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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642641/inequality-in-human-capital-and-endogenous-credit-constraints
#1
Rong Hai, James J Heckman
This paper investigates the determinants of inequality in human capital with an emphasis on the role of the credit constraints. We develop and estimate a model in which individuals face uninsured human capital risks and invest in education, acquire work experience, accumulate assets and smooth consumption. Agents can borrow from the private lending market and from government student loan programs. The private market credit limit is explicitly derived by extending the natural borrowing limit of Aiyagari (1994) to incorporate endogenous labor supply, human capital accumulation, psychic costs of working, and age...
April 2017: Review of Economic Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641123/the-practice-environment-scale-of-the-nursing-work-index-an-updated-review-and-recommendations-for-use
#2
REVIEW
Pauline A Swiger, Patricia A Patrician, Rebecca S Susie Miltner, Dheeraj Raju, Sara Breckenridge-Sproat, Lori A Loan
OBJECTIVES: The Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index (PES-NWI) is an instrument, which measures the nursing practice environment - defined as factors that enhance or attenuate a nurse's ability to practice nursing skillfully and deliver high quality care. The purpose of this paper is to provide an updated review of the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index's use to date and provide recommendations that may be helpful to nursing leaders and researchers who plan to use this instrument...
June 12, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639259/the-cost-effectiveness-of-three-interventions-for-providing-preventive-services-to-low-income-children
#3
Ben Johnson, Nicoleta Serban, Paul M Griffin, Scott L Tomar
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the impact of loan repayment programmes, revising Medicaid fee-for-service rates, and changing dental hygienist supervision requirements on access to preventive dental care for children in Georgia. METHODS: We estimated cost savings from the three interventions of preventive care for young children after netting out the intervention cost. We used a regression model to evaluate the impact of changing the Medicaid reimbursement rates. The impact of supervision was evaluated by comparing general and direct supervision in school-based dental sealant programmes...
June 21, 2017: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629345/prevalence-and-incidence-of-overweight-and-obesity-among-vietnamese-preschool-children-a-longitudinal-cohort-study
#4
Loan Minh Do, Toan Khanh Tran, Bo Eriksson, Max Petzold, Henry Ascher
BACKGROUND: A plateau in childhood overweight and obesity has been reported in some developed countries while in almost all developing countries this problem is on the rise. The aim of this paper is to describe the changes in prevalence of overweight and obesity within a cohort of preschool children followed for 3 years, and to estimate and compare the incidences in urban and rural children of Hanoi, Vietnam. METHODS: A longitudinal study of a cohort of 2677 children aged 3 to 6 years old at the beginning of the study was conducted in urban DodaLab and rural FilaBavi, Hanoi, Vietnam...
June 19, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628582/revolving-loan-fund-a-novel-approach-to-increasing-access-to-long-acting-reversible-contraception-methods-in-community-health-centers
#5
Megan L Evans, Janis L Breeze, Jessica K Paulus, Audra Meadows
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a revolving loan fund (RLF) on timing of device insertion and long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) access among a high-risk urban population at 3 Boston community health centers. DESIGN: Three health centers were identified to implement a RLF. Each clinic received $5000 from the RLF to purchase LARC devices. Data collected through medical record review retrospectively 1 year prior to start of the RLF and prospectively for 1 year thereafter included patient demographics, type of LARC selected, patient's date of documented interest in a LARC device, and date of insertion...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620782/role-of-key-genetic-mutations-on-increasing-migration-of-brain-cancer-cells-through-confinement
#6
Loan Bui, Sayem H Bhuiyan, Alissa Hendrick, Cheng-Jen Chuong, Young-Tae Kim
Uncontrolled invasive cancer cell migration is among the major challenges for the treatment and management of brain cancer. Although the genetic profiles of brain cancer cells have been well characterized, the relationship between the genetic mutations and the cells' mobility has not been clearly understood. In this study, using microfluidic devices that provide a wide range of physical confinements from 20 × 5 μm(2) to 3 × 5 μm(2) in cross sections, we studied the effect of physical confinement on the migratory capacity of cell lines with different types of mutations...
September 2017: Biomedical Microdevices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617787/rising-levels-of-new-zealand-medical-student-debt
#7
Antonia Verstappen, Phillippa Poole
AIM: There is little recent data on the debt levels accrued by New Zealand medical graduates. We aimed to quantify the level of student loan debt accrued by medical graduates upon completion of their medical degree, and to investigate the association of New Zealand Government Student Loan (GSL) debt with gender and age. METHODS: At graduation each year from 2006-2015, students from one New Zealand medical programme were invited to complete a career intention survey that included information on levels of GSL debt and the number of income sources used...
June 16, 2017: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608978/sexual-dimorphism-in-the-inflammatory-response-to-traumatic-brain-injury
#8
Sonia Villapol, David J Loane, Mark P Burns
The activation of resident microglial cells, alongside the infiltration of peripheral macrophages, are key neuroinflammatory responses to traumatic brain injury (TBI) that are directly associated with neuronal death. Sexual disparities in response to TBI have been previously reported; however it is unclear whether a sex difference exists in neuroinflammatory progression after TBI. We exposed male and female mice to moderate-to-severe controlled cortical impact injury and studied glial cell activation in the acute and chronic stages of TBI using immunofluorescence and in situ hybridization analysis...
June 13, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604238/financing-national-non-communicable-disease-responses
#9
Luke Nelson Allen
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) (also known as socially transmitted diseases) were conspicuously absent from the Millennium Development Goals and seemed to miss out on the 'golden years' of health funding despite causing more death and disability than any other disease group worldwide. The share of 'development assistance for health' dedicated to NCDs has remained at 1-2% of the total since 2000. This level of funding is insufficient to attain the nine targets in the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Action Plan on NCDs...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600620/national-survey-on-use-of-time-lapse-imaging-systems-in-ivf-laboratories
#10
Andrey V Dolinko, L V Farland, D J Kaser, S A Missmer, C Racowsky
PURPOSE: Several time-lapse imaging (TLI) systems for non-invasive continuous monitoring of developing embryos are currently available. The present study explored the prevalence, means of acquisition, and clinical application of TLI systems in USA in vitro fertilization (IVF) laboratories. METHODS: An online cross-sectional survey of 294 USA IVF laboratory directors was conducted in February and March 2016. Those directing more than one laboratory were asked to complete the survey for their home program and for their smallest laboratory by number of IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycle starts...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589002/randomised-controlled-trial-of-a-livestock-productive-asset-transfer-programme-to-improve-economic-and-health-outcomes-and-reduce-intimate-partner-violence-in-a-postconflict-setting
#11
Nancy Glass, Nancy A Perrin, Anjalee Kohli, Jacquelyn Campbell, Mitima Mpanano Remy
BACKGROUND: Diverse economic empowerment programmes (eg, microcredit, village-led savings and loan, cash and productive asset transfers) for the poor have demonstrated mixed results as vehicles for improved economic stability, health and women's empowerment. However, limited rigorous evaluations exist on the impact of financial and non-financial outcomes of these programmes, especially in conflict-affected areas. METHODS: The team evaluated the effectiveness of an innovative livestock productive asset transfer intervention-Pigs for Peace (PFP)-on economic, health and women's empowerment outcomes with participants in households in 10 villages in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo...
January 2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586238/toward-accountable-discrimination-aware-data-mining-the-importance-of-keeping-the-human-in-the-loop-and-under-the-looking-glass
#12
Bettina Berendt, Sören Preibusch
"Big Data" and data-mined inferences are affecting more and more of our lives, and concerns about their possible discriminatory effects are growing. Methods for discrimination-aware data mining and fairness-aware data mining aim at keeping decision processes supported by information technology free from unjust grounds. However, these formal approaches alone are not sufficient to solve the problem. In the present article, we describe reasons why discrimination with data can and typically does arise through the combined effects of human and machine-based reasoning, and argue that this requires a deeper understanding of the human side of decision-making with data mining...
June 2017: Big Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579093/the-enduring-impact-of-historical-and-structural-racism-on-urban-violence-in-philadelphia
#13
Sara F Jacoby, Beidi Dong, Jessica H Beard, Douglas J Wiebe, Christopher N Morrison
Public health approaches to crime and injury prevention are increasingly focused on the physical places and environments where violence is concentrated. In this study, our aim is to explore the association between historic place-based racial discrimination captured in the 1937 Home Owners Loan Corporation (HOLC) map of Philadelphia and present-day violent crime and firearm injuries. The creators of the 1937 HOLC map zoned Philadelphia based in a hierarchical system wherein first-grade and green color zones were used to indicate areas desirable for government-backed mortgage lending and economic development, a second-grade or blue zone for areas that were already developed and stable, a third-grade or yellow zone for areas with evidence of decline and influx of a "low grade population," and fourth-grade or red zone for areas with dilapidated or informal housing and an "undesirable population" of predominately Black residents...
May 19, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571708/quality-assurance-of-the-jaws-only-intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy-plans-for-head-and-neck-cancer
#14
Duong Thanh Tai, Nguyen Dong Son, Truong Thi Hong Loan, H P W Anson
Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is a treatment technique which has become routine in developed countries. In most centers this technique is delivered with multi-leaf collimators (MLCs). However, the use of MLCs is not mandatory. Several oncology centres in developing countries are still using linear accelerators (LINAC) without MLCs, and can potentially deliver IMRT plans with the use of collimator jaws. In this report, we present the results of quality assurance of this Jaws-Only-IMRT (JO-IMRT) technique in treating nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients...
June 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557777/an-assessment-of-residents-and-fellows-personal-finance-literacy-an-unmet-medical-education-need
#15
Fahd A Ahmad, Andrew J White, Katherine M Hiller, Richard Amini, Donna B Jeffe
Objectives: This study aimed to assess residents' and fellows' knowledge of finance principles that may affect their personal financial health. Methods: A cross-sectional, anonymous, web-based survey was administered to a convenience sample of residents and fellows at two academic medical centers.  Respondents answered 20 questions on personal finance and 28 questions about their own financial planning, attitudes, and debt. Questions regarding satisfaction with one's financial condition and investment-risk tolerance used a 10-point Likert scale (1=lowest, 10=highest)...
May 29, 2017: International Journal of Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554213/medication-burden-in-patients-with-acute-coronary-syndromes
#16
Eric A Wright, Steven R Steinhubl, J B Jones, Pinky Barua, Xiaowei Yan, Ryan Van Loan, Glenda Frederick, Durgesh Bhandary, David Cobden
OBJECTIVES: Cardioprotective medications improve outcomes following acute coronary syndromes (ACS) but add to medication complexity. We set out to describe the use of these medications and quantify medication changes in patients admitted and discharged for ACS. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: Using archived data from the electronic health record (EHR), we evaluated patients with ACS admitted to 1 of 2 hospitals between January 2008 and December 2012...
April 1, 2017: American Journal of Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546984/the-comparison-of-printed-resources-bacterial-contamination-in-libraries-of-al-zahra-hospital-and-sciences-faculty-of-isfahan-university-and-the-determination-of-their-antibiotic-sensitivity-pattern
#17
Hosein Rafiei, Mostafa Chadeganipour, Rezvan Ojaghi, Mohammad Reza Maracy, Rasool Nouri
INTRODUCTION: During the library loan process, the printed resources can be a carrier of pathogenic bacteria. In this study, it was tried to compare the Bacterial Contamination Rates and their antibiotic sensitivity pattern in printed resources of a hospital and a non-hospital library. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study. Returning books from the Al-Zahra hospital library and library of Sciences faculty of Isfahan University provides the research community...
2017: Journal of Education and Health Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538427/return-on-investment-of-advanced-practice-medical-degrees-nps-vs-pas
#18
Christopher K Craig, James H Holmes, Jeffery E Carter
As the United States faces a predicted physician shortage over the next 2 decades, physician assistants (PAs) and NPs are expected to fill the void. At the same time, because education is expensive, student loan and tuition increases have many potential applicants assessing differences in reimbursement and wondering about their return on investment (ROI). An analysis compared PA and NP salaries by incorporating national salary data, federal income tax, and student loans for a comparative analysis of each career pathway...
June 2017: JAAPA: Official Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537087/a-comparison-of-characteristics-and-food-insecurity-coping-strategies-between-international-and-domestic-postsecondary-students-using-a-food-bank-located-on-a-university-campus
#19
Mahitab Hanbazaza, Geoff D C Ball, Anna P Farmer, Katerina Maximova, Jasmine Farahbakhsh, Noreen D Willows
PURPOSE: We compared food insecurity status, coping strategies, demographic characteristics, and self-rated health of international and domestic postsecondary students requesting emergency food hampers from a campus food bank (CFB). METHODS: We collected data from a cross-sectional convenience sample of domestic and international students who accessed the CFB at the University of Alberta. RESULTS: Food insecurity was prevalent (international students: n = 26/27 (96...
May 24, 2017: Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529534/the-role-of-a-dairy-fraction-rich-in-milk-fat-globule-membrane-in-the-suppression-of-postprandial-inflammatory-markers-and-bone-turnover-in-obese-and-overweight-adults-an-exploratory-study
#20
Tara S Rogers, Elieke Demmer, Nancy Rivera, Erik R Gertz, J Bruce German, Jennifer T Smilowitz, Angela M Zivkovic, Marta D Van Loan
BACKGROUND: Inflammation is associated with increased bone resorption; the role of inflammation in postprandial bone turnover has not been explored. Consumption of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) reduces inflammation in animal models. This study aimed to measure postprandial changes in bone turnover after intake of high saturated fat test meals, with- and without the anti-inflammatory ingredient MFGM. METHODS: Subjects (n = 36 adults) were obese (BMI 30-39...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
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