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Marija Bakotic, Biserka Radosevic-Vidacek, Adrijana Koscec Bjelajac
The aim of this study was to explore the mediating role of sleep characteristics in the relationship between morningness-eveningness and three different aspects of daytime functioning: daytime sleepiness, depressive mood and substance use in university students. A multiple mediator model was proposed with sleep debt, poor sleep quality and bedtime delay at weekends as parallel mediators in these relationships. We analysed the data of 1052 university students aged 18-25 years who completed a modified version of the School Sleep Habits Survey, which included questions on sleep and the Composite Scale of Morningness, Sleepiness Scale, Depressive Mood Scale and Substance Use Scale...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Sleep Research
Selwin S Audhoe, Karen Nieuwenhuijsen, Jan L Hoving, Judith K Sluiter, Monique H W Frings-Dresen
PURPOSE: To evaluate the barriers to and solutions for return to work (RTW) from the perspective of unemployed workers who were sick-listed due to mental health problems. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured interviews with 25 sick-listed unemployed workers with mental health problems. Qualitative data analysis was performed, using a process of identifying, coding, and categorising the patterns in data. RESULTS: All workers experienced multiple problems in different domains of life related to their disease, personal circumstances (e...
October 19, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
Cheryl K Altice, Matthew P Banegas, Reginald D Tucker-Seeley, K Robin Yabroff
BACKGROUND: With rising cancer care costs, including high-priced cancer drugs, financial hardship is increasingly documented among cancer survivors in the United States; research findings have not been synthesized. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of articles published between 1990 and 2015 describing the financial hardship experienced by cancer survivors using PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and CINAHL databases. We categorized measures of financial hardship into: material conditions (eg, out-of-pocket costs, productivity loss, medical debt, or bankruptcy), psychological responses (eg, distress or worry), and coping behaviors (eg, skipped medications)...
February 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Christoph Gyo, Michael Boll, Dörthe Brüggmann, Doris Klingelhöfer, David Quarcoo, David A Groneberg
BACKGROUND: State-certified occupational physicians who work as civil servants in the Federal Republic of Germany are key players in the German Public Health system. They control i.e. the legal compliance in occupational health and participate in the occupational disease procedures. Despite the role model function of the German Public health system for many developing countries, this area of Public health is debated to have been hampered in the past years by a disregard concerning structural developments...
2016: Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology
Brice Faraut, Thomas Andrillon, Marie-Françoise Vecchierini, Damien Leger
Sleep specialists have proposed measures to counteract the negative short- and long-term consequences of sleep debt, and some have suggested the nap as a potential and powerful "public health tool". Here, we address this countermeasure aspect of napping viewed as an action against sleep deprivation rather than an action associated with poor health. We review the physiological functions that have been associated positively with napping in both public health and clinical settings (sleep-related accidents, work and school, and cardiovascular risk) and in laboratory-based studies with potential public health issues (cognitive performance, stress, immune function and pain sensitivity)...
September 13, 2016: Sleep Medicine Reviews
Shannon O'Hare
Many mature students with valuable transferable life skills will no longer be able to train to be a nurse as accruing a large debt later in life is not an option for those who are running a home and raising children.
September 14, 2016: Nursing Standard
Damien A Fordham, Barry W Brook, Conrad J Hoskin, Robert L Pressey, Jeremy VanDerWal, Stephen E Williams
The effect of twenty-first-century climate change on biodiversity is commonly forecast based on modelled shifts in species ranges, linked to habitat suitability. These projections have been coupled with species-area relationships (SAR) to infer extinction rates indirectly as a result of the loss of climatically suitable areas and associated habitat. This approach does not model population dynamics explicitly, and so accepts that extinctions might occur after substantial (but unknown) delays-an extinction debt...
October 2016: Biology Letters
Sarah MacLean, Ross Hengsen, Raelene Stephens
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: This article identifies factors that participants in a study based in an Australian regional centre believed to be critical to understanding and responding to crystal methamphetamine (ice) use among Aboriginal people. DESIGN AND METHODS: The study entailed a participatory methodology involving a university and an Aboriginal community controlled organisation. Semi-structured interviews conducted with ice users (n = 14), family members (n = 6) and workers (n = 6) were analysed thematically...
October 11, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Review
K Sartorius, B Sartorius, P S Govender, V Sharma, A Sherriff
The exponential rise in cancer costs in South Africa (SA) was illustrated in a recent Sunday Times article entitled 'The cost of cancer can be a debt sentence'. Our Minister of Health talks of a 'war' against the high costs of cancer drugs, and epidemiologists project a sharply rising incidence. Eminent international medical journals, such as The Lancet, underline the fact that cancer cost is a growing international problem that confronts even the richest countries. If richer countries in the world are battling to cover the costs of cancer, what is the prognosis for SA?...
September 6, 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Lisbeth Ku, Anise M S Wu, Angie K P Lao, Kerwin I N Lam
Chinese consumers' spending has been expanding rapidly in the past decade, and along with it household and credit card debt. The present research collected evidence to triangulate the contention that materialism is positively related with Chinese's problem spending tendency (PST), and that present-time-perspective (PTP) and future-time perspectives (FTP) interact systematically with materialism to affect PST. A survey of the general population in Macao, China (Study 1; N = 239) confirmed that materialism was positively correlated with PST...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
Nariakira Moriyama
Recently, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare estimated the prevalence rate of gambling disorder to be 4.8 percent of the population. This rate is outstandingly higher than other countries with prevalence rates between 0.25 and 2.0 percent. It is also estimated that no fewer than 5 million Japanese suffer from the disease. In the last two years, 100 new patients visited the author's clinic. On an average, they started gambling at the age of 19.7 years, and incurring debt at the age of 25.8 years. They first visited the clinic at an average age of 38...
October 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
Seong-Woo Kim, Eun-Chul Jang, Soon-Chan Kwon, Wook Han, Min-Sung Kang, Young-Hyeon Nam, Yong-Jin Lee
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine the association between shift work and inflammatory markers, which are independent risk factors of cardiovascular diseases, in male manual workers at a display manufacturing company. METHODS: This study was conducted between June 1 and July 31, 2015 on 244 male manual workers aged 20-39 years old at a display manufacturing company and investigated age, marital status, education level, alcohol consumption habit, smoking habit, regular exercise habit, sleep duration, sleep debt, sleep insufficiency, past medical history, current and past shift work experience, duration of shift work, and weekly work hours through face-to-face interviews using structured questionnaires and performed blood tests...
2016: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Catherine M Millett
The landmark report, The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health set a goal for the nursing community to increase the proportion of nurses with a baccalaureate degree from 50 to 80% by 2020 (Institute of Medicine, 2010). Nursing has witnessed a dramatic growth in the number of enrollments in accelerated baccalaureate of science in nursing programs for nonnursing graduates (Fang, Bednash, & DeWitty, 2012). Financing these degrees can be challenging. Many second-degree students no longer qualify for the federal grant programs and may have exhausted their federal undergraduate loan limits...
September 2016: Journal of Professional Nursing: Official Journal of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing
Carole Rushton, Anita Nilsson, David Edvardsson
The aim of this analysis was to examine the concept of time to rejuvenate and extend existing narratives of time within the nursing literature. In particular, we hope to promote a new trajectory in nursing research and practice which focuses on time and person-centred care, specifically of older people with cognitive impairment hospitalized in the acute care setting. We consider the explanatory power of concepts such as clock time, process time, fast care, slow care and time debt for elucidating the relationship between 'good care' and 'time use'...
October 2016: Nursing Philosophy: An International Journal for Healthcare Professionals
John S Ikonomidis
BACKGROUND: The Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) has intermittently surveyed its workforce, providing isolated accounts of the current state of thoracic surgical practice. METHODS: The 63-question survey instrument was received by 4,343 surgeon members of the STS, and responses were gathered between October 1 and November 5, 2014. The return rate was 29.1%. RESULTS: The median age of the active United States thoracic surgeons is 54 years...
September 7, 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Daniela Wey, Johanna Garefelt, Frida M Fischer, Claudia R Moreno, Arne Lowden
Daytime workers tend to have shorter sleep duration and earlier sleep onset during work days than on days off. Large individual differences in sleep onset and sleep duration may be observed on work days, but work usually synchronizes sleep offset to a similar time. The present study describes individual differences in sleep behaviour of 48 daytime workers (25 men, aged 20-58 years) from an iron ore mine in Northern Sweden. The aim of the study was to determine whether differences in sleep patterns during work days were associated with the outcomes of sleepiness and sleep complaints...
September 16, 2016: Chronobiology International
Jeanine Kamphuis, Swetlana Baichel, Marike Lancel, Sietse F de Boer, Jaap M Koolhaas, Peter Meerlo
Sleep deprivation has profound effects on cognitive performance, and some of these effects may be mediated by impaired prefrontal cortex function. In search of an animal model to investigate this relationship we studied the influence of restricted sleep on operant conditioning in rats, particularly the performance in a differential reinforcement of low rate responding (DRL) task, which is highly dependent upon an intact prefrontal cortex. Animals were trained to withhold a lever press until an imposed delay of 30 s after the last press had passed in order to achieve a food reward...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Sleep Research
Dominik Thom, Werner Rammer, Rupert Seidl
The rates of anthropogenic climate change substantially exceed those at which forest ecosystems - dominated by immobile, long-lived organisms - are able to adapt. The resulting maladaptation of forests has potentially detrimental effects on ecosystem functioning. Furthermore, as many forest-dwelling species are highly dependent on the prevailing tree species, a delayed response of the latter to a changing climate can contribute to an extinction debt and mask climate-induced biodiversity loss. However, climate change will likely also intensify forest disturbances...
October 6, 2016: Global Change Biology
Pierre Gaüzère, Karine Princé, Vincent Devictor
The spatial tracking of climatic shifts is frequently reported as a biodiversity response to climatic change. However, species' range shifts are often idiosyncratic and inconsistent with climatic shift predictions. At the community scale, this discrepancy can be measured by comparing the spatial shift in the relative composition of cold- vs. warm-adapted species in a local assemblage [the community temperature index (CTI)] with the spatial shift in temperature isotherms. While the local distribution of climate change velocity is a promising approach to downscaling climate change pressure and responses, CTI velocity has only been investigated on a continental or national scale...
September 14, 2016: Global Change Biology
Andrea A Jones, Enoch Ng, Marc-Olivier Deguise, Lauren Mak, Ben Ouyang, Milani Sivapragasam, Ian A S MacNairn, Siddharth Narth, Matthew G K Benesch, Laura Forrest, Xin Wang
PURPOSE: There has been limited examination of clinician scientist training in Canada, particularly regarding training integration and funding. This study assessed program structure, funding, tuition and mentorship structures available at Canadian MD/PhD programs. METHODS: Clinician Investigator Trainee Association of Canada administered an anonymous survey to current trainees and program directors that captured program structure, trainee funding, tuition and mentorship opportunities and needs across institutions...
2016: Clinical and Investigative Medicine. Médecine Clinique et Experimentale
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