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T-Cell apoptosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229994/autophagy-induced-during-apoptosis-degrades-mitochondria-and-inhibits-type-i-interferon-secretion
#1
Lisa M Lindqvist, Daniel Frank, Kate McArthur, Toby A Dite, Michael Lazarou, Jonathan S Oakhill, Benjamin T Kile, David L Vaux
Cells undergoing Bax/Bak-mediated apoptosis exhibit signs of autophagy, but how it is activated and its significance is unknown. By directly activating Bax/Bak with BH3-only proteins or BH3 mimetic compounds, we demonstrate that mitochondrial damage correlated with a rapid increase in intracellular [AMP]/[ATP], phosphorylation of 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and activation of unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1 (ULK1). Consequently, autophagic flux was triggered early in the apoptotic pathway, as activation of the apoptosome and caspases were not necessary for its induction...
December 11, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229950/aneurysm-severity-is-increased-by-combined-mmp-7-deletion-and-n-cadherin-mimetic-ec4-fc-over-expression
#2
Cressida A Lyon, Helen Williams, Rosaria Bianco, Steven J Simmonds, Bethan A Brown, Kerry S Wadey, Frank C T Smith, Jason L Johnson, Sarah J George
There is an unmet need for treatments to reduce abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) progression. Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) apoptosis precipitates AAA formation, whereas VSMC proliferation repairs the vessel wall. We previously demonstrated that over-expression of EC4-Fc (truncated N-cadherin), or deletion of matrix-metalloproteinase-7 (Mmp-7) reduced VSMC apoptosis in mouse atherosclerotic plaques. Additionally, MMP-7 promotes VSMC apoptosis by cleavage of N-cadherin. We investigated their combined effect on AAA formation...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229919/migratory-dendritic-cells-acquire-and-present-lymphatic-endothelial-cell-archived-antigens-during-lymph-node-contraction
#3
Ross M Kedl, Robin S Lindsay, Jeffrey M Finlon, Erin D Lucas, Rachel S Friedman, Beth A Jirón Tamburini
Antigens derived from viral infection or vaccination can persist within a host for many weeks after resolution of the infection or vaccine responses. We previously identified lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC) as the repository for this antigen archival, yet LECs are unable to present their archived antigens to CD8+ T cells, and instead transfer their antigens to CD11c+ antigen-presenting cells (APC). Here we show that the exchange of archived antigens between LECs and APCs is mediated by migratory dendritic cells (DC)...
December 11, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229770/rb1-promotes-t-cell-maturation-from-premature-apoptosis-by-inhibiting-e2f1
#4
Zili Zhang, Wei Liu, Lingfeng Zhao, Zhibin Huang, Xiaohui Chen, Ning Ma, Jin Xu, Wenqing Zhang, Yiyue Zhang
T lymphocytes are key cellular components of acquired immune system and play essential roles in cell-mediated immunity. T cell development occurs in the thymus where 95% of immature thymocytes are eliminated via apoptosis. It is known that mutation of Zeb1, one of RB1 target genes, resulted in immature T cell decrease in mice. E2F1, an RB1 interacting protein, has been shown to regulate mature T cell development by interfering with thymocyte apoptosis. However, whether Rb1 regulate thymocyte development in vivo is still need to be further investigated...
December 11, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228993/programmed-cell-death-5-transgenic-mice-attenuates-adjuvant-induced-arthritis-by-2-modifying-the-t-lymphocytes-balance
#5
Feng Yuan, Junfeng Wang, Keshi Zhang, Zhao Li, Zhenpeng Guan
BACKGROUND: Programmed cell death 5 (PDCD5) is an apoptosis-related gene cloned from TF-1 cells whose primary biological functions are to promote apoptosis and immune regulation. The effects and mechanisms exerted by key mediators of arthritic inflammation remain unclear in PDCD5 transgenic (PDCD5 tg) mice. RESULTS: In the current study, PDCD5 tg mice inhibited the progression of adjuvant-induced arthritis, specifically decreasing clinical signs and histological damage, compared with arthritis control mice...
December 11, 2017: Biological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228614/dual-effects-of-radiation-bystander-signaling-in-urothelial-cancer-purinergic-activation-of-apoptosis-attenuates-survival-of-urothelial-cancer-and-normal-urothelial-cells
#6
Malgorzata A Bill, Kirtiman Srivastava, Conor Breen, Karl T Butterworth, Stephen J McMahon, Kevin M Prise, Karen D McCloskey
Radiation therapy (RT) delivers tumour kill, directly and often via bystander mechanisms. Bladder toxicity is a dose limiting constraint in pelvic RT, manifested as radiation cystitis and urinary symptoms. We aimed to investigate the impact of radiation-induced bystander signaling on normal/cancer urothelial cells. Human urothelial cancer cells T24, HT1376 and normal urothelial cells HUC, SV-HUC were used. Cells were irradiated and studied directly, or conditioned medium from irradiated cells (CM) was transferred to naïve, cells...
November 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228445/the-protective-effect-and-its-mechanism-of-3-n-butylphthalide-pretreatment-on-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rats
#7
R-Y Yan, S-J Wang, G-T Yao, Z-G Liu, N Xiao
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential effect of 3-n-butylphthalide (NBP) pretreatment on the cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats and the relevant mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 90 rats was divided into three groups: Sham operation group (Sham group), ischemia-reperfusion group (I-R group), and NBP pretreatment group (NBP group 75 mg·kg-1·d-1 gavage). Pre-treatment was given once a day within 1 week before establishing the rat model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury...
November 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228157/gut-epithelial-vitamin-d-receptor-regulates-microbiota-dependent-mucosal-inflammation-by-suppressing-intestinal-epithelial-cell-apoptosis
#8
Lei He, Tianjing Liu, Yongyan Shi, Feng Tian, Huiyuan Hu, Dilip K Deb, Yinyin Chen, Marc Bissonnette, Yan Chun Li
Recent studies show that colonic vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling protects the mucosal epithelial barrier and suppresses colonic inflammation, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains to be fully understood. To investigate the implication of colonic VDR down-regulation seen in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, we assessed the effect of gut epithelial VDR deletion on colonic inflammatory responses in an experimental colitis model. In 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis model, mice carrying VDR deletion in gut epithelial cells (VDRf/f;Villin-Cre or VDRΔIEC) or in colonic epithelial cells (VDRf/f;CDX2-Cre or VDRΔCEC) developed more severe clinical colitis than VDRf/f control mice, characterized by more robust TH1 and TH17 responses, with greater increases in mucosal IFN-γ+, IL-17+ and IFN-γ+IL-17+ T cells...
December 7, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226342/calcium-chloride-enriched-calcium-aluminate-cement-promotes-in-vitro-osteogenesis
#9
L M S Castro-Raucci, L N Teixeira, A F S Barbosa, R R Fernandes, W Raucci-Neto, M Jacobovitz, I R Oliveira, P T de Oliveira
AIM: To evaluate the effects of 2.8% or 10% calcium chloride (CaCl2 ) in calcium aluminate cement (CAC) with either bismuth oxide (Bi2 O3 ) or zinc oxide (ZnO) as radiopacifiers on the progression of osteogenic cell cultures. METHODOLOGY: Rat calvaria-derived cells were grown on Thermanox® coverslips for 24 h and exposed to samples of 1) CACb: with 2.8% CaCl2 and 25% Bi2 O3 ; 2) CACb+: with 10% CaCl2 and 25% Bi2 O3 ; 3) CACz: with 2.8% CaCl2 and 25% ZnO; or 4) CACz+: with 10% CaCl2 and 25% ZnO, placed on inserts...
December 11, 2017: International Endodontic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225581/protective-effect-of-unacylated-ghrelin-on-compression-induced-skeletal-muscle-injury-mediated-by-sirt1-signaling
#10
Felix N Ugwu, Angus P Yu, Thomas K Sin, Bjorn T Tam, Christopher W Lai, S C Wong, Parco M Siu
Unacylated ghrelin, the predominant form of circulating ghrelin, protects myotubes from cell death, which is a known attribute of pressure ulcers. In this study, we investigated whether unacylated ghrelin protects skeletal muscle from pressure-induced deep tissue injury by abolishing necroptosis and apoptosis signaling and whether these effects were mediated by SIRT1 pathway. Fifteen adult Sprague Dawley rats were assigned to receive saline or unacylated ghrelin with or without EX527 (a SIRT1 inhibitor). Animals underwent two 6-h compression cycles with 100 mmHg static pressure applied over the mid-tibialis region of the right limb whereas the left uncompressed limb served as the intra-animal control...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224017/the-il-2-anti-il-2-complex-attenuates-cardiac-ischaemia-reperfusion-injury-through-expansion-of-regulatory-t-cells
#11
Junhui Xiao, Kunwu Yu, Ming Li, Chuanyin Xiong, Yuzhen Wei, Qiutang Zeng
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Regulatory T cells (Tregs) can suppress immunologic damage in myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion injury (MIRI), however, the isolation and ex vivo expansion of these cells for clinical application remains challenging. Here, we investigated whether the IL-2/anti-IL-2 complex (IL-2C), a mediator of Treg expansion, can attenuate MIRI in mice. METHODS: Myocardial I/R was surgically induced in male C57BL/6 mice, aged 8-10 weeks, that were randomly assigned to 1) sham group (Sham), 2) Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS), 3) IL-2-anti-IL-2 Ab complex (IL-2C), or 4) sham group, 5) PBS, 6) IL-2C after MIRI, or 7) IL-2C, 8) IL-2C+anti-CD25 mAbs, or 9) IL-2C; 10) IL-2C+anti-TGF-β1 mAbs, 11) IL-2C+anti-IL-10 mAbs...
December 7, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223555/emerging-roles-of-circular-rna-hsa_circ_0000064-in-the-proliferation-and-metastasis-of-lung-cancer
#12
Yan-Hong Luo, Xiang-Zhi Zhu, Ke-Wei Huang, Qian Zhang, Yan-Xin Fan, Peng-Wei Yan, Jing Wen
Circular RNAs (circRNAs), a novel class of widespread and diverse endogenous RNAs, can regulate gene expression in mammals. CircRNAs have recently been identified as microRNA sponges and involved in the development of some human diseases. However, the role of circRNAs in the process of tumorigenesis and development of lung cancer remains vague. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of circRNAs in the lung cancer. In this study, we chose hsa_circ_0000064 as a targeted circRNA to investigate its clinical significances in lung cancer patients...
December 6, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222419/probenecid-arrests-the-progression-of-pronounced-clinical-symptoms-in-a-mouse-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#13
Nadine Hainz, Sandra Wolf, Artjom Beck, Stefan Wagenpfeil, Thomas Tschernig, Carola Meier
While it has been established that Probenecid (PBN) prevents the onset of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice, it is not clear whether it has any effect on already manifest EAE. The aim of this study was therefore to analyze the therapeutic effect of PBN in pronounced EAE. Mice with manifest clinical symptoms of EAE were either treated with PBN or solvent for 20 days, or they were left untreated. The clinical symptoms were monitored daily. Inflammation, demyelination and oligodendrocyte numbers were determined in the spinal cord...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220723/gold-nanoparticles-enhance-radiation-sensitization-and-suppress-colony-formation-in-a-feline-injection-site-sarcoma-cell-line-in-vitro
#14
J Z Benton, R J Williams, A Patel, K Meichner, J Tarigo, K Nagata, T D Pethel, R M Gogal
Injection Site Sarcomas (ISS) are highly invasive feline malignant tumors that are frequently associated with routine vaccination. Current treatment modalities include chemotherapy, radiation, and radical surgery. ISS have been shown to be one of the most treatment resistant of feline cancers with high rates of recurrence. Previous studies have shown that gold and other high atomic number nanoparticles have the ability to increase the dose of radiation deposited into tissue by generating secondary electrons...
December 2, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220536/cd36-deficiency-attenuates-immune-mediated-hepatitis-in-mice-by-modulating-the-proapoptotic-effects-of-cxcl10
#15
Che Xu, Chen Zhang, Jie Ji, Chao Wang, Jing Yang, Biao Geng, Ting Zhao, Hong Zhou, Xianmin Mu, Jinshun Pan, Shi Hu, Yuanfang Lv, Xingguo Chen, Hao Wen, Qiang You
The scavenger receptor, CD36, recognizes a diverse set of ligands, and has been implicated in a wide variety of normal and pathological processes, including lipid metabolism, angiogenesis, atherosclerosis, and phagocytosis. In particular, recent findings have demonstrated its crucial functions in sterile inflammation and tumor metastasis. However, the role of CD36 in immune-mediated hepatitis remains unclear. Concanavalin A (Con A)-induced liver injury is a well-established experimental T cell-mediated hepatitis...
December 8, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218943/-effect-of-germacrone-in-alleviating-huvecs-damaged-by-h2o2-induced-oxidative-stress
#16
Qiong-Fang Chen, Gang Wang, Li-Qing Tang, Xian-Wen Yu, Zhao-Fei Li, Xiu-Fen Yang
This study focuses on the protective effect of germacrone on human umbilical vein endothelial cells(HUVECs) damaged by H2O2-induced oxidative stress and its possible mechanisms. The oxidative damage model was established by using 500 μmol•L⁻¹ H2O2 to treat HUVECs for 3 hours, and then protected with different concentrations of germacrone for 24 hours. The effect of germacrone on cell viability of HUVECs damaged by H2O2 was detected by MTT. The contents of PGI2, TXB2, ET-1, t-PA, PAI-1, TNF-α and IL-6 were detected by ELISA...
September 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218110/downregulation-of-cathepsin-g-reduces-the-activation-of-cd4-t-cells-in-murine-autoimmune-diabetes
#17
Fang Zou, Xiaoyang Lai, Jing Li, Shuihong Lei, Lei Hu
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease due to progressive injury of islet cells mediated by T lymphocytes (T cells). Our previous studies have shown that only cathepsin G (CatG), not other proteases, is involved in the antigen presentation of proinsulin, and if the presentation is inhibited, the activation of CD4+ T cells induced by proinsulin is alleviated in T1DM patients, and CatG-specific inhibitor reduces the activation of CD4+ cells induced by proinsulin in T1DM patients. Therefore, we hypothesize that CatG may play an important role in the activation of CD4+ T cells in T1DM...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218087/the-cytoskeleton-protein-%C3%AE-actin-may-mediate-t-cell-apoptosis-during-acute-rejection-reaction-after-liver-transplantation-in-a-rat-model
#18
Xiaolong Chen, Jun Zheng, Jianye Cai, Hui Li, Shihui Li, Li Wang, Daorou Cheng, Huaxin Chen, Yang Yang, Guihua Chen, Qi Zhang, Yanwen Peng, Qiyou Wang, Genshu Wang
Cytoskeletal proteins and associated regulatory proteins are essential for maintaining cell structure and growth. β-actin is a major component of the cytoskeleton, and β-actin remodeling is involved in lymphocyte migration, infiltration and apoptosis. However, little is known about whether changes in β-actin expression affect lymphocyte cell fate, particularly during acute rejection after liver transplantation in a rat model. In our studies, grafts were harvested on days 5, 7 or 9 after xenogeneic rat liver transplantation...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216561/design-synthesis-and-evaluation-of-an-anthraquinone-derivative-conjugated-to-myelin-basic-protein-immunodominant-mbp85-99-epitope-towards-selective-immunosuppression
#19
Anthi Tapeinou, Efstathia Giannopoulou, Carmen Simal, Bjarke E Hansen, Haralabos Kalofonos, Vasso Apostolopoulos, Alexios Vlamis-Gardikas, Theodore Tselios
Anthraquinone type compounds, especially di-substituted amino alkylamino anthraquinones have been widely studied as immunosuppressants. The anthraquinone ring is part of mitoxandrone that has been used for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) and several types of tumors. A desired approach for the treatment of MS would be the immunosuppression and elimination of specific T cells that are responsible for the induction of the disease. Herein, the development of a peptide compound bearing an anthraquinone derivative with the potential to specifically destroy the encephalitogenic T cells responsible for the onset of MS is described...
November 24, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215849/-study-of-mitochondrial-dysfunction-using-cytoplasmic-hybrid
#20
V V Sinyov, M A Sazonova, V P Karagodin, A I Ryzhkova, E V Galitsyna, A A Melnichenko, N A Demakova, T P Shkurat, I A Sobenin, A N Orekhov
Aim. This review article describes literature sources devoted to the investigation of mitochondrial dysfunction using cytoplasmic hybrids (cybrids). The presented studies were carried out on cultures of cybrid cell lines HL60, MOL T-4, A549, 143B, HeLa, Arpe-19, HEK-293, SH-SY5Y and NT2. According to the analysis of scientific world literature, some of the most promising models for studying mitochondrial dysfunction are cell cultures without mitochondria (rho0) and cytoplasmic hybrids containing one or several mutations of mitochondrial genome...
April 2017: Patologicheskaia Fiziologiia i èksperimental'naia Terapiia
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