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Pediatric abdominal trauma

F Marzona, N Parri, A Nocerino, M Giacalone, E Valentini, S Masi, L Bussolin
PURPOSE: Traumatic diaphragm rupture (TDR) is a rare complication of trauma in pediatric age and may be easily missed by the severity of associated injuries so that delayed emergent presentation can occur with increased rate of morbidity and mortality. No review has been available to guide clinicians through the pitfalls and the initial diagnostic approach to pediatric TDR. METHODS: A Medline thorough search on TDR was conducted using different queries. English language citations were identified during the period of January 2000 through December 2014 limiting the search to pediatric age (0-18 years)...
October 21, 2016: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
Mohamed M Abu Elyazed, Shaimaa F Mostafa, Mohammad A Abdullah, Gehan M Eid
BACKGROUND: Transversus abdominis plane block (TAP) is a compartmental block of the anterior abdominal wall. Surgical trauma produces multisystem reactions. Anesthetic techniques can modify the neuroendocrine surgical stress response. AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of TAP block on the modification of the surgical neuroendocrine stress response as well as its analgesia effect in children undergoing open inguinal hernia repair. METHOD: Sixty children aged 3-10 years undergoing elective unilateral open inguinal hernia repair were randomized into group I (general anesthesia) or group II (received TAP block after induction of general anesthesia)...
October 12, 2016: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Nathan Vaughan, Jeff Tweed, Cynthia Greenwell, David M Notrica, Crystal S Langlais, Shawn D St Peter, Charles M Leys, Daniel J Ostlie, R Todd Maxson, Todd Ponsky, David W Tuggle, James W Eubanks, Amina Bhatia, Cynthia Greenwell, Nilda M Garcia, Karla A Lawson, Prasenjeet Motghare, Robert W Letton, Adam C Alder
INTRODUCTION: Obesity is an epidemic in the pediatric population. Childhood obesity in trauma has been associated with increased incidence of long-bone fractures, longer ICU stays, and decreased closed head injuries. We investigated for differences in the likelihood of failure of non-operative management (NOM), and injury grade using a subset of a multi-institutional, prospective database of pediatric patients with solid organ injury (SOI). METHODS: We prospectively collected data on all pediatric patients (<18years) admitted for liver or splenic injury from September 2013 to January 2016...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Kelly A Feldman, Jun Tashiro, Casey J Allen, Eduardo A Perez, Holly L Neville, Carl I Schulman, Juan E Sola
BACKGROUND: Although firearms account for less than 5 % of all pediatric injuries, they have the highest associated case fatality rate. METHODS: The registry at a Level-1 trauma center was used to identify firearm injuries (<18 years of age) from 1991 to 2011. Descriptive statistics and risk-adjusted multivariate analyses (MVA) were performed. RESULTS: Overall, 1085 patients were identified. Immediate operations were performed in 33 % (n = 358) of patients with most having abdominal surgery (n = 214)...
September 28, 2016: Pediatric Surgery International
Natalie Behrle, Peter Dyke, Abdallah Dalabih
Motor vehicle accident is the most common cause of blunt cardiac injury (BCI) in children (85.3%) due to the height of the child in relation to proper restraints and the compliant pediatric rib cage (J Trauma. 1996;40:200-202). Trauma to the chest wall may lead to injury of the myocardium, resulting in myocardial contusion, ventricular septal defect (VSD), ventricular free wall rupture, or valve compromise (J Trauma. 1996;40; 200-202; Heart Lung. 2012;41:200-202; J Inj Violence Res. 2012;4:98-100). There are several proposed mechanisms for the formation of VSD after blunt chest trauma including rupture of ischemic myocardium related to the initial trauma and reopening of a spontaneously closed congenital VSD...
September 23, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Ayşe Başak Uçan, Zehra Günyüz Temir, Arzu Şencan, Aytaç Karkıner, Hüseyin Evciler
BACKGROUND: Conservative management procedures are implemented in cases of low-grade pediatric blunt renal trauma, but procedures for grade 4 injuries are not clearly defined. The present objective was to discuss treatment procedures in patients who presented with or developed urinoma during follow-up. METHODS: Treatment procedures implemented in 8 patients (female:male ratio=1:7; average age: 6) with grade 4 renal trauma who presented to the clinic between 2003 and 2012 were retrospectively analyzed...
July 2016: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
Brian R Englum, Brian C Gulack, Henry E Rice, John E Scarborough, Obinna O Adibe
PURPOSE: This study aims to examine the current management strategies and outcomes after blunt pancreatic trauma in children using a national patient registry. METHODS: Using the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB) from 2007-2011, we identified all patients ≤18years old who suffered blunt pancreatic trauma. Patients were categorized as undergoing nonoperative pancreatic management (no abdominal operation, abdominal operation without pancreatic-specific procedure, or pancreatic drainage alone) or operative pancreatic management (pancreatic resection/repair)...
September 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Peter James Bruhn, Lene Østerballe, Jens Hillingsø, Lars Bo Svendsen, Frederik Helgstrand
BACKGROUND: Computed tomography (CT) is the gold standard in the initial evaluation of the hemodynamically stable patient with suspected liver trauma. However, the adverse effects of radiation exposure are of specific concern in the pediatric population. It is therefore desirable to explore alternative diagnostic modalities. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) are hepatic enzymes, which are elevated in peripheral blood in relation to liver injury. The aim of the present study was to investigate a potential role of normal liver transaminase levels in the decision algorithm in suspected pediatric blunt liver trauma...
2016: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
Michael C Dewan, Vijay M Ravindra, Stephen Gannon, Colin T Prather, George L Yang, Lori C Jordan, David Limbrick, Andrew Jea, Jay Riva-Cambrin, Robert P Naftel
BACKGROUND: Pediatric blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) lacks accepted treatment algorithms, and postinjury outcomes are ill defined. OBJECTIVE: To compare treatment practices among pediatric trauma centers and to describe outcomes for available treatment modalities. METHODS: Clinical and radiographic data were collected from a patient cohort with BCVI between 2003 and 2013 at 4 academic pediatric trauma centers. RESULTS: Among 645 pediatric patients evaluated with computed tomography angiography for BCVI, 57 vascular injuries (82% carotid artery, 18% vertebral artery) were diagnosed in 52 patients...
July 25, 2016: Neurosurgery
Jonathan L Eliason, Dawn M Coleman, Enrique Criado, James C Stanley
OBJECTIVE: Pediatric abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are rare. The intent of this report was to review the presentation and surgical management of AAAs in infancy and early childhood. METHODS: The clinical courses of young children undergoing AAA surgery were subjected to a retrospective review and analysis. RESULTS: Eleven children, nine boys and two girls, ranging in age from 2 weeks to 6 years, underwent surgical treatment of AAA at the University of Michigan from 2002 to 2014...
July 18, 2016: Journal of Vascular Surgery
Kevin C Parvaresh, Vidyadhar V Upasani, James D Bomar, Andrew T Pennock
INTRODUCTION: Variable ossification patterns of the pelvis in skeletally immature patients can make the interpretation of pelvic radiographs challenging. Inconsistencies among prior studies and lack of sex comparisons underscore the need for a more comprehensive characterization of the secondary ossification centers. This study evaluates the chronology and sex differences for appearance and closure of pelvic and proximal femoral secondary ossification centers using computed tomography (CT)...
July 20, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
Samuel A Shabtaie, Anthony R Hogan, Mark B Slidell
Splenic cysts are rare in the United States but more common in regions of the world where Echinococcus is endemic. Cysts are typically classified as true cysts or pseudocysts. True cysts can be parasitic or nonparasitic in origin, whereas most pseudocysts are a result of previous trauma. Recent recognition of features shared by true cysts and pseudocysts suggests the classification system may need to be revised. The prevalence of splenic cysts has increased secondary to the widespread use of abdominal imaging and successful nonoperative management of traumatic splenic injuries...
July 1, 2016: Pediatric Annals
Jonathan E Kohler, Nikunj K Chokshi
Injury to the solid abdominal organs-liver, spleen, kidney, and pancreas-is one of the most common injury patterns in pediatric blunt trauma. Pediatric trauma centers are becoming increasingly successful in managing these injuries without operative intervention. Well-validated guidelines have been established for liver and spleen injury management, and operative intervention is reserved for patients who show evidence of active bleeding after resuscitation. No such guidelines yet exist for the management of traumatic injury of the kidney or pancreas...
July 1, 2016: Pediatric Annals
Kseniya Orlik, Erin Leslie Simon, Carrie Hemmer, Maria Ramundo
We present a case of traumatic intercostal pulmonary herniation in an 11-year-old boy after blunt trauma to the chest, without associated chest wall disruption or pneumothorax. This condition is especially uncommon in children, with only 5 previously reported cases and most occurring after penetrating chest trauma. To date, there are no reports in literature describing traumatic intercostal lung herniation at the diaphragmatic junction with a closed chest cavity in a child. The number of traumatic lung herniation diagnoses may be expanded by a more liberal use of computed tomography when serious injury is suspected...
July 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Anna Sigurtà, Valeria Terzi, Caroline Regna-Gladin, Roberto Fumagalli
We are reporting a case of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) developed in an unusual clinical scenario without the presence of the most described symptoms. PRES is a neurological and radiological syndrome described in many different clinical conditions. In children it has been mostly reported in association with hematological and renal disorders.Our patient was a 15 years old boy, admitted to our intensive care unit for pancreatitis after blunt abdominal trauma.During the stay in the intensive care unit, he underwent multiple abdominal surgical interventions for pancreatitis complications...
May 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Martha-Conley E Ingram, Ragavan V Siddharthan, Andrew D Morris, Sarah J Hill, Curtis D Travers, Courtney E McKracken, Kurt F Heiss, Mehul V Raval, Matthew T Santore
BACKGROUND: There are no widely accepted guidelines for management of pediatric patients who have evidence of solid organ contrast extravasation ("blush") on computed tomography (CT) scans following blunt abdominal trauma. We report our experience as a Level 1 pediatric trauma center in managing cases with hepatic and splenic blush. METHODS: All pediatric blunt abdominal trauma cases resulting in liver or splenic injury were queried from 2008 to 2014. Patients were excluded if a CT was unavailable in the medical record...
August 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Lucia Radillo, Andrea Taddio, Sergio Ghirardo, Matteo Bramuzzo, Federica Pederiva, Massimo Maschio, Egidio Barbi
Wandering spleen is a rare condition, typically not only due to embryological defects of the splenic ligaments, but also secondary to trauma and splenomegaly. The most common presentation is acute abdomen with a mobile abdominal mass or recurrent abdominal pain. However, the spleen may be temporary in its normal position, and patients could be asymptomatic. A familiarity, if present, strengthens the diagnostic suspect.Abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography are the examination of choice, and the management is surgical...
September 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Wei-Ching Lin, Chien-Heng Lin
The accurate diagnosis of pediatric acute abdominal pain is one of the most challenging tasks in the emergency department (ED) due to its unclear clinical presentation and non-specific findings in physical examinations, laboratory data, and plain radiographs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of abdominal multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) performed in the ED on pediatric patients presenting with acute abdominal pain. A retrospective chart review of children aged <18 years with acute abdominal pain who visited the emergency department and underwent MDCT between September 2004 and June 2007 was conducted...
June 2016: BioMedicine
Stephen J Fenton, Kristin N Sandoval, Austin M Stevens, Eric R Scaife
BACKGROUND: Angiography is a common treatment used in adults with blunt abdominal trauma and/or severe pelvic fractures. The Committee on Trauma of the American College of Surgeons has recently advocated for this resource to be urgently available at pediatric trauma centers; however, its usefulness in the pediatric setting is unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of angiography in the treatment of blunt abdominal trauma among injured children. METHODS: An analysis was performed using an established public use data set of children (younger than 18 years) treated at 20 participating trauma centers for blunt torso trauma through the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network...
August 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Alice W Newton
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review addresses some of the more salient articles in the field of child maltreatment published in 2015, with a goal of helping the general practitioner understand the evolution of research in the field of child abuse pediatrics (a board-certified specialty since 2009). RECENT FINDINGS: Researchers continue to refine the database for child abuse pediatrics. Several articles focus on the inconsistencies in approach to the evaluation of possible physical child abuse between hospitals and practitioners...
June 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
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