Yihenew Tesfaye, Yasmine Gilbert, Roza Abesha
BACKGROUND: Many Community Health Workers (CHWs) experience the same socioeconomic and health needs as their neighbors, given that they are by definition part of their communities. Yet very few studies aim to measure and characterize experiences of deprivation, poverty, and wellbeing among community health workers. This study quantitatively examines deprivation and wellbeing in Ethiopia's Women's Development Army (WDA), a massive unpaid community health workforce intended to improve population health and modernize the country...
February 14, 2018: BMC Public Health
Gemma Mestre-Bach, Trevor Steward, Roser Granero, Fernando Fernández-Aranda, María Teresa Talón-Navarro, Àngel Cuquerella, Marta Baño, Laura Moragas, Amparo Del Pino-Gutiérrez, Neus Aymamí, Mónica Gómez-Peña, Núria Mallorquí-Bagué, Cristina Vintró-Alcaraz, Pablo Magaña, José Manuel Menchón, Susana Jiménez-Murcia
Gambling disorder (GD) is a psychiatric condition that was recently recategorized as a non-substance-related addiction in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Health Disorders. Criminal activity is commonly associated with gambling; however, few empirical studies to date have examined sociodemographic and psychological variables in this population. In this study, we explored criminal behavior history in a sample of consecutively recruited treatment-seeking gamblers (n = 382) and compared subjects with a history of illegal acts (n = 103, 26...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Ann Macaskill
BACKGROUND: Student mental health is a global issue. Macaskill reported that the second year was associated with the most significant increases in psychiatric symptoms in UK students. Qualitative data were collected to explore this further. METHOD: Twenty-three second-year undergraduate students were interviewed using a narrative interviewing method to explore their experience of their second year of study. They also completed the General Health Questionnaire-28...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Mental Health
Jeromey B Temple, Ruth Williams
OBJECTIVE: Given recent rises in out-of-pocket health expenses, we examined the financial well-being of older Australians with multiple health conditions and disabilities. METHODS: The 2014 General Social Survey was used to measure the: (i) current financial position; (ii) propensity to experience financial difficulties; and (iii) types of behaviours older people with multiple health conditions engage in to improve financial resilience. RESULTS: Compared to older Australians with no health conditions, respondents with multiple health conditions had lower incomes and assets and a higher propensity to hold consumer debt (once controls were included)...
February 10, 2018: Australasian Journal on Ageing
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