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Geoffrey P Dobson, Hayley L Letson, Andrea Grant, Peter McEwen, Kaushik Hazratwala, Matthew Wilkinson, Jodie L Morris
The history of osteoarthritis (OA) is important because it can help broaden our perspective on past and present controversies. The naming of OA, beginning with Heberden's nodes, is itself a fascinating story. According to Albert Hoffa, R. Llewellyn Jones and Archibald Edward Garrod, the name OA was introduced in the mid-19th century by surgeon Richard von Volkmann who distinguished it from rheumatoid arthritis and gout. Others preferred the terms 'chronical rheumatism', 'senile arthritis', 'hypertrophic arthritis' or 'arthritis deformans'...
May 15, 2018: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
Elizabeth Sweet, L Zachary DuBois, Flavia Stanley
A growing set of epidemiological data links personal financial debt to negative mental and physical health outcomes. These findings point to debt as a potentially significant socioeconomic determinant of population health, especially given rising rates of household and consumer debt in industrialized nations. However, the political and economic contexts in which rising consumer debt is embedded and the ways in which it is experienced in everyday life are underexplored in this epidemiological literature. This gap leaves open questions about how best to situate and understand debt as a health determinant with both psychosocial and neo-material attributes...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Health Services: Planning, Administration, Evaluation
Emilie Pepin, Pascal Gillet, Fabien Sauvet, Danielle Gomez-Merino, Isabelle Thaon, Mounir Chennaoui, Damien Leger
OBJECTIVE: Most research on night and shift work focuses on employee health in large companies, primarily in the healthcare and transportation sectors. However, many night workers work on their own or in small businesses related to services or food. This survey focuses on sleep habits and disorders concerning night work in pastry production and sales. METHODS: An epidemiological telephone cross-sectional survey of night shift workers and their sleep habits was proposed to all employers and employees in the French pastry industry via their insurance health prevention company...
May 9, 2018: BMJ Open
Christina M Gibson-Davis, Christine Percheski
Life cycle theory predicts that elderly households have higher levels of wealth than households with children, but these wealth gaps are likely dynamic, responding to changes in labor market conditions, patterns of debt accumulation, and the overall economic context. Using Survey of Consumer Finances data from 1989 through 2013, we compare wealth levels between and within the two groups that make up America's dependents: the elderly and child households (households with a resident child aged 18 or younger)...
May 7, 2018: Demography
Desiree M Seponski, Cindy J Lahar, Sareth Khann, Sovandara Kao, Tanja Schunert
BACKGROUND: Reliable population-based epidemiological data of Cambodian mental health is lacking. AIMS: This study identifies the prevalence of and factors associated with anxiety, depression and PTSD in Cambodian adults. METHODS: A nationally representative sample of Cambodian adults (N = 2690) was interviewed utilizing the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (assessment of PTSD symptoms) and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (assessment of symptoms of anxiety and depression)...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Mental Health
Kara Thompson, Bonnie Leadbeater, Megan Ames, Gabriel J Merrin
Adolescence and young adulthood is a critical stage when the economic foundations for life-long health are established. To date, there is little consensus as to whether marijuana use is associated with poor educational and occupational success in adulthood. We investigated associations between trajectories of marijuana use from ages 15 to 28 and multiple indicators of economic well-being in young adulthood including achievement levels (i.e., educational attainment and occupational prestige), work characteristics (i...
April 28, 2018: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
Jamie Evans, Christopher Fitch, Sharon Collard, Claire Henderson
BACKGROUND: In recent years, the UK debt collection industry has taken steps to improve its policies and practices in relation to customers with mental health problems. Little data, however, have been collected to evidence change. AIMS: This paper examines whether the reported attitudes and practices of debt collection staff when working with customers with mental health problems have changed between 2010 and 2016. METHOD: This paper draws on descriptive and regression analyses of two cross-sectional surveys of debt collection staff: one conducted in 2010 and one conducted in 2016...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Mental Health
Alex Reichenbach, Mathieu Mequinion, Jacqueline A Bayliss, Sarah H Lockie, Moyra B Lemus, Randall L Mynatt, Romana Stark, Zane B Andrews
Behavioral adaptation to periods of food availability is crucial for survival and AgRP neurons have been associated with entrainment to temporal restricted feeding. We have previously shown that carnitine acetyltransferase (Crat) in AgRP neurons enables metabolic flexibility and appropriate nutrient partitioning. Here, we examined whether Crat is a component of a food entrainable oscillator (FEO) that help links behavior to food availability by restricting food availability to 3 hours per day during the light phase...
April 24, 2018: Endocrinology
David Waynforth
Background and objectives: Jobs for life have become increasingly rare in industrialized economies, and have been replaced by shorter-term employment contracts and freelancing. This labour market change is likely to be accompanied by physiological changes in individuals who have experienced little job stability. Evolved responses to increased environmental instability or stochasticity include increased fat deposition and fight-or-flight responses, such as glucose mobilization and increased blood pressure...
2018: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
Melvyn Zhang, Yi Yang, Song Guo, Chris Cheok, Kim Eng Wong, Gomathinayagam Kandasami
Given that technology has greatly facilitated easier access to gambling in previous years, it is timely to look in-depth into online gambling activities and behaviors. There have been several studies that examined online gambling. However, most of the current studies to date have focused on determining the prevalence and the epidemiology of problem gambling arising from online gambling in Western cohorts. There remains a paucity of research looking at the problem of online gambling among Asian individuals. The objectives of the current study are to elucidate the characteristics of online gambling among an Asian cohort and to explore the harm associated with online gambling and the potential mechanisms by which harm associated with online gambling could be minimized...
April 23, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Geon Hyeong Lee, Young Sik Kim
In this study, phenoxazine (PXZ)-based dye sensitizers with triphenylamine (TPA) as a dual-electron donor and thiophen and benzothiadiazole (BTD) or 4,7-diethynylbenzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole (DEBT) as an electron acceptor (dye1, dye2, and dye3) were designed and investigated. dye3 can significantly stabilize the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy level of an organic dye. We used density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations to better understand the factors responsible for the photovoltaic performance...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Svetlana Postnova, Steven W Lockley, Peter A Robinson
A model of arousal dynamics is applied to predict objective performance and subjective sleepiness measures, including lapses and reaction time on a visual Performance Vigilance Test (vPVT), performance on a mathematical addition task (ADD), and the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS). The arousal dynamics model is comprised of a physiologically based flip-flop switch between the wake- and sleep-active neuronal populations and a dynamic circadian oscillator, thus allowing prediction of sleep propensity. Published group-level experimental constant routine (CR) and forced desynchrony (FD) data are used to calibrate the model to predict performance and sleepiness...
April 2018: Journal of Biological Rhythms
Nathan N O'Hara, Rodney Mugarura, Jeffrey Potter, Trina Stephens, M Marit Rehavi, Patrick Francois, Piotr A Blachut, Peter J O'Brien, Alex Mezei, Tito Beyeza, Gerard P Slobogean
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine the socioeconomic implications of isolated tibial and femoral fractures caused by road traffic injuries in Uganda. METHODS: This prospective longitudinal study included adult patients who were admitted to Uganda's national referral hospital with an isolated tibial or femoral fracture. The primary outcome was the time to recovery following injury. We assessed recovery using 4 domains: income, employment status, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) recovery, and school attendance of the patients' dependents...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
Diogo Alagador, Jorge Orestes Cerdeira
The effectiveness of conservation plans depends on environmental, ecological, and socioeconomic factors. Global change makes conservation decisions even more challenging. Among others, the components of most concern in modern-day conservation assessments are as follows: the magnitude of climate and land-use changes; species dispersal abilities; competition with harmful socioeconomic activities for land use; the number of threatened species to consider; and, relatedly, the available budget to act. Here, we provide a unified framework that quantifies the relative effects of those factors on conservation...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Virgínia Junqueira, Áquilas N Mendes
This article examines some political and economic facts that led to an intensification of austerity measures by the Brazilian government, including ones against the Unified Health System (SUS) and its progressive dismantling. In a country where fundamental human rights were never fully respected, nowadays social and labor rights are under severe attacks. The deepening of the capital crisis and the rise of interest-bearing capital dominance have been causing unemployment, social insecurity growth, and resulting public fund appropriation by the private capital...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Health Services: Planning, Administration, Evaluation
Christopher J Boyce, Liam Delaney, Eamonn Ferguson, Alex M Wood
BACKGROUND: Central banks set economy-wide interest rates to meet exclusively economic objectives. There is a strong link between indebtedness and psychiatric morbidity at the individual level, with interest rates being an important factor determining ability to repay debt. However, no prior research has explored whether central bank interest rate changes directly influence mental health, nor whether this varies by levels of indebtedness. METHODS: We use British data (N = 93,255) to explore whether the Bank of England base-rate affected how perceived burden of non-mortgage debt (low, medium, and high) influenced psychiatric morbidity...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Alberto Stefana
It is often possible to retrace the history of a new concept or a new technique, identifying precursor and reflections that would lay the foundations for the birth of something "new". This also applies to the "squiggle game" of Donald W. Winnicott, one of the Winnicottian "creations" in which the distinctive signs of its fatherhood are more evident as, at the same time, are evident several debts to other scientists: from Freud's interpretation of dreams, through Jung, Klein and Fordham to Milner's "free drawings"...
March 28, 2018: American Journal of Psychoanalysis
Narriane Chaves Pereira de Holanda, Claudia Roberta de Castro Moreno, Elaine Cristina Marqueze
The aim of this study was to compare metabolic aspects potentially associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS), in addition to serum leptin levels and sleep, according to exposure to night work among nursing staff. A cross-sectional study involving 60 nursing staff was conducted. Sociodemographic, sleep (Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire), physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaire), and nutrition data (16-Food Intake Questionnaire) were collected. Body measurements and blood pressure were taken and blood collected to determine glycemia, total cholesterol and portions of low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein and triglycerides, and leptin levels...
March 26, 2018: Chronobiology International
Robert J Smith, Peter R Nelson, Sarah Jovan, Paul J Hanson, Bruce McCune
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Changing climates are expected to affect the abundance and distribution of global vegetation, especially plants and lichens with an epiphytic lifestyle and direct exposure to atmospheric variation. The study of epiphytes could improve understanding of biological responses to climatic changes, but only if the conditions that elicit physiological performance changes are clearly defined. METHODS: We evaluated individual growth performance of the epiphytic lichen Evernia mesomorpha, an iconic boreal forest indicator species, in the first year of a decade-long experiment featuring whole-ecosystem warming and drying...
February 2018: American Journal of Botany
Michael Ghijsen, Griffin R Lentsch, Sylvain Gioux, Matthew Brenner, Anthony J Durkin, Bernard Choi, Bruce J Tromberg
The tissue metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (tMRO2) is a clinically relevant marker for a number of pathologies including cancer and arterial occlusive disease. We present and validate a noncontact method for quantitatively mapping tMRO2 over a wide, scalable field of view at 16  frames  /  s. We achieve this by developing a dual-wavelength, near-infrared coherent spatial frequency-domain imaging (cSFDI) system to calculate tissue optical properties (i.e., absorption, μa, and reduced scattering, μs', parameters) as well as the speckle flow index (SFI) at every pixel...
March 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
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