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T-Cell apoptosis

Nianwu He, Lingmin Tian, Xichuan Zhai, Xiaowen Zhang, Yan Zhao
This study was designed to investigate the chemical characterization and bioactivity of the Trametes lactinea (Berk.) Pat polysaccharides (TLP). The crude TLP was fractionated into two fractions, namely TLP-1 and TLP-2 with Cellulose DEAE-52 and Sephadex G-150. HPLC and FT-IR analysis showed that TLP-1 and TLP-2 were heteropolysaccharides mainly composed of glucose with the average molecular weights of 443.19 kDa and 388.83 kDa, respectively. TLP-1 from water elution possessed of higher reducing power and scavenging activities against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, superoxide radical and hydroxyl radical than TLP-2 eluted by 0...
April 12, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Jun Yan, Clay M Winterford, Vibeke S Catts, Betty K Pat, Michael P Pender, Pamela A McCombe, Judith M Greer
The NF-κB signalling pathway plays an important role in controlling cellular immune responses, inflammation and apoptosis. In multiple sclerosis (MS), there is evidence of dysregulation of NF-κB signalling in patients with a relapsing-remitting disease course, but thus far there is little information on whether it is also dysregulated in patients with progressive disease. We hypothesised that patients with progressive MS would have more activation of NF-κB than relapsing-remitting MS patients. Using several different methods, we showed that there was more nuclear translocation of p65 in cells from progressive MS patients, particularly in T cells and monocytes...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Thalia M Rebelo, Leila Vania, Eloise Ferreira, Stefan F T Weiss
The 37kDa/67kDa laminin receptor (LRP/LR) is over-expressed in tumour cells and has been implicated in several tumourigenic processes such as metastasis and telomerase activation, however, more importantly the focus of the present study is on the maintenance of cellular viability and the evasion of apoptosis. The aim of the study was to investigate the role of LRP/LR on the cellular viability of early (A375) and late stage (A375SM) malignant melanoma cells. Flow cytometry and western blot analysis revealed that A375SM cells contain more cell-surface and total LRP/LR levels in comparison to the A375 cells, respectively...
April 10, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Linjie Zeng, Lu Li, Qiyan Zeng, Yong Deng, Lijun Yin, Liejun Liao
Lectins are a class of carbohydrate-binding proteins or glycoproteins and used in the purification and characterization of glycoproteins according to their specificity to carbohydrates. In the present study, the mitogenic activity of Artocarpus lingnanensis lectin (ALL) and its apoptosis induction in Jurkat T cells were explored. MTT assay revealed strong mitogenic potential of ALL. Meanwhile, the anti-cancer activity of ALL was also explored using the human leukemic Jurkat T cell line. ALL exhibited strong binding affinity (97%) to the cell membrane, which could be effectively inhibited by N-acetyl-D-galactosaminide (NAD)...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Natural Medicines
Mar Collado-González, Miguel R Pecci-Lloret, Christopher J Tomás-Catalá, David García-Bernal, Ricardo E Oñate-Sánchez, Carmen Llena, Leopoldo Forner, Vinicius Rosa, Francisco J Rodríguez-Lozano
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the in vitro cytotoxicity of Equia Forte (GC, Tokyo, Japan) and Ionostar Molar (Voco, Cuxhaven, Germany) on human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs). METHODS: hDPSCs isolated from third molars were exposed to several dilutions of Equia Forte and Ionostar Molar eluates (1/1, 1/2 and 1/4). These eluates were obtained by storing material samples in respective cell culture medium for 24h (n=40). hDPSCs in basal growth culture medium were the control...
April 9, 2018: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
Juan Zhao, Xindi Dang, Peixin Zhang, Lam Nhat Nguyen, Dechao Cao, Lin Wang, Xiaoyuan Wu, Zheng D Morrison, Ying Zhang, Zhansheng Jia, Qian Xie, Ling Wang, Shunbin Ning, Mohamed El Gazzar, Jonathan P Moorman, Zhi Q Yao
T cells have a crucial role in viral clearance and vaccine response; however, the mechanisms regulating their responses to viral infections or vaccinations remain elusive. In this study, we investigated T-cell homeostasis, apoptosis, DNA damage, and repair machineries in a large cohort of subjects with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We found that naive CD4 T cells in chronically HCV-infected individuals (HCV T cells) were significantly reduced compared with age-matched healthy subjects. In addition, HCV T cells were prone to apoptosis and DNA damage, as evidenced by increased 8-oxoguanine expression and γH2AX/53BP1-formed DNA damage foci-hallmarks of DNA damage responses...
2018: Cell Discovery
Neila Chekkat, Caterina M Lombardo, Cendrine Seguin, Marie-Charlotte Lechner, Florent Dufour, Yves Nominé, Marcella De Giorgi, Benoit Frisch, Olivier Micheau, Gilles Guichard, Danièle Altschuh, Sylvie Fournel
Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Apoptosis Inducing Ligand (TRAIL) appears as an interesting candidate for targeted cancer therapy as it induces apoptosis in cancer cells without toxicity to normal cells. TRAIL elicits apoptosis through agonist death receptor TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2 engagement. Nevertheless, recombinant soluble TRAIL and monoclonal antibodies against these receptors demonstrated insufficient efficacy in clinical trials. This may be explained by the cell-type dependency of the apoptotic response, itself influenced by the effect on ligand binding mode of factors such as the level of receptor oligomerization or glycosylation...
March 20, 2018: Oncotarget
Marica Pinazza, Margherita Ghisi, Sonia Minuzzo, Valentina Agnusdei, Gianluca Fossati, Vincenzo Ciminale, Laura Pezzè, Yari Ciribilli, Giorgia Pilotto, Carolina Venturoli, Alberto Amadori, Stefano Indraccolo
Several studies have revealed that endosomal sorting controls the steady-state levels of Notch at the cell surface in normal cells and prevents its inappropriate activation in the absence of ligands. However, whether this highly dynamic physiologic process can be exploited to counteract dysregulated Notch signaling in cancer cells remains unknown. T-ALL is a malignancy characterized by aberrant Notch signaling, sustained by activating mutations in Notch1 as well as overexpression of Notch3, a Notch paralog physiologically subjected to lysosome-dependent degradation in human cancer cells...
April 12, 2018: Oncogene
Elizabeth Bilsland, Tatyana A Tavella, Renata Krogh, Jamie E Stokes, Annabelle Roberts, James Ajioka, David R Spring, Adriano D Andricopulo, Fabio T M Costa, Stephen G Oliver
BACKGROUND: Violacein is a deep violet compound that is produced by a number of bacterial species. It is synthesized from tryptophan by a pathway that involves the sequential action of 5 different enzymes (encoded by genes vioA to vioE). Violacein has antibacterial, antiparasitic, and antiviral activities, and also has the potential of inducing apoptosis in certain cancer cells. RESULTS: Here, we describe the construction of a series of plasmids harboring the complete or partial violacein biosynthesis operon and their use to enable production of violacein and deoxyviolacein in E...
April 11, 2018: BMC Biotechnology
Y-Z Dong, T Hu
OBJECTIVE: The functions of microRNAs in the regulation of apoptosis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and the application in the therapeutical treatments were intensively studied. However, whether overexpression of miR-143 in lung cancer cells will affect the cell behaviors, such as proliferation or some underlying pathway, is largely unknown. This study aimed to examine the effect of miR-143 in PC9/GR cell line on the proliferation, apoptosis, EGFR and downstream signal pathways...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Hongming Lv, Qingfei Xiao, Junfeng Zhou, Haihua Feng, Guowen Liu, Xinxin Ci
Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose-induced fatal hepatotoxicity is majorly characterized by overwhelmingly increased oxidative stress while enhanced nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is involved in prevention of hepatotoxicity. Although Licochalcone A (Lico A) upregulates Nrf2 signaling pathway against oxidative stress-triggered cell injury, whether it could protect from APAP-induced hepatotoxicity by directly inducing Nrf2 activation is still poorly elucidated. This study aims to explore the protective effect of Lico A against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity and its underlying molecular mechanisms...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Zari Hamivand, Gholamhassan Haddadi, Reza Fardid
Context: Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy worldwide. Iodine-131 is used in the treatment of thyroid cancer with dosage of 100 mCi. In the medical applications of ionizing radiation besides the advantages such as diagnosis and treatment of diseases, the risks arising from exposure should be considered as well. Aims: The present study aimed to evaluate the changes in expression levels of apoptotic Bax and Bcl-2 and the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, in the peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC)...
January 2018: Journal of Medical Physics
Pallvi Bragta, Rupinder Kaur Sidhu, Kiran Jyoti, Ashish Baldi, Upendra Kumar Jain, Ramesh Chandra, Jitender Madan
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In a phase II clinical trial, carboplatin (CBDCA) displayed the response rate of 19% equivalent to dacarbazine in the treatment of malignant melanoma. However, besides desirable therapeutic profile, intravenous (i.v) administration of CBDCA delivers a subtherapeutic concentration at the target site. This entails administration of CBDCA through an alternate route by using nanovectors to achieve therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of melanoma. METHODS AND RESULTS: Carboplatin loaded poly(ε-caprolactone) nanoparticles (CBDCA-PCL-NPs) were formulated and amalgamated with chitosan-β-glycerophosphate gel (CBDCA-PCL-NPs-Gel) for intratumoral (i...
March 31, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Alexandre P Sater, Leonard T Rael, Allen H Tanner, Mark J Lieser, David L Acuna, Charles W Mains, David Bar-Or
Within the first few hours of a traumatic brain injury, the activity of extracellular matrix degradative enzymes increases. As a result, the blood brain barrier becomes disrupted as secondary white matter injury increases. Anoikis, a form of apoptosis, results from cells detaching from the extracellular matrix leading to cell death. This "homelessness" (anoikis) of cells hinders recovery progression, exacerbating brain injury while disrupting synaptic plasticity and other central nervous system functions...
April 5, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Keisuke Imoto, Masaki Hirakawa, Muneyoshi Okada, Hideyuki Yamawaki
Excessive increase of cytosolic Ca2+ through the activation of L-type Ca2+ channels (LTCCs) via β adrenergic receptor induces apoptosis of cardiomyocytes. Canstatin, a cleaved fragment of collagen type IV α2 chain, is abundantly expressed in normal heart tissue. We previously reported that canstatin inhibits β adrenergic receptor-stimulated apoptosis in cardiomyoblasts. Here, we tested the hyposeis that canstatin regulates LTCCs activity in ventricular cardiomyocytes. Collagen type IV α2 chain (COL4A2) small interfering (si) RNA (for canstatin suppression) or control siRNA was injected via jugular vein in Wistar rats...
April 4, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Gaofeng Wu, Jiancheng Yang, Hao Lv, Wenying Jing, Jiaqi Zhou, Ying Feng, Shumei Lin, Qunhui Yang, Jianmin Hu
One pathogenic mechanism of ethanol-induced liver injury is the excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may result in alcoholic liver disease (ALD) characterized by cell death due to necrosis and apoptosis. Taurine was proved to protect against liver damage. However, whether taurine attenuates ethanol-induced hepatic apoptosis remains unknown. The present study aims to elucidate this effect and its underlying mechanism. Taurine was administered to ALD rats and an in vitro experiment in which taurine was added to primary rat hepatocytes cultured with ethanol was conducted...
April 6, 2018: Amino Acids
Tanushree Pal, Asmita Sharda, Bharat Khade, C S Ramaa, Sanjay Gupta
Cancer chemotherapy is associated with limitations like dose dependent host-tissue toxicity, multiple drug resistance and tumor heterogeneity. Hence, it is imperative to unearth novel targets to cure cancer. At present, 'pharmaco-epigenomics' constitutes the hope in cancer treatment owing to epigenetic deregulation- a reversible process, suspected of playing a role in malignancy. In this research work, we have used the fundamentals of drug repurposing for a set of our previously synthesized difluorinated propanediones and evaluated them for their histone methyltransferase inhibitory potential in leukemic cell lines...
April 4, 2018: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Shu-Ying Liu, Shuai Lu, Xiao-Lin Yu, Shi-Gao Yang, Wen Liu, Xiang-Meng Liu, Shao-Wei Wang, Jie Zhu, Mei Ji, Dong-Qun Liu, Zi-Ping Zhang, Rui-Tian Liu
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease featured by memory loss, neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. Overproduction or insufficient clearance of Aβ leads to the pathological aggregation and deposition, which is considered the predominant neuropathological hallmark of AD. Therefore, reducing Aβ levels and inhibiting Aβ-induced neurotoxicity are feasible therapeutic strategies for AD treatment. Wolfberry has been traditionally used as a natural antioxidant and anti-aging product...
April 4, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
Lin-Lin Ye, Xiao-Shan Wei, Min Zhang, Yi-Ran Niu, Qiong Zhou
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a pleiotropic cytokine that has both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory functions. The biological functions of TNF are mediated by two receptors, TNF receptor type I (TNFR1) and TNF receptor type II (TNFR2). TNFR1 is expressed universally on almost all cell types and has been extensively studied, whereas TNFR2 is mainly restricted to immune cells and some tumor cells and its role is far from clarified. Studies have shown that TNFR2 mediates the stimulatory activity of TNF on CD4+ Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) and CD8+ Foxp3+ Tregs, and is involved in the phenotypic stability, proliferation, activation, and suppressive activity of Tregs...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Masome Ghasemi-Pirbaluti, Batoul Pourgheysari, Hedayatollah Shirzad, Zahra Sourani, Pezhman Beshkar
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is the most prevalent cancer in children. Novel components to help struggle aggressive malignancies and overcome some side effects of conventional treatments could be a promising strategy. Epigallocatechingallate (EGCG), have attracted the attention of scientists for prevention or treatment of some cancers. Jurkat cells were incubated with the different concentrations of EGCG (30-100 µm) for 24, 48, and 72 h and cell viability was investigated using MTS test. Apoptosis and the level of caspase 3 alterations were evaluated using flowcytometry and expression of Fas by Real Time PCR...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Hematology & Blood Transfusion
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